Biotechnology

dinnerloafBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Biotechnology

Chapter 2

Definition


Biotechnology is defined as “The manipulation of
biological organisms to make products benefiting human
beings” (p. 19).



Agricultural and Animal Cross
-
breeding for trait selection



With the discovery of the structure of DNA by Watson
and Crick in the 50’s, biotechnology has extended into
the areas such as:


Gene transfer through direct manipulation


Human stem cell research


Cloning


Fusing of different types of cells to product medical products



Biotechnology

Using biological agents














in processes







to produce goods or services

Biotechnology

really the history of

Babylonians grew yeasts to produce
beer….over 8000 years ago

All about the yeast

Altering any part of this process

is biotech

All about the yeast

Yeast fermentation
= ethanol



+ a little biotech =
glycerol



+ tweaking
fermentation =

Beer and bread







Explosives during WWII



Antibiotics

Biotechnology in Agriculture

Problem?


Pests and weeds


Solution!


Use viruses and
bacteria to splice
-
in
genes from resistant
species


e.g., bacterial gene
produces a protein
toxic to corn borers

E
ars?!


Huh?


Yes
.

Biotechnology and humans


Biotechnology is also being used to benefit
the human population:



Genetic testing


Gene therapy


Organ Transplants


Stem Cells

Biotechnologies and medicine

cybermedicine



Nanomedicine


Pharmacogenomics


Medical Simulations


Minimally Invasive Surgery


In Vitro Fertilization


Fetoscopy


Breeding versus Biotechnology

Cross
-
pollination


Donor plant +
commercial variety =
new variety


New variety has
desired and undesired
genes

Genetic Engineering

Desired gene +
commercial variety =
new variety


New variety has ONLY
desired genes

Gattaca




Genetic discrimination
as shown in
Gattaca

biotechnology and food sources

Breeding versus Biotechnology

Cross
-
pollination


Donor plant +
commercial variety =
new variety


New variety has
desired and undesired
genes

Genetic Engineering

Desired gene +
commercial variety =
new variety


New variety has ONLY
desired genes

Recombinant DNA


Biotechnology and other areas


Biotechnology extends beyond application to
food and medicine:



Biomaterials used to produce consumer items


Bioremediation to assist in waste management


Biomining to extract precious metals and ores


DNA chips to screen for water quality, determine
the identity of endangered species, and allow
rapid ID of crime suspects in the field.

DNA, Computers, and Walgreens?


DNA Computer Gets Scaled Up (
link
)


Personal DNA Tests Arriving at Walgreens
(
link
)


Synthetic Life Becomes Reality (
video
)


Rat Brain Flight Simulator (
video
)