Lesson 10. Examining the Protocol

dingdongboomNetworking and Communications

Oct 27, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Lesson 10. Examining the Protocol
Suites

Objectives

At the end of this presentation, you
will be able to:


Differentiate between TCP/IP, IPX/SPX,
NetBEUI, and AppleTalk.


Describe the addressing schemes used by
IPX/SPX and AppleTalk.


Explain how IPX/SPX and AppleTalk
relate to the OSI model.

Network+ Domains covered:


2.1


2.2


2.4


3.2


Protocol Suites Most Important
for Network+


TCP/IP


Pioneered by UNIX and required
for the Internet


IPX/SPX


Pioneered by Novell in its
NetWare NOSs


NetBEUI


Used primarily in Microsoft
products


AppleTalk


Used primarily in Macintosh
products

The Router is a device that:


Connects multiple networks together.


Determines the optimal path to direct
packets from one network to another.



Router

Router 1

Router 3

Router 2

Router 4

Network A

Network D

Router Tasks


Determine the optimal path from one
network to another.


Switch the packet to the selected path.


This is called
routing
.


A protocol is
routable

if its packets can be
routed from one network to another via a
router.

Routable and Non
-
routable
Protocols


TCP/IP


Routable


IPX/SPX


Routable


AppleTalk


Routable


NetBEUI


Non
-
routable

IPX/SPX


Suite of Protocols used by Novell’s NetWare.


Native protocol for early versions of NetWare.


Starting with NetWare 5.0 you can choose
between IPX/SPX and TCP/IP. Both are natively
supported.


Skinny and fast protocol suite compared to
TCP/IP.


Routable protocol

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

OSI Model

TCP

IP

IPX

802.3

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

802.5

FDDI

ARC
-

net

PPP

SPX

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

OSI Model

IPX

802.3

Earlier NetWare Versions

802.5

FDDI

ARC
-

net

PPP

SPX

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

OSI Model

TCP

IP

IPX

802.3

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

802.5

FDDI

ARC
-

net

PPP

SPX

Data Link

Physical

802.3

802.5

FDDI

ARC
-

net

PPP

Ethernet

Token Ring

4. Transport

3. Network

OSI Model

TCP

SPX

IP

IPX

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

4. Transport

3. Network

OSI Model

TCP

SPX

IP

IPX

Required for

Connecting to the

Internet

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

4. Transport

3. Network

OSI Model

TCP

SPX

IP

IPX

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

3. Network

OSI Model

IPX

Handles Address

Resolution and Routing.

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

The IPX Address Format

Network Address

Node Address

32
-
bits

48
-
bits

This unique, identifying address is
called the MAC Address.

MAC = Media Access Control.

MAC Address


A 48
-
bit address that uniquely identifies a
node on a network.


A node is defined as any device that has a
MAC address.

000000000110011100000111110000011010101010011111

0000

0000

0110

0111

0000

0111

1100

0001

1010

1010

1001

1111

0

0

6

7

0

7

B

1

A

A

9

F

The MAC Address converted
to Hexadecimal

With IPX, the node address is
usually the MAC address.

Network Address

Node Address = MAC Address

32
-
bits

48
-
bits

2F
-
3E
-
4D
-
5C

00
-
67
-
07
-
B1
-
AA
-
9F

IPX is to the IPX/SPX protocol
as IP is to the TCP/IP protocol.


Both IPX and IP are in the Network Layer.


Both handle Address Resolution and
Routing.

4. Transport

OSI Model

TCP

SPX

Ensures that messages are delivered

error
-
free and in the proper sequence.

4. Transport

OSI Model

TCP

SPX

Microsoft Windows

Provide Connection
-
oriented Transport.

Two types of message delivery
services:


Connectionless


Comparable to normal
mail delivery.


Connection
-
oriented


Comparable to
Registered Mail, Return Receipt

Connection
-
oriented
Transmission:


Through a series of hand
-
shakes, a specific
delivery path is agreed upon.


Each packet is acknowledged as it is
received.


