Biotechnology in Context

denunequaledBiotechnology

Dec 1, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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v
Contents
Advisors and Contributors ........................................................................xv
Introduction ...........................................................................................xvii
About the In Context series .....................................................................xxi
About this Book ...................................................................................xxiii
Using Primary sources ............................................................................xxv
Primary source Acknowledgments ........................................................xxvii
Glossary .................................................................................................xxxi
Chronology ..............................................................................................lxi
Volume 1
Advanced Biomass Cookstoves ............................................................................1
Agricultural Biotechnology ................................................................................4
Agrobacterium ..................................................................................................9
Algae Bioreactor ..............................................................................................12
Amino Acids, Commercial Use .......................................................................16
Antibiotics, Biosynthesized ...............................................................................20
Antimicrobial Soaps ........................................................................................24
Antirejection Drugs ........................................................................................27
Ariad Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. eli Lilly & Co. ...............................................30
Arthritis Drugs ...............................................................................................34
Artificial Organs .............................................................................................37
Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA ..................................................40
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vi
BI oTECHNoLoGY: I N CoNTExT
Bacteria, Drug Resistant ................................................................................44
Bacteriophage ..................................................................................................47
Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 .....................................................................................50
Belmont Report ...............................................................................................53
Biochemical Engineering .................................................................................56
Biochip .............................................................................................................59
Biocomputers....................................................................................................61
Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development
Act of 2005 ..................................................................................................64
Biodegradable Products and Packaging ..........................................................67
Biodetectors ......................................................................................................70
Biodiversity ......................................................................................................73
Biodiversity Agreements ...................................................................................78
Bioeconomy ......................................................................................................84
Bioethics ...........................................................................................................88
Biofuels, Gas ....................................................................................................94
Biofuels, Liquid ...............................................................................................97
Biofuels, Solid ................................................................................................102
Bioglass ..........................................................................................................106
Bioinformatics ...............................................................................................109
Biological Confinement .................................................................................112
Biological Pesticides .......................................................................................116
Biological Weapons: Genetic Identification ...................................................120
Biologics Control Act .....................................................................................127
Bioluminescence .............................................................................................130
Biomagnetics .................................................................................................133
Biometrics ......................................................................................................135
Biomimetic Systems ........................................................................................138
Biopharmaceuticals .......................................................................................141
Bioplastics (Bacterial Polymers) ....................................................................145
Biopreservation ..............................................................................................149
Bioreactor ......................................................................................................153
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BI oTECHNoLoGY: I N CoNTExT
vii
Bioremediation ..............................................................................................156
Bioremediation: Oil Spills..............................................................................159
Biorobotics ......................................................................................................165
Biosafety Level Laboratories ...........................................................................169
Biosurfactants ...............................................................................................172
Biotechnologists ..............................................................................................174
Biotechnology .................................................................................................177
Biotechnology Organizations .........................................................................181
Biotechnology Products ...................................................................................184
Biotechnology Valuation ................................................................................188
Bioterrorism ...................................................................................................191
Blood-Clotting Factors ...................................................................................196
Blood Transfusions .........................................................................................199
Bone Substitutes .............................................................................................204
Botox .............................................................................................................207
Bovine Growth Hormone ...............................................................................210
Breeding, Selective .........................................................................................213
Bt Insect Resistant Crops ...............................................................................217
Cabilly Patents ..............................................................................................223
Cancer Drugs ................................................................................................226
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety....................................................................230
Cell Imaging .................................................................................................235
Cell Therapy (Somatic Cell Therapy) ............................................................238
Chemotherapy Drugs .....................................................................................241
Cloning .........................................................................................................244
Collagen Replacement ...................................................................................250
Combinatorial Biology ..................................................................................253
Competitions and Prizes and in Biotechnology ..............................................255
Contract Research Organizations .................................................................258
Corn, Genetically Engineered ........................................................................261
Cornstarch Packing Materials .......................................................................264
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BI oTECHNoLoGY: I N CoNTExT
Corticosteroids ...............................................................................................267
Cosmetics .......................................................................................................270
Cotton, Genetically Engineered .....................................................................274
Cryonics .........................................................................................................278
Dairy and Cheese Biotechnology ....................................................................281
Designer Babies..............................................................................................284
Designer Genes ..............................................................................................289
diamond v. Chakrabarty ..............................................................................294
Digital-Biological Computer .........................................................................297
Disease-Resistant Crops .................................................................................299
DNA Databases ............................................................................................303
DNA Field-Effect Transistor .........................................................................307
DNA Fingerprinting ....................................................................................310
DNA Sequencing ..........................................................................................314
DNA Testing: Post-Conviction ......................................................................317
DNA Vaccines ...............................................................................................324
Drought-Resistant Crops ...............................................................................327
Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act .........................331
e. Coli: Protein Production Medium ............................................................334
Egg (Ovum) Donors ......................................................................................337
Electrophoresis ................................................................................................340
eli Lilly & Co. v. medtronic, Inc. ..........................................................344
Environmental Biotechnology ........................................................................349
Enzyme Replacement Therapy .......................................................................353
Enzymes, Industrial.......................................................................................356
Ethanol ..........................................................................................................359
Fat Substitutes ...............................................................................................362
Fermentation .................................................................................................365
Fertilizers ......................................................................................................368
Food Preservation ..........................................................................................374
Forensic Biotechnology ....................................................................................379
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ix
Forensic DNA Testing ...................................................................................385
Frost-Resistant Crops .....................................................................................391
Frozen Egg Technology ...................................................................................394
Fuel Cell Technology ......................................................................................398
GE-Free Food Rights ......................................................................................401
GenBank........................................................................................................405
Gene Banks ....................................................................................................407
Gene Delivery ................................................................................................413
Gene Police ....................................................................................................415
