Review of Nutrient Management Issues

diligentdeputyManagement

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Nutrient Issues

Review of Nutrient Management
Issues


Addressed by EPA NODA

for Proposed CAFO Regulations


Fundamental outcomes of a

nutrient management plan:

Fundamental outcomes of a

nutrient management plan:

1. Minimize concentration (accumulation)

of nutrients within a CAFO

2. Recycle

manure nutrients:

match crop nutrient needs

with nutrient

inputs

1. Minimize concentration (accumulation)

of nutrients within a CAFO

Fundamental outcomes of a

nutrient management plan:

3. Minimize contaminant

movement from land application site

2. Recycle

manure nutrients:

match crop nutrient needs

with nutrient

inputs

1. Minimize concentration (accumulation)

of nutrients within a CAFO

Fundamental outcomes of a

nutrient management plan:

3. Minimize contaminant

movement from land application site

Mandatory

setbacks

or buffers

1. Minimize concentration (accumulation)

of nutrients within a CAFO

2. Recycle

manure nutrients:

match crop nutrient needs

with nutrient

inputs

EPA’s partial CNMP focuses on:




Nutrient Issues

Issues of Agreement

1. Increased flexibility for states to set BMP’s.











Recommendation: Utilize University
recommendations or NRCS 590 specifications as
foundation for state specific nutrient management
practices (e.g. soil & manure testing, P Index)




Nutrient Issues

Issues of Agreement

2. P
-
Banking is acceptable practice within
certain limitations.







Recommendation: Multi
-
year P applications are
acceptable if :


Crop N requirements are not exceeded.


Crop P should match “state
-
based” land
grant university of NRCS standards.




Nutrient Issues

Issues of Concern

1. EPA’s CNMP is only a “partial CNMP”.










Recommendation:

-

EPA should clearly identify mandatory and
voluntary elements of CNMP.

-

EPA should credit plans targeting improved
whole farm nutrient balance as
“environmentally equivalent” to mandatory
elements.




Nutrient Issues

Issues of Concern

2. CNMP currently focuses strictly on crop
nutrient management planning &
setbacks as only solutions.







Recommendation: All nutrient management
tools should be recognized as providing
environmental benefits by CAFO regs.


Nutrient Management

Solutions:


Manure

treatment
-


nutrient disposal

or export

Efficient

nutrient

use in

crops

Efficient

nutrient

use in feeding

program

Conservation

plan

Nutrient

export

to off
-
farm

users

Conservation

plan


Nutrient Management

Solutions:


Manure

treatment
-


nutrient disposal

or export

Nutrient

export

to off
-
farm

users

Buffer Strips

Efficient

nutrient

use in

crops

Efficient

nutrient

use in feeding

program

Conservation

plan


Nutrient Management

Solutions:


Manure

treatment
-


nutrient disposal

or export

Nutrient

export

to off
-
farm

users

Buffer Strips

Efficient

nutrient

use in

crops

Efficient

nutrient

use in feeding

program


Will EPA recognize

“Environmental Equivalent”

nutrient management solutions?




Nutrient Issues

Issues of Concern

3. Preference given to commercial fertilizer as
opposed to manure nutrients:


P
-
Based Application Rates


100’ foot setbacks


Increased liability imposed on off
-
farm users associated with
manure use as opposed to fertilizer.





Recommendation: The environmental benefits of
manure applied at agronomic rate suggests
that manure should not be restricted from
situations where fertilizer is allowed.




Nutrient Issues

Increased Fertilizer Use

Farm

Boundary

Managed

Outputs




Inputs









Fertilizer







Crops Sold

Feeds

Manure

Losses or Soil


Storage




Nutrient Issues

Increased Fertilizer Use

Farm

Boundary

Managed

Outputs




Inputs









Fertilizer







Crops Sold

Feeds

Manure

Losses or Soil


Storage




Nutrient Issues

Increased Fertilizer Use

Farm

Boundary

Managed

Outputs




Inputs









Fertilizer







Crops Sold

Feeds

Manure

Losses or Soil


Storage




Nutrient Issues

4. Compliance is documented by completion
of plan and implementation of practices
and record keeping, not improved
performance.


Recommendation: Environmental performance
indicators should be optional procedure for
documenting success of CNMP to EPA.


Issues of Concern




Nutrient Issues

Alternative Performance
Indicators




Performance

Outcome

Indicator


1. Limit concentration of

-

Whole Farm

nutrients within CAFO’s

Nutrient Balance

2. Recycle manure nutrients

-

Crop N Balance

within cropping system

-

Fertilizer Purchases

3
. Minimize movement of

-

Surface water…


pollutants from land

Soil P Index

application site.

-

Ground water…


Crop N
Balance





Nutrient Issues




Environmental Management System

component addressing nutrient issues.

Nutrient Outcomes & Performance
Indicators Should Be Foundation for...




Nutrient Issues

Environmental Benefits of Manure
Applied at Agronomic Rates




N leaching potential




soil erosion & runoff




soil carbon ….





crop productivity


Replace energy
intensive N

fertilizer &
limited resource P
fertilizer




Nutrient Issues

Farm

Boundary

Managed

Outputs


Nutrient Issues Addressed by EPA’s CNMP



Inputs



Losses or Soil


Storage







Fertilizer







Crops Sold

Feeds

Manure

Nitrogen Inputs (% of Total)

One Time Animal Capacity (animal units)

Nitrogen Inputs to Livestock Systems





<250

250
-
2500

>2500

15%

50%

3%

10%

50%

30%

3%

75%

20%

Animals

Fertilizer

Feeds

Legumes

32%

10%

2%

0

1

2

3

4

5

10

100

1,000

10,000

Livestock Capacity (Animal Units)

Phosphorus Balance

(Ratio of In/Out)

100,000


Phosphorus Whole Farm Balance

0

1

2

3

4

5

10

100

1,000

10,000

Livestock Capacity (Animal Units)

Phosphorus Balance

(Ratio of In/Out)

100,000

Low Risk


Phosphorus Whole Farm Balance

0

1

2

3

4

5

10

100

1,000

10,000

Livestock Capacity (Animal Units)

Phosphorus Balance

(Ratio of In/Out)

100,000

Low Risk

Increasing


Risk


Phosphorus Whole Farm Balance




Nutrient Issues

Farm

Boundary

Managed

Outputs


Nutrient Flows on Livestock Farms



Inputs



Losses or Soil


Storage

Feed


Animals


Irrigation


Fertilizer


Legumes

Animals Sold


Manure Sold


Crops Sold

Feeds

Manure

Phosphorus Inputs (% of Total)

<250

250
-
2500

>2500

One Time Animal Capacity (animal units)

Phosphorus Inputs to

Livestock Systems

Animals

Fertilizer

Feeds

Phosphorus Inputs (% of Total)

<250

250
-
2500

>2500

One Time Animal Capacity (animal units)

Phosphorus Inputs to

Livestock Systems

35%

62%

3%

Animals

Fertilizer

Feeds

Phosphorus Inputs (% of Total)

<250

250
-
2500

>2500

One Time Animal Capacity (animal units)

Phosphorus Inputs to

Livestock Systems

35%

62%

3%

33%

47%

20%

Animals

Fertilizer

Feeds

Phosphorus Inputs (% of Total)

<250

250
-
2500

>2500

One Time Animal Capacity (animal units)

Phosphorus Inputs to

Livestock Systems

35%

62%

3%

33%

47%

20%

1%

74%

25%

Animals

Fertilizer

Feeds