Resource and environmental

diligentdeputyManagement

Nov 8, 2013 (4 years and 1 day ago)

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Resource and environmental
issues

Example of Environmental issues


Deforestation


Environmental Impacts of Mining


Global Warming


“Tragedy of the commons”

overfishing
and other


Deforestation

Jungle burned for agriculture in southern Mexico

Logging in

Malaysia.

Environmental impacts caused by
deforestation


Burning forests and decay of wood after
logging contribute to the release of
greenhouse gases


Loss of biodiversity


Forests are important parts of hydrologic
cycle in nature


Mining

Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile

Iron hydroxide precipitate
stains a stream receiving
acid drainage from surface
coal mining.

Environmental impacts of mining


Land/soil erosion


Formation of sinkholes,


Loss of biodiversity in the area


Contamination of groundwaters by
chemicals from the mining process and
products.


Abandoned mines can still pose safety
hazards such as deadly gases

Chemicals used for mining


Sodium cyanide for extraction of gold


Sulphuric acid for extraction of copper
from copper oxides


If these chemicals are not handled properly,
serious environmental impacts may occur
to the neighbouring environment

Global Warming

Environmental Effects of

Global Warming


Melting of permafrost and polar ice


Rising sea level


Spread of pests and disease


Ecological impacts (e.g. disturbed life
cycle of flora
-
fauna)


This image is of the Easton Glacier on Mount
Baker in the North Cascades of Washington
taken in 2003. It shows the terminus position of
the glacier in 1985 as well.

“Tragedy of the Commons”


Free access and unrestricted demand for a finite
resource ultimately dooms the resource through
over
-
exploitation.


Release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is
one example. As everyone can release carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere with little personal
consequence, people tends to care very little
about limiting its emission.


Overfishing in the open sea is another example. If
everyone with a fishing boat can fish as much as
they like, they will eventually drive the fish stock
to commercially extinct.

State of Global Fisheries


The FAO State of World Fisheries and
Aquaculture 2004 report estimates that in 2003,
of the main fish stocks or groups of resources for
which assessment information is available,
"approximately one
-
quarter were overexploited,
depleted or recovering from depletion… and
needed rebuilding.“


edible fish are endangered in 14 of the world's 16
major fishing areas

This is another example


If anyone can throw charms onto the
wishing tree (a shared resource) without
caring the consequence, the tree will
eventually collapse.

Any solution?


Some suggested that overexploitation of a
resource can be solved by proper
management of the
property right

to use
the resource.


Licensing and tradeable quota are some
possible financial instruments.


Question


If there is another wishing tree, how should
it be managed?