Every packet follows the same route.


A very reliable form of delivery.


A relatively slow form of delivery.

Connectionless Transmission:


Packets are sent via any available path.


Packets are numbered because they may
become lost or duplicated, or they may be
received out of order.


Faster than connection
-
oriented
transmissions.


Less reliable than connection
-
oriented
transmissions.

4. Transport

OSI Model

SPX

NetWare

The connection
-
oriented transport

protocol for the IPX/SPX suite.

SPX is to the IPX/SPX protocol as
TCP is to the TCP/IP protocol.


Both SPX and TCP are in the Network
Layer.


Both are Connection
-
oriented Transport
Protocols.

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

OSI Model

TCP

SPX

IP

IPX

802.3

NetWare

802.5

FDDI

ARC
-

net

PPP

AppleTalk

AppleTalk


Developed by Apple Computer for its
Macintosh line of computers.


AppleTalk Hierarchy: Sockets, Nodes,
Networks, Zones.


Routable


Through the use of the proper Client, it can
connect to Netware, Unix, and Windows
NT/2000
-
based networks.

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

OSI Model

802.3

AppleTalk

802.5

FDDI

LocalTalk

Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)

AppleTalk ARP (AARP)


AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP)

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

OSI Model

802.3

AppleTalk

802.5

FDDI

LocalTalk

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

OSI Model

AppleTalk

Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)

AppleTalk ARP (AARP)


AppleTalk Network
Addressing Scheme

Network

Address

Node

Address

Socket

Address

16
-
Bits

8
-
Bits

8
-
Bits

AppleTalk uses Dynamic
Addressing.


As opposed to the static arrangement used
by IPX/SPX.


AppleTalk automatically assigns each node
a network address each time the node
connects to the network.

AppleTalk allows the Network
Administrator to divide the
network into
Zones
.


Zones are defined when the Network
Administrator configures the AppleTalk
Network.


Zones are logical groups of nodes or
networks.


Examples: Finance Zone, Sales Zone,
Engineering Zone, etc.

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

OSI Model

AppleTalk

Routin
g

Name

Binding

Trans
-

action

Echo

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

OSI Model

802.3

AppleTalk

802.5

FDDI

LocalTalk

Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)

AppleTalk ARP (AARP)


AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP)

Cross Platform Connections

Connecting a Macintosh to a
Netware Server


Install
Netware Client for MAC OS

on each
Macintosh workstation.

o
Uses IPX to communicate on the network.

o
Enables Macintosh user to access NetWare Servers.

o
Allows users to access all resources to which they
have rights.

o
Does not allow Macintoshes and PCs to share
AppleTalk Printers.


Install
NetWare Services for AppleShare

on one
NetWare Server.

Connecting a Macintosh to a
Windows NT/2000 Server


File Services for Macintosh


Print Services for Macintosh


Collectively called File and Print Services
for Macintosh.


They allow Windows clients and servers to
share files and printers with Macintosh
workstations.

File and Print Services for
Macintosh


Configures Windows NT/2000 servers with
the AppleTalk protocol.


Installed in Windows 2000 Server from the
Control Panel using
Add/Remove
Programs
.


Cross Platform Network
Printing


The page description language is often a
barrier to cross platform printing.


Macintosh and many Windows printers use a
page description language called PostScript.


Macintosh and Windows machines can both
print to the same PostScript printer if they
use the same protocol, or if they go through
a Print Server.

Solving Cross Platform
Network Printing Problems


Install a print server.


Install a special program or hardware
(usually on the Macintosh) that allows the
platforms to coexist.

Connecting a Windows NT/2000
to UNIX/Linux


Samba allows a Windows NT server or
client to access a Unix server as if it were
another Windows NT machine.


A free software suite available from
www.samba.org


Differentiate between TCP/IP, IPX/SPX,
NetBEUI, and AppleTalk.


Describe the addressing schemes used by
IPX/SPX and AppleTalk.


Explain how IPX/SPX and AppleTalk
relate to the OSI model.