Energy Management in a

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Nov 8, 2013 (4 years and 4 days ago)

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Energy Management in a
Resource


Starved
Environment



Channing Starke

Director / Technical Services

Advanced Air Filtration

Resource Starved Environment


Energy Usage Increasing



Cost Increasing



Labor Availability decreasing



Budgets decreasing

From the Energy Information Administration
Report
-

Annual Energy Outlook 2006

from 2004 to 2030




Commercial Usage projected to be up 75%



Residential Usage projected to be up 47%



Industrial Usage projected to be up 24%


Series Title: Average Retail Price of Electricity,
Commercial (Hundredth Cents per Kilowatthour,
Including Taxes)

Year
Month
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
1
7.36
7.49
7.65
7.69
8
2
7.57
7.71
7.64
7.83
8.2
3
7.71
7.73
7.71
7.92
8.1
4
7.75
7.66
7.9
7.88
8.27
5
7.79
7.81
8.02
7.98
8.45
6
8.13
8.1
8.39
8.46
8.94
7
8.4
8.3
8.47
8.6
9.04
8
8.37
8.25
8.39
8.66
9.15
9
8.29
8.09
8.07
8.53
9.21
10
8.3
8.08
8.04
8.23
8.89
11
7.8
7.69
7.8
8.04
8.74
12
7.71
7.66
7.68
7.81
8.23
Average
7.9
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.6
Primary Energy Use -Equipment Breakdown
54%
5%
3%
12%
2%
14%
7%
3%
Packaged A/C
Room A/C
Rotary Screw Chiller
Reciprocating Chiller
Absorption Chiller
Centrifugal Chiller
Heat Pump
PTAC
Energy Management


Recover excess fan energy being used



Recover excess compressor / chiller


energy being used



Recover excess pump energy being used


Room coil (Before)

The same coil after Enzymatic Coil
Cleaner

Bio
Bio
-
-
Fouling of Coils
Fouling of Coils
A lower number indicates a greater resistance
to heat transfer
0.60
Biofilm
1.30
Analcite
Mineral Deposit
2.90
Fe
2
O
3 Iron Oxide
2.30
CaSO
4 Calcium Sulphate
2.60
Ca
3
(PO4)
2 Calcium Phosphate
2.60
CaCO
3 Calcium Carbonate
Thermal Conductivity (W/mK)
Substance
Thermal conductivity comparison of deposit forming compounds and
biofilm
ADVANCED AIR FILTRATION
HVAC System Solutions

Aluminium microstructure (scale 143.0
μ
m)

Polystyrene representing the
Aluminium microstructure

Polystyrene

(Representing Aluminium
microstructure)

Polystyrene impregnated with a
blue
food dye

to indicate the action of an
Alkaline Cleaning process
penetrating
pathways

Typical Acidic Coil Cleaner


Acidic Coil Cleaner (HF,
Hydrofluoric acid)



Dilution Strength: 1 : 3*


Cycle: 1 minute






Very aggressive reaction is taking place !



*

Concentration strength, as per product label, for foam cleaning of AC
coils.

Acidic Coil Cleaner (HF,
Hydrofluoric acid)



Dilution strength: 1 : 3*


Immersion cycle: 4 Hours


Actual weight loss: 65.6672%


Weight loss (%):
65.67




*
Concentration strength, as per product label, for foam
cleaning of AC coils.


Exposed to the cleaner

Master

Alkaline Coil Cleaner (NaOH)



Dilution Strength: 1: 4*



Cycle: 1 minute





Alkaline Coil Cleaner (NaOH)



Dilution strength: 1: 2*



Cycle: 1 minute



*

Concentration strength, as per product label.



Very aggressive reaction is taking place !

Very aggressive reaction is taking place !

Alkaline Coil Cleaner (NaOH)



Dilution strength: 1: 4* with
water


Immersion cycle: 4 hours


Actual weight loss: 52.0531%


Weight loss (%):
52.05



Alkaline Coil Cleaner (NaOH)



Dilution strength: 1: 2* with
water


Immersion cycle: 4 hours


Actual weight loss: 86.7604%


Weight loss (%):
86.76


Exposed to the cleaner

Master

Master


*


Concentration strength, as per product label.



