IPv6 Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction to IPv6

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Oct 27, 2013 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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IPv6 Fundamentals

Chapter 1:
Introduction to IPv6

Rick Graziani

Cabrillo College

graziani@cabrillo.edu


Fall 2013

Technology Today


Imagine a world without the Internet.


No more Google, YouTube, instant messaging, Facebook, Amazon,
Wikipedia, online gaming, Netflix, iTunes, and easy access to current
information.


2


Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the current Layer 3 protocol


Survived
for over 30 years and has been an integral part of the Internet evolution.


Originally
described in RFC 760 (January 1980) and obsoleted
by RFC 791
(
September

1981)


3

The Network Today


The Internet of today is much different that it was 30, 15 or 5 years ago.



4

Technology
Tomorrow


Now consider what changes will happen within the next 25 years.


The Internet of Everything (IoE)... A necessity for IPv6


The IoE is bringing together people, process, data, and things to make
networked connections more relevant and valuable.



5

Early Years of the
Internet


RFC 2235 Hobbes’ Internet Timeline


6


1957: The USSR launches Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite. In
response, the United States forms the Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (
DoD
) to establish a U.S.
lead in science and technology.


1962: Paul
Baran

publishes the paper “On Distributed Communications
Networks,” a predecessor to the concept of packet
-
switching networks.


1969: ARPANET is commissioned by the
DoD

for research into networking.
The first node (a mainframe computer) is at the University of California Los
Angeles (UCLA) Network Measurements Center. The next three nodes
consisted of Stanford Research Institute (SRI), the University of California
Santa Barbara (UCSB), and the University of Utah. The first router is an
Information Message Processor (IMP), a Honeywell 516 mini
-
computer with
12K of memory developed by Bolt
Beranek

and Newman, Inc. (BBN).


1969: The first Request for Comments (RFC) is written: “Host Software,” by
Steve Crocker.


1971: Fifteen nodes (23 hosts) are on the ARPANET: UCLA, SRI, UCSB,
University of Utah, BBN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),
RAND Corporation, System Development Corporation (SDC), Harvard
University, MIT’s Lincoln Lab, Stanford University, University of Illinois at
Urbana
-
Champaign, Case Western Reserve University, Carnegie
-
Mellon
University, and NASA/Ames Research Center.


7


1971: Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents an email program to send messages
across a distributed network.


1973: Bob Metcalfe’s Harvard Ph.D. thesis outlines the idea for Ethernet.


1973: The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) specification is written (RFC 454).


1974:
Vint

Cerf and Bob Kahn publish the paper “A Protocol for Packet
Network Intercommunication,” which specified in detail the design for
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).


1982: ARPA establishes TCP/IP as the protocol suite for the ARPANET.
This leads to one of the first definitions of an “Internet” as a connected set of
networks that use TCP/IP.


1982: The External Gateway Protocol (RFC 827) specification is written.
EGP is used as the routing protocol between networks and is later replaced
by Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) in 1994 (RFC 1656).


1983: The Internet transitions from Network Control Protocol (NCP) to
TCP/IP on January 1.


1984: The Domain Name System (DNS) is introduced with RFC 920.


1984: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 1000.


1986: The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) initiates
operations with a backbone speed of 56 kbps.


1987: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 10,000.

8


1988: The NSFNET backbone is upgraded to T1 (1.544 Mbps).


1988: Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is developed by
Jarkko

Oikarinen
.


1989: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 100,000.


1989: Cuckoo’s Egg , written by Clifford Stoll, tells the real
-
life tale of a
German cracker group that infiltrated numerous U.S. facilities.


1990: The first remotely operated machine to be hooked up to the Internet,
the Internet Toaster, makes its debut at
Interop

(IT Expo and Conference).


1991: The World Wide Web (WWW) is released by CERN; it was developed
by Tim Berners
-
Lee.


1991: The NSFNET backbone is upgraded to T3 (44.736 Mbps).


1992
: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 1,000,000.


1992: The term “surfing the Internet” is coined by Jean
Armour

Polly.


1993: The U.S. White House comes online with
www.whitehouse.gov

. President Bill Clinton:
president@whitehouse.gov

and Vice President Al Gore: vice
-
president@
whitehouse.gov

.


1994: Shopping on the Internet begins.


