Chapter 1 Project Management Concepts

diligentdeputyManagement

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

104 views

Academic Computing Services 2009

Academic Computing Services 2009

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
CONCEPTS


Academic Computing Services 2009

Project, Defined


A
project

is an endeavor to accomplish a specific objective through
a unique set of interrelated tasks and the effective utilization of
resources.


It has a
well
-
defined objective
stated in terms of
scope
,
schedule
, and
costs
.


Project s are “born” when a need is identified by the customer


the
people or organization willing to provide funds to have the need
satisfied.


It is the people (project manager and project team), not the procedures
and techniques, that are critical to accomplishing the project objective.


Procedures and techniques are merely tools to help the people do their
jobs.

Academic Computing Services 2009

Examples of Projects


Planning a wedding


Designing and implementing a computer system


Hosting a holiday party


Designing and producing a brochure


Executing an environmental clean
-
up of a contaminated site


Holding a high school reunion


Performing a series of surgeries on an accident victim

Academic Computing Services 2009


Academic Computing Services 2009

Phases of the Project Life Cycle 1


The first phase involves the identification of a
need, problem, or opportunity.


The need and requirements are usually written by the customer into
a document called a request for proposal (RFP).

Academic Computing Services 2009

Phases of the Project Life Cycle 2


The second phase is the development of a
proposed solution to the need or problem.


This phase results in the submission of a proposal.


The customer and the winning contractor negotiate and sign
a contract (agreement).

Academic Computing Services 2009

Phases of the Project Life Cycle 3


The third phase is performing the project.


Different types of resources are utilized


Results in the accomplishment of the project objective

Academic Computing Services 2009

Phases of the Project Life Cycle 4


The final phase is terminating the project.


Perform close
-
out activities


Evaluate performance


Invite customer feedback

Academic Computing Services 2009

The Project Management Process


The project management process means planning the work and
then working the plan.


7 steps of planning

1. Clearly define the project objective.

2. Divide and subdivide the project scope into major “pieces”

3. Define the specific activities for each piece (work package)

4. Graphically portray the activities that need to be performed fro each work
package in order to accomplish the project objective


in the form of
network diagram.

5. Make a time estimate for how long it will take to complete each activity


resources needed.

6. Make a cost estimate for each activity.

7. Calculate a project schedule and budget to determine whether the project
can be completed within the required time, with the allotted founds, and
with the available resources.



Academic Computing Services 2009

Project Control Process

Academic Computing Services 2009

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)


The second step is to determine what
activities need to be performed.


A list of all the activities must be developed.


The WBS is a hierarchical tree of end items to
be accomplished.


A
work item
is one small piece of the project.


A

work package

is the lowest
-
level item.

Academic Computing Services 2009


Academic Computing Services 2009

Microsoft Project WBS


Academic Computing Services 2009

1. Start new project


Turn on the Project Guide


On the
Tools

menu, click
Options
, and then click the
Interface

tab.


In the
Project Guide settings

section, select the
Display
Project Guide

check box.


Manually set up a new project

Academic Computing Services 2009

Project


Project Information…

or

View


Turn on project guide…


http://office.microsoft.com/en
-
us/project/HA102639631033.aspx


Academic Computing Services 2009

Tools
-

Options


Academic Computing Services 2009


Academic Computing Services 2009

2. Tasks


There are four major types of tasks:

1.
Summary tasks
-

contain subtasks and their
related properties

2.
Subtasks

-

are smaller tasks that are a part of a
summary task

3.
Recurring tasks
-

are tasks that occur at
regular intervals

4.
Milestones

-

are tasks that are set to zero
duration and are like interim goals in the project


Academic Computing Services 2009

Add tasks


Academic Computing Services 2009

Insert new task


Academic Computing Services 2009

Outlining tasks


Academic Computing Services 2009

Tools


Options…
-

check
“Show project summary task”

Academic Computing Services 2009

Academic Computing Services 2009

Predecessor

Academic Computing Services 2009

Tasks can be linked in four ways


Finish
-
Start

FS Predecessor finishes and the other
starts


Start
-
Finish

S
-
F Task begins at the same time as its
predecessor


Finish
-
Finish

F
-
F Both tasks finish at the same time


Start
-
Start

S
-
S Start of the predecessor determines
when the other starts



Academic Computing Services 2009

Constraints



Certain tasks need to be completed within a
certain date.


Intermediate deadlines may need to be
specified.


By assigning constraints to a task you can
account for scheduling problems.


There are about 8 types of constraints and
they come under the flexible or inflexible
category.

Academic Computing Services 2009


Academic Computing Services 2009

3. Managing task


Academic Computing Services 2009

Defining a Timeline


Find an optimistic value, D(o),


a pessimistic value, D(p) and


a realistic value, D(r) .



Then:
Duration = ( D(o) + D(p) + 4 x D(r) ) / 6


Academic Computing Services 2009

The importance of tracking progress


Techniques to manage projects effectively:


Critical Path Management (CPM)

and


Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT)
.


They are similar and you will now often find the technique referred to as:
CPM/PERT.


The technique involves using
network
models to trace the links between
tasks and to identify the tasks which are critical to meeting the deadlines.

Once you've identified the
critical path
, any delay on any part of the critical
path will cause a delay in the whole project.

It is where managers must concentrate their efforts.


In
MS Project
, you use the
Tracking Gantt

diagram
to show the critical
path in red and you can see the PERT diagram by looking at the Network
view.




Academic Computing Services 2009

Gantt Chart View


critical path


A
Gantt chart

is a type of
bar chart

that illustrates a
project schedule
.


