The Restoration and Economic Development of

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Nov 8, 2013 (4 years ago)

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The Restoration and Economic Development of
Zarqa River Basin

International Union for Conservation of Nature



Embassy of Spain

In Jordan

Technical Cooperation
Office
-
Amman

Project Setting


The

“The

Restoration

and

Economic

Development

of

Zarqa

River

Basin”

Project,

is

one

of

the

demonstration

projects

within

the

REWARD

Programme

initiated

by

the

DGCS/

WESCANA

Project

and

supported

by

the

IUCN

Water

and

Nature

Initiative

(WANI),

funded

by

DGIS/

The

Netherlands
.



Up
-
scaling

of

methodologies

and

insights,

are

realized

through

the

sub
-
networks

on

different

water

resource

systems

of

REWARD’s

Regional

Water

Knowledge

Network
.

Country Overview


Jordan has a critical shortage of water resources


Water use per capita is among the lowest in the world (150
CMC)


High competition for scarce resources for agriculture, industry
and households.


Wastewater is becoming a resource for agriculture gradually
replacing freshwater.


There are only three river basins in Jordan: Yarmouk River,
Jordan River and Zarqa River

Zarqa River Basin description


3,900 Km
2

area, c.a.


300 mm/year annual rainfall


annual stream flow about


63 MCM


Zarqa River is perennial
with:


summer monthly flows of
2 to 3 MCM;


winter monthly flows of 5 to
>8 MCM




MCM


Million Cubic Meter

River Flow


Withdrawals for water supply
from aquifers in the upper
Amman
-
Zarqa groundwater
basin have reduced the
natural base flow of the
Zarqa River , which reflected
negatively on the flow
quantity of the river

River Flow


The

flow

characteristics

have

been

further

modified

by

the

discharge

to

the

river

of

treated

domestic

and

industrial

wastewater

that

compose

nearly

all

of

summer

flow

and

substantially

degrade

the

water

quality
.



The Three Main Problems Associated with Zarqa River:



1
-

Decrease of Natural Flow.

2
-

Pollution by Industrial
wastewater and solid wastes
disposal .

3
-

Pollution by partially
-
treated
domestic wastewater
.


Socio
-
economic aspects


River watercourse length is 70
KM passes through 4
governorates


65% of Jordan’ total population
and more than 90% of the small
medium industries are
concentrated in this area.


About 10,000 donums are used
for agriculture in the watershed =
2380 H.


State of Environment in Zarqa Basin

Environmental components that are

at risk in the Amman
-
Zarqa Basin:


High air pollution

due to the
surrounding industrial areas
(thermal power plants, oil refinery,
industrial stack emissions);


Over pumping of groundwater

for
agriculture, drinking and industrial
uses


Surface and groundwater
resources pollution

caused by
wastewater from partially
operated treatment plants.

Environment increasing risks


Solid waste management is a
big challenge in a heavily
populated and industrialized
region;


Poverty and degraded
livelihood conditions magnified
the environmental impacts
.


Zarqa River Basin Restoration

Long Term Goal
:


restoration

of the river basin


economic development



Purpose:


Test and demonstrate a
systemic
and

participatory
approach
for planning,
development and
management of the
watershed/river basin
at the
intermediate and local level

good analysis and
planning

contributing
to more effective and
economically sound
water resource
management and
improving rural
livelihoods,
environmental and water
security.


promoting increased
participation and
representation of
stakeholders
,

mainly
end
-
users of the
planning and decision
making processes
.



through

by

Project Partners

Ministry of Water and Irrigation

AWO


Ministry of Agriculture

Project Donors

Embassy of Spain

In Jordan

Technical Cooperation Office
-
Amman

The Royal Society for the

Conservation of Nature

Project Stakeholders

1.
Zarqa Governorate.

2.
Balqa Governorate.

3.
Jodan Valley Authority.

4.
Zarqa & Balqa NGOs.

5.
Zarqa Chamber of Commerce.

6.
Care International.

7.
Ardha Municipality/ Balqa.

8.
Directorate of Public Works.

9.
Zarqa Municipality.

10.

Russeifeh Municipality.


11
. Zarqa Public Hospital

12
. Zarqa Directorate of Social
Development.

13
. Balqa Directorate of Health

14
. Balqa Directorate of Social
Development.

15
. Zarqa University

16
. All Jodan Youth Commission




Constrains

to Improved Water Management


Unclear governance of

the water basin, such as

difficulties in the enforcement

of water legislations and

policies.



Absence of

inter
-
stakeholder agreement.



limited knowledge on

socio
-
economic
consequences.





Lack of

:




I
nformation on water and

environmental flows in the basin

(interaction of ground water

with surface water, etc)




Awareness on water
conservation and management




Experience / knowledge with
systematic approaches applied to
water resource management


Project beneficiaries

From the local



Trough the

intermediate




To the top



Best Practice for

Communities within the river
basin, farmers, CBOs,
industries.


Industries and local
government institutions.



National government
institutions


Other river basin in the region
or in other areas.





