What are Wastes?
Basel Convention Definition of Wastes
“substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to
be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions
of the law”
“any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling,
reclamation, direct re
use or alternative uses (Annex IVB of the
Kinds of Wastes
domestic, commercial and industrial wastes
especially common as co
disposal of wastes
plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles,
cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash
wastes in liquid form
domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste
water from ponds, manufacturing industries
and other sources
Classification of Wastes according to their
can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)
cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines,
cans, styrofoam containers and others)
Sources of Wastes
Sources of Wastes
395 M tonnes/year
104 M tonnes/year
6.1 M tonnes/year
102 M tonnes/year
130 M tonnes/year
607 M tonnes/year
6 B tonnes/year
EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED WISELY
Affects our health
Affects our socio
Affects our coastal and marine environment
Affects our climate
Effects of Wastes
Activities that have altered the chemical composition of the
Buildup of GHGs primarily carbon dioxide (CO
) methane (CH
and Nitrous Oxide (N
is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels,
wood and wood products, and solid waste.
is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in
landfills and the production and transport of coal, natural gas,
is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as
well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1977,
the US emitted about one
fifth of total global
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
5R WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY
Tips and ideas to reduce waste
Buy in bulk to reduce packaging.
Take a reusable shopping bag with you so you don't have to
use a paper or plastic bag from the shop.
Choose products that use less packaging.
Think before you shop. Can any of the disposable items you
buy be replaced with reusable ones?
Say “no” to a plastic shopping bag when you only have a
couple of items.
Stick a "no junk mail" sign on your letter box.
Take lunch to work or school in a reusable container.
Practical ways to reuse waste at home
Take unwanted toys and books to hospitals, early childhood
education centres or schools.
Give unwanted clothes to opportunity shops or used clothing
Use empty plastic packaging containers for freezing or storing
Save wrapping paper and boxes to use again.
Use old jars for storage or for homemade jam or preserves.
Take old magazines to your local doctors' or dentists’ surgery.
Shop at second hand stores or use trading websites and classifieds
to purchase items that are unwanted by others.
Donate household items or shop at your council’s resource
Practical ways to reuse waste at work
Donate old computers to schools or community education
Use waste packaging on inward goods e.g. boxes and wooden
pallets, for storing materials or for dispatching your own
Make memo pads out of waste paper.
purchase reuse labels.
Use second hand stores, trading websites and classifieds to buy
and sell used items.
WHAT CAN BE RECYCLED
Main products that can be recycled are paper and
cardboard, glass, aluminium, tin and plastic containers.
“Closing the loop”
Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal
policy of making training manuals and personnel
information available electronically.
Improve product design to use less materials.
Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while
Work with customers to design and implement a
packaging return program.
Switch to reusable transport containers.
Purchase products in bulk.
Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as
interoffice envelopes, file folders, and paper.
Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes,
cups, and glasses.
Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing
Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather
than purchase new ones.
Convert any waste through partial oxidation with air into
a mixture of combustible
gases (CO, H2, CO2, H20, N2 and some HC)
Not Incineration or mass burn
Easier and cheaper to clean off
Gas volumes are very low compared to incineration, makes
gas cleanup easier & less capital requirement
allows multiple use for energy
easily piped for
combustion or other thermal process
Practical and economical even at small scale of operation
ORGANIZATIONS IN INDIA WORKING FOR
National Solid Waste Association of India
Leading, professional, non
Identified by Ministry of Environment & Forests
Formed on Jan 25, 1996
Member of International Solid Waste Association
TOP 5 COMPANIES IN INDIA WORKING FOR
Global solution providers in energy & environment
engineering; offers products & services in heating, cooling,
waste heat recovery, captive power, water treatment &
recycling, waste management & performance chemicals;
based in Pune.
Electrosteel Castings Ltd
Manufacturers & exporters of ductile iron pipes, fittings &
special products based in Kolkata; also provides turnkey
solutions for water supply & sewerage systems; has
branches in Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Singapore etc
What is an EMS?
An EMS is a formal set of policies and procedures that define how an
organization will evaluate, manage, and track its environmental impact.
It follows the basic model:
Plan > Do > Check > Act
This facilitates cost
effective environmental performance by defining
and continuously improving the process and actions that an
organization undertakes to meet its environmental goals.
A Policy Statement that communicates an organization’s
environmental priorities to employees.
Managerial endorsement of the policy statement
demonstrates the organization’s commitment to the
effort and willingness to allocate resources for
Once a policy statement is in place, the organization
implements it following the model.
Stages in the Implementation of EMS
understanding of eco
environmental and health effects
After establishing a complete list of significant aspects, the
organization sets environmental goals and develops a plan to
achieve those goals.
Identify all environmental aspects: any environmental or
health and safety impacts resulting from activities and
services. The organization then evaluates each aspect
according to a variety of criteria:
phase’ of the model involves implementation of the
environmental plan through employee training and
establishment of operation controls.
Evaluates progress toward meeting program goals through
ongoing monitoring and measuring and periodic EMS audits.
Involves taking corrective action to update and improve the
environmental plan. For example, if an organization makes
significant progress on one environmental aspect, another
environmental aspect will replace it on the priority list.
Why Should an Organization Adopt an EMS
1. Improve environmental performance
It helps monitor energy and water conservation, resource
efficiencies, and pollution prevention.
2. Better regulatory compliance
Increase regulatory compliance which is especially important for
organizations that spend time and resources with regulatory
3. Certification and recognition
EMS implementation can enhance an organization’s image and
improve public community relations.
Principles of an Effective EMS
For better environmental and overall organizational
performance, an EMS should
Focus on continual improvement
2. Serve the organization and its mission
3. Receive top management support
4. Remain dynamic and flexible
5. Fit the culture of the organization
6. Represent employees and their actions
7. Establish employees awareness and involvement
industrial belt has
over 2000 industrial units in the organized sector and
more than 63000 small scale units manufacturing
chemicals. They dump their waste within 2 Km radius.
As a result nearly 1800
of hazardous wastes
dump every month near the banks of Damon
And also in Thane
industrial area everyday
of solid wastes have been dumped.
impose a fine around
for polluting water and local