Life Cycle Analysis and

diligentdeputyManagement

Nov 8, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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Life Cycle Analysis and
Resource Management


Dr. Forbes McDougall

Procter & Gamble

UK

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Presentation aims:

1) Examine the use of LCA within an overall environmental
management framework to assess the environmental impact
of packaging options and waste management systems



2) Look at how LCA can be applied to packaging, products
and waste management



3) Use LCA to help assess the cost effectiveness of specific
environmental initiatives


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Sustainability is :

A balance between the needs of the Environment, the
Economy and Society

Environmentally

effective

Economically

affordable

Socially

acceptable

SUSTAINABILITY

Economically (and technically) Feasible,

An environmental management
framework

OBJECTIVE

Socially acceptable,

Environmental Management

towards Sustainability

An environmental management
framework

1. Ensure Human and

Environmental Safety

2. Ensure Regulatory

Compliance

3. Ensure Efficient

Resource Use and

Waste Management

4. Ensure Social Concerns

are Addressed

OBJECTIVE

Economically (and technically) Feasible,


Socially acceptable
,

Environmental Management


towards Sustainability

An environmental management
framework

Safety



Human Health Risk Assessment



Ecological Risk Assessment



Economic analysis



Product & process LCA



Eco
-
design



Disposal company auditing



Material consumption monitoring and reduction



Manufacturing site mgmt. systems auditing



Manufacturing site environmental auditing



Auditing major & new suppliers

Resource Use and

Waste Management

Regulatory Compliance




Manufacturing site mgmt.. systems auditing




Manufacturing site wastes reporting




Material consumption reporting




New chemicals testing and registration




Product & packaging classification & labeling



Understand & anticipate



Interact

Addressing Social Concerns

OBJECTIVE

Economically (and technically) Feasible,

Socially acceptable,

Environmental Management

towards Sustainability

An environmental management
framework

Organisation

DECISION MAKING

Safety



Resource Use and

Waste Management

Regulatory Compliance




Manufacturing site mgmt.. systems auditing




Manufacturing site wastes reporting




Material consumption reporting




New chemicals testing and registration




Product & packaging classification & labeling

Addressing Social Concerns

OBJECTIVE

Economically (and technically) Feasible,

Socially acceptable,

Environmental Management

towards Sustainability

Data



Human Health Risk Assessment



Ecological Risk Assessment



Economic analysis



Product & process LCA



Eco
-
design



Disposal company auditing



Material consumption monitoring and reduction



Manufacturing site mgmt. systems auditing



Manufacturing site environmental auditing



Auditing major & new suppliers



Understand & anticipate



Interact

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) within the
overall environmental management
framework

RESOURCE USE AND WASTE MANAGEMENT



Economic analysis


Product and process LCA



Eco
-
design


Disposal company auditing


Material consumption monitoring and reduction


Manufacturing site management systems auditing


Auditing major & new suppliers


Interpretation

Goal

& scope

definition

Inventory

Analysis

Impact

Assessment

Direct applications :




Product development
and improvement.


Strategic planning.


Public policy making.


Marketing.


Other
.

Life Cycle Assessment framework


-

not included in an LCI
study

Phases of LCA (taken from ISO 14040)


-

included in an LCI study

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Decreasing objectivity and reliability
across a LCA



Objectivity
Inventory
results
Impact
potential
e.g. GWP
indicator
Weighting
“scores”
.
Impact
potential
e.g. toxicity
indicator
The Impact Assessment phase of LCA:



is a simple indicator system



has no direct linkage to environmental effects or significance



often uses subjective judgments and scores



is not easy to use for comparisons


What is a Life Cycle Inventory?

The first two stages of a full Life Cycle Assessment




Goal definition



Inventory analysis


Together constitute the process of Life Cycle Inventory


LCI is a tool for predicting the environmental burdens associated
with particular products or services


A LCI is an inventory of all the systems :



Inputs

(in terms of resources, including energy)



Outputs

(in terms of emissions to air water and land)


LCI can therefore identify opportunities to optimize life cycles
by:



Reducing resource use



Producing fewer emissions

What does a LCI do?

Energy

Water

Raw Materials

Raw Material Sourcing

Processing

Manufacture

Distribution

Use

Post consumer Disposal

Airborne emissions

Waterborne emissions

Solid Waste

INPUTS

OUTPUTS

System boundary for a Life Cycle
Inventory

LCI BOUNDARY

Raw Material extraction

Manufacture

Distribution

Use

Waste management



Life Cycle of a Product

Raw Material extraction

Manufacture

Distribution

Use

Waste management

PRODUCTS

LCA BOUNDARY

Life Cycle of Solid Waste

LCA for

Manufacturers

Raw Material extraction

Manufacture

Distribution

Use

Waste management

PRODUCTS

LCA for Waste Managers

Practical Environment Optimisation

Detergent LCI: results

Overall profile for the UK (compact detergent)

Solid waste

Energy

CO
2

BOD

0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

80.0

90.0

100.0

Supply

Manufacturing

Consumer

Packaging

WWTP



> 70% of energy consumption occurs at consumer phase,
due to heating of water.