Alkaline Coil Cleaner (NaOH)



Applied to the sample coil by
spraying



Dilution: 1: 4* with water


Cycle after application: 2 minutes




*


Concentration strength, as per product label.





Very aggressive reaction is taking place !!!


Bioactive Enzyme Coil Cleaner



Non
-
acid, non
-
alkaline, non
-
toxic cleaning
process


Cleaning process can be used on all coils


Will not damage heat exchange coils


Broad spectrum enzymes break down all
biological material


Completely biodegradable, washes down the
drain safely



Enzyme Cleaner



Dilution strength: 1: 20*



Immersion cycle: 4 hours



Actual weight loss: 0.0000%



Weight loss (%):
0.00

Exposed to the cleaner


Master

Master



*

Concentration strength, as per product label.


Energy Efficiency BTUs/ Hr
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
21.11
23.89
26.67
29.44
32.22
35.00
Outdoor Temp Celsius
BTUs x 1000
Before Cleaning
Cleaned C/U
Cleaned AHU Coil
Procedures


Filters removed



Pretest Air flow, temperature drop and coil delta P recorded.



Pre
-
test and Post
-
Test Air Flow readings recorded using TSI
VelociCalc Plus 8385.



Surfaces and coils Vacuumed.



Coil Cleaner

applied and allowed to penetrate coil for 15 minutes.



Coil rinsed with water and allowed to dry.



Coil Treated with
Coil Treatment
.
Condensate Pan Tablet

installed
into drain pan.



Run Unit for at least 60 minutes and record Post
-
Test temperature
drop, coil Delta P and airflow readings.



Filters installed and system buttoned up

Energy Impact

Evaluation


Based on previous field results, a test @ building 38 was
conducted following the protocol established


Actual air flow (Traverse) and temperature readings
were entered into a spreadsheet derived from the
ASHRAE fundamentals manual. This formula
estimates

total energy and makes assumptions difficult to quantify
with multiple chiller installations. It has proven to be a
reasonably accurate estimating guide.


Given the results, additional buildings AHU’s were
cleaned and treated.


IAQ Demonstration Worksheet
Account Name:
City:
Pennsylvania
Contact:
Date:
6/18/2005
Unit Name:
AHU 38
Fan on High
Size of Unit:
1
Notes:
Cleaned & Treated
Initial Traverse Pre Cleaning
Second Traverse Post Cleaning
1780
1700
1730
1390
6600
2015
2070
2025
2115
8225
1230
1430
940
1040
4640
1495
1445
1600
1790
6330
1195
560
775
835
3365
1405
1560
1490
970
5425
180
58
91
33
362
1360
1170
1075
970
4575
0
0
14967
24555
Average
Velocity
935.44
Average
velocity
1534.69
Number of
Number of
Test Points
16
CFM
5,846


Test Points
16
CFM
9,592


Duct
Height (in)
30
Dimensions
Width (in)
30
Duct Area
Sq. ft.
6.25
Second Test CFM
9,592


Initial Test CFM
5,846


in
out
diff
Coil Model. Serial #
% Improvement
64.06%
Coil Area
Height (in)
48
before
71.8
64.8
7
Dimensions
Width (in)
48
Approximate
after
74.6
60.7
13.9
Coil Area
Sq. ft.
16.0
Coil Tons
22.0
change
2.8
-4.1
6.9
Conversions
12MBTU/hr + 12,000BTU = 1 Ton of Airconditioning
400 CFM of Coil Air Flow Capacity = 1 Ton of Airconditioning
Temp Drop
Energy Savings Worksheet For
Before Cleaning
After Cleaning
Improvement
Air Flow (CFM)
5846
9592
64.1%
Temp Across Coil
7
13.9
6.9
BTU
44,199
143,992
99,793
% BTU Improvement
225.8%
Kwh
29.24
Annual Kwh
30,789
Total Annual $$
1,693.38
$

