waste-management

diligentdeputyManagement

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Prerna

Pritam

Priyanshi

Rahul

What are Wastes?

Basel Convention Definition of Wastes



“substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to
be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions
of the law”



Disposal means


“any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling,
reclamation, direct re
-
use or alternative uses (Annex IVB of the
Basel convention)”



Kinds of Wastes

Solid wastes:
domestic, commercial and industrial wastes

especially common as co
-
disposal of wastes






Examples:

plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles,





cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash


Liquid Wastes:

wastes in liquid form




Examples:

domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste



water from ponds, manufacturing industries



and other sources


Classification of Wastes according to their
Properties



Bio
-
degradable



can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)



Non
-
biodegradable



cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines,



cans, styrofoam containers and others)

Hazardous wastes

Substances

unsafe

to

use

commercially,

industrially,

agriculturally,

or

economically

that

are

shipped,

transported

to

or

brought

from

the

country

of

origin

for

dumping

or

disposal

in,

or

in

transit

through,

any

part

of

the

territory

of

the

Philippines


Non
-
hazardous

Substances

safe

to

use

commercially,

industrially,

agriculturally,

or

economically

that

are

shipped,

transported

to

or

brought

from

the

country

of

origin

for

dumping

or

disposal

in,

or

in

transit

through,

any

part

of

the

territory

of

the

Philippines


Sources of Wastes


Households



Commerce and
Industry

Sources of Wastes

Agriculture









Fisheries



Countries

Amount /year

Japan

395 M tonnes/year

Germany

104 M tonnes/year

Netherlands

6.1 M tonnes/year

Hungary

102 M tonnes/year

Poland

130 M tonnes/year

Romania

607 M tonnes/year

Bahrain

92,000 tonnes/year

China

6 B tonnes/year

Philippines

1.3 M
tonnes
/year

*




EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED WISELY



Affects our health


Affects our socio
-
economic conditions


Affects our coastal and marine environment


Affects our climate



Effects of Wastes


Activities that have altered the chemical composition of the
atmosphere:


-
Buildup of GHGs primarily carbon dioxide (CO
2
) methane (CH
4
),
and Nitrous Oxide (N
2
O).


-
CO
2

is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels,
wood and wood products, and solid waste.


-
CH
4

is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in
landfills and the production and transport of coal, natural gas,
and oil.


-
NO
2
is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as
well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1977,
the US emitted about one
-
fifth of total global
GHGs
.


WHAT SHOULD BE DONE



5R WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY



REDUCE



REUSE



RECYCLE



RECOVER



RESIDUAL DISPOSAL

REDUCE

Tips and ideas to reduce waste


Buy in bulk to reduce packaging.




Take a reusable shopping bag with you so you don't have to
use a paper or plastic bag from the shop.




Choose products that use less packaging.




Think before you shop. Can any of the disposable items you
buy be replaced with reusable ones?




Say “no” to a plastic shopping bag when you only have a
couple of items.




Stick a "no junk mail" sign on your letter box.




Take lunch to work or school in a reusable container.


REUSE

Practical ways to reuse waste at home


Take unwanted toys and books to hospitals, early childhood
education centres or schools.




Give unwanted clothes to opportunity shops or used clothing
bins.




Use empty plastic packaging containers for freezing or storing
food items.




Save wrapping paper and boxes to use again.




Use old jars for storage or for homemade jam or preserves.




Take old magazines to your local doctors' or dentists’ surgery.




Shop at second hand stores or use trading websites and classifieds
to purchase items that are unwanted by others.




Donate household items or shop at your council’s resource
recovery centre.


Practical ways to reuse waste at work


Donate old computers to schools or community education
centres.




Use waste packaging on inward goods e.g. boxes and wooden
pallets, for storing materials or for dispatching your own
product.




Make memo pads out of waste paper.




Re
-
use envelopes
-

purchase reuse labels.




Use second hand stores, trading websites and classifieds to buy
and sell used items.



RECYCLE


WHAT CAN BE RECYCLED



Main products that can be recycled are paper and
cardboard, glass, aluminium, tin and plastic containers.



“Closing the loop”


RECOVER


Recovery

is

a

means

of

recovering

energy

or

materials,

without

any

pre
-
processing,

from

wastes

that

cannot

be

used

for

something

else
.




Waste

oils

that

cannot

be

refined

for

reuse

are

used

in

furnaces
.

Recovering

the

energy

from

waste

oil

reduces

our

dependence

on

coal

and

imported

oil
.


RESIDUAL MANAGEMENT


Residual

management

is

the

final

treatment

and/or

disposal

of

a

waste

that

cannot

be

used

in

any

other

way
.