Gene Therapy .................................................................................................420
Genetic Bill of Rights .....................................................................................423
Genetic Discrimination .................................................................................427
Genetic Engineering ......................................................................................431
Genetic Privacy ..............................................................................................434
Genetic Technology .........................................................................................436
Genetic Use Restriction Technology ...............................................................439
Genetically Modified Crops ............................................................................442
Genetically Modified Food .............................................................................447
Genewatch UK ..............................................................................................453
Genome ..........................................................................................................455
Genomics .......................................................................................................458
Germ Line Gene Therapy ..............................................................................462
GloFish
®
.........................................................................................................465
Golden Rice ...................................................................................................468
Government Regulations ...............................................................................471
Green Chemistry ............................................................................................475
Volume 2
HapMap Project ............................................................................................479
HeLa Cell Line Case .....................................................................................481
Helsinki Declaration (1964) .........................................................................483
Herbicide-Tolerant Plants .............................................................................486
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BI oTECHNoLoGY: I N CoNTExT
Human Cloning ...........................................................................................490
Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate ...........................................................493
Human Subject Protections ...........................................................................500
Human Subjects of Biotechnological Research ...............................................503
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) .........................................................................506
Indigenous Peoples and Traditional Resources Rights ...................................510
Individual Privacy Rights .............................................................................515
Industrial Genetics ........................................................................................519
Informed Consent ..........................................................................................523
Insulin, Recombinant Human .....................................................................528
Isoschizomer ...................................................................................................531
LabCorp v. metabolite, Inc. ...................................................................533
Laundry Detergents .......................................................................................536
Life Patents....................................................................................................540
Lipidomics .....................................................................................................543
Lysenkoism .....................................................................................................546
Magnet-Assisted Transfection ........................................................................550
medImmune, Inc. v. Genentech, Inc. .........................................................552
merck kGaA v. Integra Lifesciences I, Ltd. ............................................554
Metabolic Engineering ..................................................................................556
Microarrays ...................................................................................................559
Microbial Biodegradation .............................................................................562
Microinjection ...............................................................................................565
Molecular Biology ..........................................................................................568
Molecular Farming .......................................................................................575
Monoclonal Antibodies ..................................................................................579
monsanto Canada, Inc. v. schmeiser ...........................................................582
Nanotechnology, Molecular ...........................................................................585
Neuroimaging ...............................................................................................590
Nicking Enzyme ............................................................................................593
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Nuclear Transfer ...........................................................................................595
Nuremberg Code (1948) ...............................................................................599
Oncogenomics ................................................................................................603
Organ Transplants ........................................................................................606
Orphan Drugs ...............................................................................................610
Painkillers .....................................................................................................613
Panopticism ...................................................................................................616
Patents and Other Intellectual Property Rights ............................................618
Paternity Testing ...........................................................................................622
Penicillins ......................................................................................................626
Pharmaceutical Advances in Quantitative Development .............................630
Pharmacogenomics ........................................................................................633
Phytoremediation ...........................................................................................636
Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals (Biopharming) ..............................................639
Plant Patent Act of 1930 ..............................................................................643
Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970 ............................................................645
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) ..............................................................648
Project TIME .................................................................................................652
Prosthetics ......................................................................................................655
Protein Therapies ...........................................................................................660
Proteomics ......................................................................................................664
Pyrosequencing ..............................................................................................667
Recombinant Antibody Therapeutics ............................................................669
Recombinant DNA Technology .....................................................................671
Registry of Standard Biological Parts ...........................................................676
Replication ....................................................................................................678
Research Exemption.......................................................................................682
RNA .............................................................................................................685
roche Products, Inc. v. Bolar Pharmaceutical Co. .....................................687
Salinity-Tolerant Plants ................................................................................690
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BI oTECHNoLoGY: I N CoNTExT
Security-Related Biotechnology ......................................................................692
Selection and Amplification Binding Assay ..................................................697
Silk Making ...................................................................................................699
Single Molecule Fluorescent Sequencing.........................................................703
Skin Substitutes ..............................................................................................705
Smart Mice ....................................................................................................707
SNP Genotyping ............................................................................................710
Soil Modifying Bacteria .................................................................................712
Solid Waste Treatment ..................................................................................716
Soybeans .........................................................................................................720
Space Research ...............................................................................................725
Sperm Donors ................................................................................................729
Stem Cell Cloning .........................................................................................731
Stem Cell Laws ..............................................................................................734
Stem Cell Lines ..............................................................................................741
Stem Cells ......................................................................................................745
Stem Cells, Adult ...........................................................................................750
Stem Cells, Embryonic ...................................................................................754
Sugar Substitutes ...........................................................................................758
Synthetic Biology ............................................................................................761
Synthetic Organs ............................................................................................765
Terminator Technology ..................................................................................768
Therapeutic Cloning .....................................................................................772
Tissue Banks ..................................................................................................775
Tissue Engineering ........................................................................................778
Transcription .................................................................................................782
Transgenic Animals ......................................................................................785
Transgenic Plants ..........................................................................................788
Translation ....................................................................................................791
Translational Medicine .................................................................................794
Twiblings .......................................................................................................797
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xiii
Vaccination ...................................................................................................800
Vaccines .........................................................................................................804
Viral Transfer ...............................................................................................809
Virology ..........................................................................................................812
Waste Gas Treatment ....................................................................................815
Wastewater Treatment ..................................................................................818
Weaponization ...............................................................................................822
Wheat, Genetically Engineered ......................................................................825
Xenotransplantation .....................................................................................829
Yeast Artificial Chromosome .........................................................................832
organizations ........................................................................................835
sources Consulted .................................................................................843
General Index ........................................................................................887
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