CO2 emissions are mainly energy related.




> 98% of the BOD emissions occur at the WWTP, this
represents less than 8% of total BOD present in product
(weighted average).




Solid waste represents ashes from energy combustion,
packaging and sludge generation.

Detergent LCI: interpretation of results

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Nappy LCA: results

Concluded:


“there was no significant difference between any of the
environmental impacts


that is, overall no system
clearly had a better or worse environmental
performance.”


UK Environment Agency study May 2005

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Sustainable Waste Management


Environmentally effective


Economically affordable


Socially acceptable


Needs to be

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A Waste Management Hierarchy

A hierarchy lists options in order of “preference”

Reuse

Reduce


Materials Recovery

Energy Recovery

Landfill/ Incineration

(without Energy Recovery)

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Has no measurable scientific basis


Cannot consider combinations of treatment technologies


Does not address cost issues


Waste Hierarchy

Has limitations

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Solid Waste Management


Accepting the concept of an integrated approach to solid
waste management


Using a Life Cycle Assessment tool (computer model) to
optimise the integrated waste management system


Sustainable Systems can be engineered by :

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IWM

:


Takes

an

overall

approach

and

manages

waste

in

an

environmentally

effective

and

economically

affordable

way


Involves

the

use

of

a

range

of

different

treatment

options

at

a

local

level


Considers

the

entire

solid

waste

stream

Integrated Waste Management (IWM)

The Concept

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MATERIALS

RECYCLING

BIOLOGICAL

TREATMENT

THERMAL

TREATMENT

LANDFILL

COLLECTION

&

SORTING

Integrated Waste Management (IWM)

Includes :

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IWM Systems


Overall environmental burdens

(Overall economic cost)


Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool makes this possible

How can we plan systems that are environmentally and
economically sustainable ?

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OUTPUTS



Air


Emissions



Water


Emissions



Residual


Landfill


Material


INPUTS


Waste


Energy


Other

Materials


Money

COLLECTION

&

SORTING

Secondary


Materials

Compost

Useful

Energy

MATERIALS

RECYCLING

BIOLOGICAL

TREATMENT

THERMAL

TREATMENT

LANDFILL

PRODUCTS

Integrated Waste Management

A Life Cycle Assessment

Environmental Effectiveness

IWM

USE

Raw material

sourcing

Manufacture

Distribution

Retail

PRODUCTS

Waste

Management

USE

Raw material

sourcing

Manufacture

Distribution

Retail

PRODUCTS

Waste

Management

SEGREGATED WASTE


MANAGEMENT

INTEGRATED WASTE

MANAGEMENT

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Solid Waste

LC
A

originally
used to
compare products/packaging from
“cradle to grave”


A Life Cycle Model

A L
ife
C
ycle model

for solid waste calculates:


total energy consumption


emissions to air and water


final solid waste


(
overall economic costs
)


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Life Cycle Models


Net energy consumption


Air emissions


Water emissions


Landfill volume (residual)


Recovered materials


Compost

Results

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From Life Cycle Model results to
sustainability

Environmental sustainability


more useful products


less emissions


less final inert waste


less energy consumed


(Economic sustainability)


less money to pay for the system


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Using LCA to help assess the cost effectiveness of specific
environmental initiatives


Use existing waste management strategy as “Baseline”, model
entire system including all relevant costs


Compare the performance of different I
ntegrated
W
aste
M
anagement

strategies


Choose optimum I
ntegrated
W
aste
M
anagement

strategy based
on need
s

of local environment, economy and population


Strategy development

Comparisons using Life Cycle model results

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How to choose between options ?


Single criterion
-

where there is a single over
-
riding
concern (e.g. lack of landfill space)


Multiple criteria
-

where more than one issue is important
(e.g. energy consumption and air emissions)


“Less is better”
-

where one option is lower in all categories


Impact analysis
-

combine categories that contribute to the
same effect such as global warming


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LCA


IWM concept and LC
A

tools can help us move towards
affordable environmental sustainability


Using LC
A

is better than other arbitrary approaches


More and higher quality data are needed, to make better
decisions


A variety of waste management systems are required to
meet local needs

Conclusions

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Our contribution

English version
-

combined sales of over 10,000 copies


Also available in Spanish, Chinese and Japanese


Life Cycle models for Municipal Solid Waste

now produced by UK EA, US EPA, and in Germany,

Austria, Netherlands, France, Portugal, Australia ……

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