Critical path:
View


More views…
-

Detail Gant

Academic Computing Services 2009

PERT diagram
-

Network view


Academic Computing Services 2009

Views


Views allow you to examine your project from
different angles based on what information you want
displayed at any given time.


You can use a combination of views in the same
window at the same time.


Project Views are categorized into two types:

• Task Views (5 types)

• Resource Views (3 types)


Academic Computing Services 2009

Saving a baseline


Baseline plan
: The original project plans used to
track progress on a project.


The baseline plan is a snapshot of your schedule at
the time that you save the baseline and includes
information about tasks, resources, and assignments.


You can set a baseline for your project, enabling you
to compare your progress with the original plan and
any additional baselines you set at milestones
throughout your project.

Academic Computing Services 2009

Saving a Baseline



Tools


Tracking


Save Baseline…

http://office.microsoft.com/home/video.aspx?assetid=ES102776241033&width=1024&height=768&startindex=0&CTT=11
&Origin=HA102751251033&app=WINPROJ&ver=12


Academic Computing Services 2009

Academic Computing Services 2009

RESOURCES

Academic Computing Services 2009

Manage the project resources:


Resources are of three types:


work

resources,
material

resources and
cost

resources.


Work resources complete tasks by expending time on them. They are usually
people and
equipment
that have been assigned to work on the project (
you
track their participation by the
amount of time they
spend).


Material resources are
supplies and stocks

that are needed to complete a project.
You assign
material resources by the quantity that you need: two tons of gravel or 300 gallons of diesel
fuel, for instance. Because materials aren't measured by time, quantities usually affect only the
cost of your project. Materials affect dates or duration only when you have to wait for those
materials to become available.


Cost. Cost resources are the new kid on the Project 2007 block, and they're strictly cost; no
time, no quantities

just
dollars. Expenses
, such as travel or fees, increase the project price
tag, but they aren't associated with work or material resources.



You must start by identifying the resources available along with their
costs.


Resource costs will be multiplied by duration to calculate project costs.


You have to open the
Resource sheet

to specify the project resources
and costs.


people


equipment


supplies

Academic Computing Services 2009

Academic Computing Services 2009

Fields in the Resource Sheet may be blank or contain different types of information
depending on the type of resource. For example, a work resource doesn't have a Material
label, and costs are calculated initially as dollars per hour. Material resources have a cost
per unit

per pound, gallon, or piece

and the Material label field defines the units. Cost
resources receive a value only when you assign them to tasks.

Academic Computing Services 2009

Academic Computing Services 2009

Academic Computing Services 2009

Use the Detail Gantt view to find
slack (float)


On the
View

menu, click
More Views
.


In the
Views

list, click
Detail Gantt
, and then
click
Apply
.


On the
View

menu, point to
Table
, and then
click
Schedule
. In the chart portion of the
view, slack appears as thin bars to the right of
tasks, with slack values adjoining the regular
Gantt bars.


Academic Computing Services 2009


Academic Computing Services 2009

To shorten a project schedule


Reduce duration of activities on critical path


More resources


Change their scope

Academic Computing Services 2009

Technically Constrained Activity Sequence

Academic Computing Services 2009

Resource
-
Constrained Planning

Academic Computing Services 2009

Painting Project Showing Needed Resources

Academic Computing Services 2009

Create a budget for your project


Step 1:
Create budget resources for your
project


Step 2: Assign the budget resources to the
project summary task


Step 3: Enter values for the budget resources


Step 4: Categorize resource costs according
to their budget type


Step 5: Group resources to view how they
compare against the budget


Academic Computing Services 2009

Step 1: Create budget resources for
your project


Create
Budget
-
Trave
l and
Budget
-
Labo
r on your resource
sheet

View



Resource Sheet

Academic Computing Services 2009


Check
the check
box for
Budget

Academic Computing Services 2009

Step 2: Assign the budget resources
to the project summary task


Gent chart view


Tools



Options



View

Tab


Show
project summary task

(check box)


Task is added to the top of the project list.
Select this task.


Click on Button “
Assign Resources



Select the two budget resources you created earlier and
click “
Assign


Academic Computing Services 2009

Step 3: Enter values for the budget
resources


View



Resource Usage
view


Add Budget Cost and Budget Work fields (columns):


Insert


Column



Budget Cost and Budget Work


Add values for travel and Labor cost

Academic Computing Services 2009


Add:
15,000 for Budget
-
Travel and 30,000
for Budget
-
Labor (Budget Work column)

Academic Computing Services 2009

Step 4: Categorize resource costs
according to their budget type

Create custom filed (column)


Open
Resource Sheet
view


Tools



Customize



Fields


Choose Resource text filed and rename: Budget Type

Academic Computing Services 2009


Select
Option

Button: Roll down unless
manually entered

Add field to the resource sheet view:
Insert



column



choose
Budget Type column ( you can now identify your resources as labor
or travel

Academic Computing Services 2009


Academic Computing Services 2009

Step 5: Group resources to view how
they compare against the budget


Resource Usage view


Project


Group by: No Group


Customize Group By…
-

Select the Budget Type field

Academic Computing Services 2009


Academic Computing Services 2009

Viewing Project Cost Information


Right click the
Select All
button and click
Cost


Or


View


Table: Entry


Cost


Academic Computing Services 2009

Reports


Cost Report:
Reports
-

Reports


Costs


Cash Flow:


Edit


Column list


Project Summary report:
Reports


Overview


Project
Summary

Academic Computing Services 2009

Resource Usage Report

Academic Computing Services 2009

Current Activity Reports