Introduction to IWRM

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Introduction to IWRM

D. Thalmeinerova

based upon GWP ToolBox resources

Local, Regional, National, Fluvial, Global

Ancient


1200 A.D.



1900



1990s



Future

Community

Basic management

of water quantity

Sectoral

management

of water quantity and quality

institutional fragmentation

spatial fragmentation

local co
-
ordination

Integrated

multifunctional use

river basin as unit

institutionalised cooperation

Multi
-
level Comprehensive Governance

Before we start….


The basis of IWRM is that different uses of water are
interdependent



Integrated management means that all the different uses of
water resources are considered together

WATER CYCLE

Driving forces on water resources


Population growth
: demands for more water and producing more waste
water and pollution


Urbanization
: migration from rural to urban areas which increases the
current level of difficulty in water delivery and waste water treatment


Economic growth
: mainly in developing countries with large populations
contributes to increased demand for economic activities


Globalization of trade
: production is relocated to “labor
-
cheap” areas that
takes place without consideration for water resources




Climate variability
: more intense floods and droughts increase vulnerability
of people


Climate change
: increase uncertainty about water cycle regimes

IWRM concept is


an
empirical concept

which is built up from the on
-
the
-
ground experience
of practitioners,


a flexible approach to water management that can adapt to diverse national
and local contexts,


thus


it is not a scientific theory that needs to be proved or disproved by scholars.



and (but)


it requires policy
-
makers to make judgments about
which
reforms and
measures, management tools and institutional arrangements
are most
appropriate in a particular cultural, social, political, economic and
environmental context
.

IWRM definition


IWRM is a process which promotes the
coordinated development and
management of water, land and related
resources, in order to maximize the
resultant economic and social welfare in
an equitable manner without
compromising the sustainability of vital
ecosystems.


GWP, TEC Background Paper No. 4:
Integrated Water Resources Management

IWRM:

What does it really mean?


More coordinated development and management of:


Land and water


Surface water and ground water


Upstream and downstream interests

Discussion questions
:

Who should propose measures to protect against floods?

Who should bear a cost to implement measures to mitigate
floods?

Key water resources management functions


Water allocation


Pollution control


Monitoring


Financial management


Flood and drought management


Information management


Basin planning


Stakeholder participation

IWRM

Manage water resources within a basin


What about international basins?


What about large distances within a basin (with disparate communities and
institutions)?


How to manage a basin that has no monitoring network?


How to manage a basin where water supply and demand fluctuate both
intra
-
seasonally and inter
-
annually?


How to manage a basin where authorities have a little access to financial,
transport and technological capabilities?

Three pillars of IWRM



Implementing IWRM process is a question of getting the “three
pillars” right:


1.
Moving towards enabling environment of appropriate
policies, strategies
and legislation


2.
Putting in place the
institutional framework

(through which policies can be
implemented)


3.
Setting up the
management instruments

required by these institutions to do
their job


CHANGE AREAS

Environmental

Sustainability

Economic

Efficiency

Social Equity

CHANGES ARE MADE TO SEEK

TO REACH

SUSTAINABILITY

Managing competing uses

Water for
people

Water for

food

Water for
nature

Water for

other

uses

Cross
-
sectoral integration


Enabling
environment


Institutions


Management


instruments












Integrating across levels and sectors

National

Basin

Local

Fisheries

Envir
onme
nt

Tourism

Industry

Finance

Agriculture

Energy

Water

IWRM PRINCIPLES


Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain
life, development and the environment.


Water development and management should be based on a
participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers
at all levels.


Women play a central part in the provision, management and safe
-
guarding of water.


Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should
be recognized as an economic good as well as social good.


Dublin, 1992

IWRM Principles


Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain
life, development and the environment.


Respecting the basin


IWRM Principles


Water development and management should be based on a
participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers
at all levels.


Difficult to ensure “active involvement”


50



decision

200



work

2 000


participation

200 000


information

2 500 000


population

Pitfalls in putting IWRM into practice

Trying to establish management relations between too many
variables risks getting mired in complexity at the expense of
effectiveness
.

When putting IWRM into
practice it’s important to
think strategically about
where and to what degree
coordination and new
management instruments
are necessary.