Physical Problems Tree for ZRR

Physical Problem Tree for ZRB



Areas not covered by
collection

Obsolete industrial
processes

Insufficient/ expected
WW collection and
treatment

Sewerage in the river
bed
Urban develop
ment

Un proper irrigation
(surface) & crop
choice

Un proper domestic
use (drinking with
toilet)

Excessive Abstraction

of water

Wild disposa
l

of
liquid and solid
waste

High pollution Load

Modification
GW
M
orphology (works)

Poor water quality

Redu
ction of natural flow

Water retained in
Syria

Ecosystem in bad condition

Poor Biota, Flora,
fauna
, vegetation
and biodiversity

Inadequate Water regime

Health risk (water
service pollution)

Hydraulic risk

Water supply
(because ground
water depletio
n)

Loss of recreation
& landscape

Loss of estate value


GW safely yield =
87.5
MCM/yr
-

80.1
for domestic


Actual use =
149.8
-

6.9
for Industrial


Over use
=
62.3
MCM/yr
-

62.9
for
Agr
.


Capacity

Building

5

Governance

Institutional
Consolidation
process

4

PWPC


+

DST

3

3
or
4
pilot
sites for testing
approach

2

Pilot
projects
“on the


ground”

7

Technical
studies on
selected


information

6

Planning

+

SDCA


+

Long Term strategy
development

1

Long term strategic plan for Zarqa river
restoration & management

Project Components


Increasing the influence of


stakeholders on the planning and

decision
-
making process for water

resources management.



Water resources, environmental

and socio
-
economic assessments.



Development and endorsement

of a master plan for the

watershed/river restoration.



Development of system analysis

tools (PMC + IWMIS) to support

restoration master plans.





Development and implementation

of different pilot projects to test

solutions for river Basin restoration.



Empowerment of local

communities, private sector, NGOs

and government agencies.



Documenting the learning

process and sharing information and

knowledge at local, on a regional and

national level.

EXPECTED RESULTS


1.
An effective “
River Contract

i.e

the organizational
structure and operational
tools for Zarqa River Basin
Master Plan implementation


2
. Empowering stakeholders

GOs, NGOs, private sector,
CBOs and end
-
users
-

in the
water resource planning and
management processes

3
.
Enabling the
implementation

of
similar activities

in the other areas
of the region and country.




4
.Development of economic

and
social issues
in the river basin due
to the improved environment.


Progress so far



Institutional arrangement :



Steering committee was established at national level to ensure the
participation and influencing the decision makers at national level .


Establishing Zarqa River Basin Rehabilitation Unit(ZRBRU) within the MOEnv
structure to ensure the sustainability of the project .


Conducted
Institutional Review of the organizational structure of MoEnv and
Zarqa River Basin Rehabilitation Unit to
come up with the best options for
establishing the unit and its sustainable institutional linkages within the
Ministry of Environment and other line ministries and agencies


Stakeholders Dialogue(communication platform):



Establishing local water management committees at pilots sites’ level.


Empowering the Local committees including the end
-
users to participate
actively in decision making

process for water resources management .


Establishing communication channels between the relevant stakeholders.

Capacity Building


Conduct Rural Rapid Appraisal to whole Zarqa
river to select three

four pilot sites to
Implement pilots to test technical interventions
based on stakeholders' priorities


Assess training needs for the relevant
stakeholders and for ZRRU, in order to build
their capacity on river rehabilitation.


Translate three key documents in river
restoration ,water and Environment
management authored by IUCN(Flow , Pay
and Ecosystem approach ) based on the
training needs assessment results to build the
capacity of the relevant stakeholders in river
rehabilitation(in term of technical knowledge
and awareness raising).




Training workshops ,public awareness
campaigns and dialogue session were
conducted and targeted the
stakeholders on several issues
concerning water governance such as
,PRA, water resources assessments,
scenario building ,water strategic
planning....etc .


The environmental legislations/ laws
were reviewed and assessed.


Amendments and recommendations
were identified for better enforcement
of the environmental legislations.

Practical Learning


Four pilot sites were selected upon a
certain criteria were developed by the
national steering committee as follows :


Russeifeh Site (up stream )


Al Zarqa Site (up stream )


Al Balqa Site (down stream
)


In depth social and water information
were collected by local stakeholders to
enhance their involvement .


Local River Rehabilitation Strategic Plans
were developed in participatory way for
the pilot sites.





-

Three pilot Projects were identified by the relevant stakeholders
and will be
implemented in selected pilot sites that aim to:



Reduce pollution load dumped .



Improve the environmental situation.



Green the area.



Promote effective governance.


Demonstrate how an effective planning and management relationship can
be developed and sustained between a local community, CBOs, private
sector and respective government departments for improved water
resource management and river rehabilitation .

-


Two schools were selected within Zarqa River Basin to enhance the
participation of the students in the river rehabilitation and water
management .


Lesson Learned



The commitment of the Government of Jordan to take the policy,
institutional and legal measures are necessary to implement and
sustain the river rehabilitation


The availability and exchanging of the information between relevant
stakeholders is core issue for better water governance .


Reverse years of river pollutions is possible through concerted
coordination between the line ministries and local communities


Community empowerment is core issue for real participation in river
rehabilitation process .


Schools are focal points for
technical knowledge and awareness raising
of local communities .


Water issues become the main concerns for the local communities ,due
to the water shortage and high demand .