Unit nominal tonnage
22
76.97
$

Air Flow/Ton (400)
266
436
BTU Gain Per Ton
4536
Kwh Per Ton
1399
Savings Per Ton
76.97
$

in
out
diff
before
71.8
64.8
7
after
74.6
60.7
13.9
change
2.8
-4.1
6.9
Operation Assumptions
Cost Per Kwh
0.055
$

Days/Yr Usage
135
Day Time Hours
10
Night Time Hours
14
Day Cycles/Hour
6
Day Minutes/Cycle
5
Night Cycles/Hour
6
Night Minutes/Cycle
2
Temp Drop
260 days - no weekends
313 - closed Sundays
365 - open all of the time
SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ESTIMATE SHEET
Project Name:
Date:
21-Oct-05
Location:
Building 38
Contact:

With modified Wet Bulb
Engineer:
Channing Starke
AHU Tagging:

Contractor:

Coil Treatment Application
Before
After

CFM - Measured or Selected (VAV)
5,846
9,592
Entering Air Temperature - Dry Bulb °F
71.8
74.6
Entering Air Temperature - Wet Bulb °F
66.0

66.0
Leaving Air Temperature - Dry Bulb °F
64.8
60.7
Leaving Air Temperature - Wet Bulb °F
64.8
60.7
Total Cooling Capacity - Btuh
39,987
188,627

Sensible Heat -Btuh
44,196
143,995

Latent Heat - Btuh
-4,209
44,632

Net Cooling Capacity Gain - Btuh
148,640
Pressure Drop "Across Coil"
0.93
" WG
0.73
" WG
Pressure Drop Reduction
0.2
" WG
Pressure Drop BHP Reduction
0.503
EER:
6.1
Annual Operating Hours
3,240
Before
Energy Cost per kWh
$0.055
EER:
10.9
Annual Improvement (kWh cost)
$4,462
After
Energy Savings Model for
258%
Month 5
$55,651
($27,624)
Summary of Cash Flow
Month 1
Month 2
Month 3
Month 4
Month 5
Month 6
(35,195)
$

7,571
$

7,571
$

7,571
$

7,571
$

7,571
$

7,571
$

($27,624)
($20,054)
($12,483)
($4,913)
$2,658
$10,228
Month 7
Month 8
Month 9
Month 10
Month 11
Month 12
0
0
7,571
$