1994: Pizza from Pizza Hut can be ordered using the World Wide
Web.

9


1995: WWW surpasses FTP as the service with the greatest amount of
traffic on the Internet.


1995: Online dialup providers
Compuserve
, America Online, and Prodigy
begin to


provide Internet access.


1995: The Vatican comes online.


1996: Internet phones catch the attention of U.S. telecommunication
companies, which request the U.S. Congress to ban the technology.


1996: The controversial U.S. Communications Decency Act (CDA) becomes
law in the United States to prohibit distribution of indecent materials over the
Internet. A few months later, a three
-
judge panel imposes an injunction
against its enforcement. The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules most
of it unconstitutional in 1997.


1996: MCI upgrades its Internet backbone, bringing the effective speed from
155 Mbps to 622 Mbps.


1996: The WWW browser war, fought primarily between Netscape and
Microsoft, rushes in a new age in software development, whereby new
releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test
upcoming (beta) versions.


10


1996: Restrictions are put in place for Internet use around the world
(Source: Human Rights Watch):


China requires users and Internet service providers (ISP) to register
with the police.


Germany cuts off access to some newsgroups carried on
Compuserve
.


Saudi Arabia confines Internet access to universities and hospitals.


Singapore requires political and religious content providers to register
with the state.


New Zealand classifies computer disks as “publications” that can be
censored and seized.


1997: 101,803 Name Servers are in the “
whois


database.


1997: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 19,000,000.


11

Early Days of the Internet


.


12

The Internet

13


http://sourcedigit.com/1334
-
world
-
internet
-
users
-
stats
-
internet
-
to
-
grow
-
larger
-
in
-
year
-
2013/


14


.


15

The Internet of Things, The Internet of Everything


The Internet is more than just connecting people.


At the very least we need IPv6 for the Internet to continue.


So, the “killer application” for the Internet is the Internet
itself.

Internet of Everything


A key reason for IPv6.



17

IPv5


In the late 1970s, a family of experimental protocols was developed known
as Internet Stream Protocol (ST) and later ST2.


Originally defined in Internet Engineering Note IEN
-
119 (1979)


Later revised in RFC 1190 and RFC 1819.


ST was an experimental resource reservation protocol intended to provide
quality of service (
QoS
) for real
-
time multimedia applications such as video
and voice.


Internet Stream Protocol version 2 (ST
-
II or ST2) was not designed as a
replacement for IPv4.

18

History of IPv6


IETF began development of a successor to IPv4 in the early 1990s.


In 1994, the IETF formed a working group, IP Next Generation, to establish
the standards to be used for IPv6:


An address architecture and assignment plan


Supporting larger packet sizes


Tunneling IPv6 packets over IPv4


Security and
autoconfiguration


The size of the Internet routing tables increasing rapidly and the explosion
of the number of Internet users generated a consensus that it was time to
begin designing and testing a new network layer protocol as the successor
to IPv4.


Various projections, including a study done by the IETF in the early 1990s,
predicted that the Internet would run out of IPv4 address space somewhere
between 2005 and 2011.

19

History of IPv6


The three proposals were as follows:


Common Architecture for the Internet (CATNIP):
CATNIP proposed
integrating IP, Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), and Connectionless
Network Layer Protocol (CLNP).


IPX was part of the Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet
Exchange (IPX/SPX) suite of protocols used primarily on networks
employing the Novell NetWare operating systems.


CLNP is an OSI standard defined in ISO 8473 and is the equivalent of
IPv4 for the OSI suite of protocols.


CATNIP is defined in RFC 1707.


Simple Internet Protocol Plus (SIPP):
SIPP recommended increasing the
IPv4 address size from 32 bits to 64 bits, along with additional
improvements to the IPv4 header for more efficient forwarding.


SIPP is defined in RFC 1710.


TCP/UDP over CLNP
-
Addressed Networks (TUBA):
TUBA requested
minimizing the risk associated with migration to a new IP address by
replacing IP with CLNP and its address size of 20 bytes (160 bits). TCP,
UDP, and the traditional TCP/IP applications would run on top of CLNP.


TUBA is defined in RFCs 1347, 1526, and 1561.


20


Monday, January 31, 2011 IANA allocated two blocks of IPv4
address space to APNIC, the RIR for the Asia Pacific region


This triggered a global policy to allocate the remaining IANA
pool of 5 /8’s equally between the five RIRs.