IWRM Principles


Women play a central part
in the provision,
management and safe
-
guarding of water

IWRM Principles


Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be
recognized as an economic good as well as social good



Water is becoming scarcer and its value rising


Recognition that costs should be borne by those who benefit


Source: The Economist

Arguments for treating water as an
economic good:


Market
-
based approach will
ensure that people are better
stewards of water resources


Encourages conservation


Improves quality


Helps allocate water to maximize
benefits


Arguments for treating water as a
human right:


Ensures water for all


Helps set priorities of water policy


Focuses attention on resolving
water conflict


Helps safeguard other human
rights

Why IWRM?


Globally accepted and makes good sense.


Key element in national water policy.


Incorporates social and environmental considerations directly into policy and
decision making.


Directly involves the stakeholders.


Is a tool for optimizing investments under tight financing climate.

Traditional
versus IWRM
approaches

…in order to understand better “integrated” approach…


Traditional approach


One sector


Limited institutions involved


Decision making at one sector


Specific issues addressed


Specific interests solved


Sectoral allocation of funds


Integrated approach


Multi sectors


Various institutions involved


“collective” decision making


Complex issues addressed


Overriding interests solved


National allocation of funds

In order to understand better “integrated” approach

Traditional approach:


Hydrological/hydraulic


What is expected yield of the
catchment?


Engineering


How much water leaks from
the system?


How can leakage be reduced?


Management


What is the economic level of
leakage?

Integrated approach:


How will new investment be
agreed upon?


How can local management
structures balance competing
uses?


How will stakeholders negotiate
water rights in different conditions
of water availability (scarcity)?


How will consumers respond to
periodic water shortages or to
increasing environmental
concerns?

Lessons learnt

Risks of fully sectoral approach


Overlooking negative impacts on
environment and other sectors


Inefficient use of resources

natural
and financial

Risks of fully integrated approach


Getting mired in complexity.


Not making good use of
specialist expertise.

Finding a balance

Sectoral
approac
h

Integrate
d
approach

Each country needs
to decide where
integration makes
sense based on its
social, political and
hydrological
situation.

The nature of IWRM: Lessons from IWRM in practice

How water is developed and managed must reflect
country
priorities (including environmental standards) and governance
approaches.

Water management will not be
successful if it is set up as a
stand
-
alone system of
governance and administration,
separate to the rest of
government.

Examples: IWRM is linked to

key development issues

Key development issue

How IWRM helps

Example

Securing food production

Assists the efficient production of
food crops in irrigated
agriculture

FAO round table (2003, Rome)
agreed that all African
countries should improve
efficiency in irrigated
agriculture for food
production by adopting
IWRM approach

Reducing health risks

Better management of water
quality

UNECE Protocol on Water and
Health (2007) requires to set
health targets. Progress
towards IWRM has been
chosen as an indicator for
improved water management

Freshwater and coastal water

IWRM recognizes freshwater and
coastal zone as a continuum

Integrated Coastal Area and River
Basin Management (ICARM)
is endorsed by GWP as a basic
concept for the GEF projects
portfolio

Key development issue

How IWRM helps

Example

Mitigating disaster risks

Assists disaster
preparedness

WMO adopted IFM
approach within the
framework of IWRM in
2000

Planning transboundary
cooperation

Assists water management
of shared basins

ECOWAS adopted the West
African Regional Action
Plan for IWRM in 2000.
The IWRM is a
framework for
transboundary Niger,
Volta and Senegal rivers

Adapting to climate change

Assist appropriate planning
of water use with better
resilience

IPCC emphasizes IWRM
approach that is based
on the concepts of
flexibility and
adaptability

Summary about IWRM: what we have learnt


IWRM is linked to sustainable development


IWRM is not a one
-
size
-
fits
-
all prescription and cannot be applied as a
checklist of actions


IWRM is not a prescription but an iterative process and an adaptive
approach


IWRM implementation must reflect country priorities


Water management will not be successful if it is set up as a stand
-
alone
system of governance


IWRM includes both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ components

Lessons from IWRM in practice

IWRM is a means not an end.

None of the successful case studies
analysed set out to achieve IWRM. Rather they set out to solve
particular water
-
related problems or achieve development goals by
looking at water holistically within larger physical and development
contexts.


IWRM

Equity

Sustainability

Efficiency