7,571
$

7,571
$

7,571
$

7,571
$

7,571
$

$17,799
$25,369
$32,940
$40,510
$48,081
$55,651
1,250


Annual Contract Labor Cost
31,250
$

492
$

Cost of Coil Treatment
3,453
$

35,195
$

90,846
$

Key Assumptions:
1.
HVAC Contractor labor required per ton of AC =
25.00
$

2.
Energy savings based on
72.68
$

per ton
3
Cost of Electricity per KWH
0.070
$

Investment Required (Cash Out)
Savings (Cash In)
Net Cash Impact (Months 7-12)
ROI
Payback
Year One Net Cash Impact
Deepest Red
Annual Utility Savings
Cost of Coil Clean
Total Annual Cost
Net Cash Impact (Months 1-6)
Tons of AC
ADVANCED AIR FILTRATION
Building Environment Solutions
Tabulated Results for Demonstrations
Site
Date
Industry
CFM
CFM
Delta
Temp.
Drop
Delta
Particle
Count
Energy
Before
After
%
Before
After
T
Change
Saved/Ton
TTS AHU1 A-C, NJ
Feb-05
Hospitality
634
719
13.5%
7.1
13.3
6.2
29.0%
$68.46
TT S AHU2 A-C, NJ
Feb-05
Hospitality
701
733
10.3%
13.2
15.5
2.3
50.4%
$36.00
TT S AHU3 A-C, NJ
Feb-05
Hospitality
757
1011
33.5%
7.1
13.7
6.6
21.3%
$84.82
T R Rm768 A-C, NJ
Apr-05
Hospitality
885
1050
18.6%
4.2
6
1.8
76.1%
$58.12
T R Rm766 A-C, NJ
Apr-05
Hospitality
1145
1429
24.8%
3.2
3.8
0.6
74.7%
$39.81
B Rm 604 unit A A-C, NJ
Apr-05
Hospitality
755
834
10.1%
9.8
12.2
2.4
85.2%
$41.16
B Rm 604 unit B A-C, NJ
Apr-05
Hospitality
736
858
16.5%
4.4
14.4
10
85.2%
$136.40
B Rm 633 A-C, NJ
Apr-05
Hospitality
211
274
29.9%
4.4
11.2
6.8
50.4%
$32.13
A N G Pamona, NJ
Mar-05
Office
3078
3432
11.5%
7
8
1
58.9%
$126.98
S C H A-C NJ
May-05
Hospitality
18265
21446
17.5%
13.3
18
4.7
NR
$102.63
L Moorestown, NJ
May-05
Office
4590
5542
20.7%
1
3
2
NR
$106.64
S A-C NJ
May-05
Hospitality
427
566
32.5%
7.8
14.3
6.5
NR
$69.04
HJD Brookly, NY
May-05
Healthcare
7546
9900
31.2%
9
12.5
3.5
NR
$58.50
LCH Brooklyn, NY
May-05
Healthcare
13222
19206
45.3%
9.5
10.5
1
NR
$62.98
MC Phila. Pa
Jun-05
Hospitality
9222
12318
33.6%
8.8
14.9
6.1
NR
$155.70
TP Exter, Pa
May-05
Pharmaceutical
6271
8988
43.3%
25.9
28.4
2.5
NR
$166.81
AMH Linwood, NJ
Jun-05
Education
11706
13377
14.3%
5.8
9.7
3.8
NR
$85.51
THG Exter, Pa
May-05
Residential
821
984
19.9%
14.2
16
1.8
NR
$58.15
Hil. A-C NJ
Jun-05
Hospitality
11707
13231
13.0%
6.8
14.2
7.4
NR
$83.64
N.Y. EE #8 NY, NY
Jun-05
Healthcare
10772
13291
23.4%
25.2
26.1
0.9
NR
$137.80
N.Y. EE #7 NY, NY
Jun-05
Healthcare
12308
16382
33.2%
15.9
16.6
0.7
NR
$92.31
MI (base) NY, NY
Jun-05
Healthcare
25048
29707
18.6%
20
23.4
3.4
NR
$142.81
MI (AC-5) NY, NY
Jun-05
Healthcare
12951
16550
27.8%
9.5
10.5
1
NR
$40.68
SJH NY, NY
May-05
Healthcare
23048
27921
21.4%
0.7
2.2
1.5
NR
$41.25
Average
All Tests
22.6%
3.4
59.0%
$81.13
Comparison, Chilled water
Δ
T and
Δ
P pre and
post cleaning and treatment.