Residual

management

of

solid

waste

is

normally

disposal

within

a

landfill
.



Residual

disposal

of

liquid

waste

is

normally

into

a

sewer

or

septic

tank
.


Waste

not

disposed

of

correctly

can

cause

adverse

health

and

environmental

effects
.

SOME MEASURES

-

Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal
policy of making training manuals and personnel
information available electronically.


-

Improve product design to use less materials.


-

Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while
maintaining strength.


-

Work with customers to design and implement a
packaging return program.


-

Switch to reusable transport containers.


-

Purchase products in bulk.





-

Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as
interoffice envelopes, file folders, and paper.



-

Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes,
cups, and glasses.



-

Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing
shipments.



-

Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather
than purchase new ones.

Gasification


Convert any waste through partial oxidation with air into
SynGas

,A clean
-
burning fuel
-

a mixture of combustible
gases (CO, H2, CO2, H20, N2 and some HC)



Not Incineration or mass burn



Easier and cheaper to clean off
-
gas or
SynGas



Gas volumes are very low compared to incineration, makes
gas cleanup easier & less capital requirement



SynGas

allows multiple use for energy
-

easily piped for
combustion or other thermal process



Practical and economical even at small scale of operation

Gasification Process


ORGANIZATIONS IN INDIA WORKING FOR
WASTE MANAGEMENT


National Solid Waste Association of India
(NSWAI)



Leading, professional, non
-
profit organization



Identified by Ministry of Environment & Forests
(MoEF)



Formed on Jan 25, 1996



Member of International Solid Waste Association
(ISWA), Copenhagen


TOP 5 COMPANIES IN INDIA WORKING FOR
WASTE MANAGEMENT


1
Thermax



Global solution providers in energy & environment
engineering; offers products & services in heating, cooling,
waste heat recovery, captive power, water treatment &
recycling, waste management & performance chemicals;
based in Pune.


2
Electrosteel Castings Ltd



Manufacturers & exporters of ductile iron pipes, fittings &
special products based in Kolkata; also provides turnkey
solutions for water supply & sewerage systems; has
branches in Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Singapore etc




ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
SYSTEMS: EMS


What is an EMS?




An EMS is a formal set of policies and procedures that define how an
organization will evaluate, manage, and track its environmental impact.
It follows the basic model:






Plan > Do > Check > Act




This facilitates cost
-
effective environmental performance by defining
and continuously improving the process and actions that an
organization undertakes to meet its environmental goals.



EMS Development


A Policy Statement that communicates an organization’s
environmental priorities to employees.



Managerial endorsement of the policy statement
demonstrates the organization’s commitment to the
effort and willingness to allocate resources for
implementation.



Once a policy statement is in place, the organization
implements it following the model.

Stages in the Implementation of EMS


understanding of eco
-
ethics


environmental and health effects


economic impacts


liabilities



After establishing a complete list of significant aspects, the
organization sets environmental goals and develops a plan to
achieve those goals.

Identify all environmental aspects: any environmental or
health and safety impacts resulting from activities and
services. The organization then evaluates each aspect
according to a variety of criteria:

1. Plan

2. Do




The ‘do
-
phase’ of the model involves implementation of the
environmental plan through employee training and
establishment of operation controls.



3.
Check


Evaluates progress toward meeting program goals through
ongoing monitoring and measuring and periodic EMS audits.



4.
Act


Involves taking corrective action to update and improve the
environmental plan. For example, if an organization makes
significant progress on one environmental aspect, another
environmental aspect will replace it on the priority list.

Why Should an Organization Adopt an EMS
?


1. Improve environmental performance


It helps monitor energy and water conservation, resource
efficiencies, and pollution prevention.



2. Better regulatory compliance


Increase regulatory compliance which is especially important for
organizations that spend time and resources with regulatory
violations.



3. Certification and recognition


EMS implementation can enhance an organization’s image and
improve public community relations.

Principles of an Effective EMS


For better environmental and overall organizational
performance, an EMS should
:



1.

Focus on continual improvement


2. Serve the organization and its mission


3. Receive top management support


4. Remain dynamic and flexible


5. Fit the culture of the organization


6. Represent employees and their actions


7. Establish employees awareness and involvement

Case Study


The
Ahmedabad
-
Vadodara
-
Surat

industrial belt has
over 2000 industrial units in the organized sector and
more than 63000 small scale units manufacturing
chemicals. They dump their waste within 2 Km radius.
As a result nearly 1800
tonnes

of hazardous wastes
dump every month near the banks of Damon
Ganga
.


And also in Thane
-
Belapur

industrial area everyday
around 100
tonnes

of solid wastes have been dumped.


Recently
Kerala

Govt

impose a fine around
Rs

214
Crores

on
CocaCola

for polluting water and local
environment.