So, basically…


http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4/index.html

Figure 1
-
8 RIR IPv6 Address Run
-
Down Model

History of IPv6


IETF chose SIPP, written by Steve
Deering
, Paul Francis, and Bob
Hinden
,
but with an address size of 128 bits.


The IETF working group IP Next Generation was formed in 1993.


In 1995, IETF published RFC 1883, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
Specification, which later became obsolete and was replaced by RFC 2460
in 1998.


In 2001, the
IPng

working group was renamed to the IPv6 working group.


Regional Internet Registries (RIR) began allocating IPv6 addresses to their
customers in 1999.


23

Benefits of IPv6


Extended address space:
IPv6 provides 128
-
bit source and destination
addresses compared to 32
-
bit addresses with IPv4.


This represents an enormous number of addresses: 2
128

, or about 340
trillion trillion trillion addresses, enough for every grain of sand on earth.


24


IPv6 is more than just
larger address space.


It was a chance to
make some
improvements on the IP
protocol.

Benefits of IPv6


Stateless autoconfiguration:
IPv6 provides a configuration mechanism
where hosts can self
-
generate a routable address. IPv4
-
autoconfigured
addresses.


26

Router Advertisement

(Address, prefix, link MTU)

Benefits of IPv6


Eliminates the need for NAT/PAT:
Because of the large number of public
IPv6 addresses, there is no longer a need for Network Address Translation /
Port Address Translation (NAT/PAT)..


27

ISP

XYZ

Private RFC 1918
Address

10.0.0.0/8

Internet

Public Address: 209.165.200.248/29

NAT Pool (Host Addresses)

209.165.200.249
-

209.165.200.254/29

Source IP: 10.0.0.100

Destination: 209.165.202.158

RouterA

Source IP: 209.165.200.249

Destination: 209.165.202.158

Source IP: 209.165.202.158

Destination: 209.165.200.249

Source IP: 209.165.202.158

Destination: 10.0.0.100

1

2

3

4

10.0.0.100/8

209.165.202.158

www.example.com

Benefits of IPv6


Eliminates broadcasts:
IPv6 does not use Layer 3 broadcast addresses.


However, IPv6 does employ solicited node multicast addresses, a more
efficient and selective technique for processes such as address resolution..


28

Benefits of IPv6


Transition tools:
IPv6 has a variety of tools to help with the transition from
IPv4 to IPv6, including tunneling and NAT.

29

Tunneling



IPv6 packets
encapsulated inside IPv4 packets.

NAT64


Translating between
IPv4 and IPv6.

Native IPv6


All IPv6 (our
focus and the goal of every
organization).

IPv4

IPv6

When do I have to go to
IPv6?


IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for the foreseeable
future.


Dual
-
stack


Device running both IPv4 and IPv6.

No more NAT as we know it


IETF does not support the concept of translating a
“private IPv6” address to a “public” IPv6 address.


NAT for IPv4 breaks many things.

192.168.1.0/24

RFC 1918 Private Address

Public IPv4 Address

Summary


How we use the Internet today is much different than it was when IPv4 was
developed, with more users, more devices, and new demands. We have
moved from just an Internet of computers to an Internet of things/everything .


Although no one knows exactly when, we will eventually run out of IPv4’s 4.3
billion addresses, but the fact is that the Internet is in the final stages of public
IPv4 address availability.


IPv6, with its 128
-
bit address scheme, provides more than enough globally
unique addresses to support the growth of the Internet.


IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for the foreseeable future. IPv6 includes tools and
migration strategies that allow both protocols to coexist.


The combination of CIDR, NAT, and private addressing has helped slow the
depletion of IPv4 address space. However, NAT complicates many
applications, including peer
-
to
-
peer networking, and with an emerging global
Internet community, these enhancements to IPv4 are no longer sufficient.


In addition to a larger address space, IPv6 offers additional enhancements
such as stateless
autoconfiguration

and expanded address space without
NAT.


Now is the best time for IT departments to begin familiarizing themselves with
IPv6 before an ordered mandate. The Internet is the killer
-
application for IPv6.


32

IPv6 Fundamentals

Chapter 1: Introduction to IPv6

Rick Graziani

Cabrillo College

graziani@cabrillo.edu


Fall 2013