AH-2001
25-Aug-05
1500
47
51
13,500
19.1
1.8
AH-2002
25-Aug-05
0900
47
51
10,200
14.5
1.87
AH-2003
25-Aug-05
1300
46
54
21,850
20
0.58
AH-2004
25-Aug-05
1100
49
63
3,800
5.6
0.86
AH-2001
26-Aug-05
47
58
13,500
n/av
0.44
AH-2002
26-Aug-05
16:25
46
67
10,000
n/av
0.85
AH-2003
26-Aug-05
16:25
46
57
19,500
n/av
0.18
AH-2004
26-Aug-05
47
63
3,800
n/av
0.54
BHp = [(cfm) * (Coil DP psi)] / [(229) * (Fan Eff.)]
Fan Efficiency = 50%
Electricity = $0.052/Kw-hr
BHp saved
AH-2001
5.4
168
$2,442
AH-2002
3.8
66
$679
AH-2003
1.7
66
$308
AH-2004
1.0
66
$182
$3,611
After
Cleaning
After
Cleaning
74F
55%
Oper.Hrs.
/Week
Savings /
Year
OAH (%)
Delta P
CHW
Before
Cleaning
72F
48%
Return
Temp
CFM
Flow
VFD
OAT (
ºF)
AHU
Date
Time
Supply
Temp
Change
delta P
AH-2001
25-Aug-05
1500
47
51
13,500
19.1
1.8
1.039
AH-2002
25-Aug-05
0900
47
51
10,200
14.5
1.87
1.515
AH-2003
25-Aug-05
1300
46
54
21,850
20
0.58
0.449
AH-2004
25-Aug-05
1100
49
63
3,800
5.6
0.86
0.493
AH-2001
26-Aug-05
47
58
13,500
n/av
0.761
AH-2002
26-Aug-05
16:25
46
67
10,000
n/av
0.355
AH-2003
26-Aug-05
16:25
46
57
19,500
n/av
0.131
AH-2004
26-Aug-05
47
63
3,800
n/av
0.367
BHp = [(cfm) * (Coil DP psi)] / [(229) * (Fan Eff.)]
Fan Efficiency =
50%
Electricity / Kw-hr
$0.07
BHp saved
AH-2001
4.1
168
$2,583
AH-2002
5.7
66
$1,397
AH-2003
1.9
66
$479
AH-2004
1.6
66
$388
$4,847
Savings ? Ton based on 155 tons
$31.27
After
Cleaning
Oper.Hrs./
Week
Savings /
Year
AHU
Supply
Temp
(°F)
Return
Temp
(°F)
After
Cleaning
Before
Cleaning
Delta P CHW
Coil (in. w.c.)
Date
Time
CFM
Flow
VFD
OAT (
ºF)
48%
74F
55%
OAH
(%)
72F
While customer generates it's
own power @ $.055 / Kwh,
energy saved would be from not
purchasing power at a $.07 /
Kwh rate
The constant in the BHp formula converts the coil delta P from " wc to psi and the CFM
into volume / hour. The HP saved is the reduced power to move the required air through
the measurably cleaner coil. The final saving formula multiplies the HP saved X hours /
week X 52 weeks/year x.746KW/HP.
Change
delta P
AH-2001
25-Aug-05
1500
47
51
13,500
19.1
1.8
1.039
AH-2002
25-Aug-05
0900
47
51
10,200
14.5
1.87
1.515
AH-2003
25-Aug-05
1300
46
54
21,850
20
0.58
0.449
AH-2004
25-Aug-05
1100
49
63
3,800
5.6
0.86
0.493
AH-2001
26-Aug-05
47
58
13,500
n/av
0.761
AH-2002
26-Aug-05
16:25
46
67
10,000
n/av
0.355
AH-2003
26-Aug-05
16:25
46
57
19,500
n/av
0.131
AH-2004
26-Aug-05
47
63
3,800
n/av
0.367
AH-2001
9-Nov-05
10:57
13,500
n/av
0.771
AH-2002
9-Nov-05
11:05
10,000
n/av
0.355
AH-2003
9-Nov-05
11:53
19,500
n/av
0.131
AH-2004
9-Nov-05
11:30
3,800
n/av
0.367
BHp = [(cfm) * (Coil DP psi)] / [(229) * (Fan Eff.)]
Fan Efficiency =
50%
Electricity / Kw-hr
$0.07
BHp saved
AH-2001
4.1
168
$2,583
AH-2002
5.7
66
$1,397
AH-2003
1.9
66
$479
AH-2004
1.6
66
$388
$4,847
48%
74F
55%
OAH
(%)
72F
Delta P CHW Coil
(in. w.c.)
Date
Time
CFM
Flow
VFD
OAT (
ºF)
AHU
Supply
Temp
(°F)
Return
Temp
(°F)
After
Cleaning
Before
Cleaning
After
Cleaning
Oper.Hrs
./Week
Savings /
Year
Follow up-
After
Cleaning
70
Why Part of This Program?


Equipped


Detailed measurement of what’s
going on.


Part of the building solution. “Recomissioning”


No Conflict


don’t sell or install replacement
equipment


Concerned with the whole system

Why Energy


As an Important immediate concern as IAQ


Yearly repeat program maintains gains, air
balancing independently confirms efficiency


Further strengthens customer relationship, most
maintenance is a cost, not R.O.I.


Ability to more easily be incorporated in this
years budget. Positive energy step that can be
implemented now.

Contact Information

Channing Starke

Air
-
Vent Duct Cleaning / Advanced Air Filtration


190 South main Street, Ambler Pa.


Phone
-

215 641 0440


Cell
-

973 592 2163


E
-

mail c.r.starke@worldnet.att.net