Quake Relief System: A software designed to aid the victims of 03/2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami Incident

deliriousattackInternet and Web Development

Dec 4, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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1


Quake Relief System: A software designed to aid the victims of
03/2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami Incident

Daniel SOH Chao Sheng, Leonard NG Wei Siong, Isaac LIM Yuan Zhun, MA Cheng

Prepared for Professor: Dr. KAM Tin Seong

IS415: Geospatial
Analytics and Business Intelligence

Singapore Management University




ABSTRACT

In view of the recent Japanese Earthquake and
Tsunami Incident and the explosion at
Fukushima Japan nuclear power plant,
there was
a strong

need to provide assistance to the
various
key stakeholders

affected by the
incident
, namely the
Japanese
government,

NGOs

(Non
-
Governmental Organizations)
,
victims as well as the global community
.
Thus,
we developed
an

application
to fulfill the

functional, informational and emotional needs

of these stakeholders
.
The main features of our
application
include

live

twee
ts
on disaster news,
overview of faciliti
es in the affected areas,
a
database
system which allows operators of
evacuation centers to update

refugee name lists
,
a
dynamic
buffer
search which locates different
types of facilities in a region, a
people
search
en
gine which looks
th
rough the list of refugees,
a heat map which reflects
concentration of
evacuation centers
,
a
G
eo
-
tagging functionality
for people to upload live photos taken at the
scene

and lastly
,

a charting tool which shows
the level of ra
diation
published by
meteorological

stations at
various timing
s

and
locations
on

a timeline

chart
.
All of which aims
to pr
omote this application as a one
-
stop
informational web application that provides
users with the latest information
on

a

disaster
site
.

The use

of this system will be largely for

analysis, decision
-
making, and most importantly,
to stay connected.



INTRODUCTION


After the

recent Japan quake measured on the
Ritch
er scale at a magnitude of 9.0 and
strong
recommendations from Professor Dr. Kam

Tin
Seong
, our

team has decided to do our best in all
forms to aid in the relief effort of the disaster.
The aim of this project is to provide a form of
one
-
stop
-
solution web application
which has
vested interests by

various parties.

We have created an ap
plication that facilitates
family members and friends that are far away
from the disaster zone to stay connected on all
the happenings within the area. It allows people
to constantly watch the latest news and view
Geo
-
Tagged images of the affected areas. T
he
applicati
on also allows family members and

friends to search for their love ones
in and
within the disa
ster zone. They are also able to
synthesize

their location and the status of their
well being.

This application also facilitates government
bodies an
d organizations, like
the
Red Cross, to
understand
plan logistics and manpower
allocation resources for affected areas before
any form of relief efforts. This will aid
organization

an
d government officials in
making any vital

decision
s
.
B
y using some of
the anal
ytical functions provided by our

application
,

both

non
-
government

and
government officials will be better equipped
with the necessary information to make any
vital decisions.

Decision makers

will be able to
use the information provided by the appli
cation
2


to make hasty, on
-
the
-
spot decisions. For
example

the

use of the

dynamic buffer zone
function

will
al
low

user
s to create

a circula
r area
target on a specific spot or intended area of
interest on the map to retrieve all related

infrastructure
s

within

the user
-
specified

buffer
radius. By
specifying the buffer

zone radi
us,
officials

will be able to better estimate the
required amount of reso
urces needed to initiate
a full
-
scale relief task
.

In a nutshell, the following are some questions
that can be ea
sily answered by our web
application in just a few clicks away:

Scenario 1
:
I am a victim at location ABC now:

o

Where is the nearest evacuation
cen
ter from current location

which I can seek refuge in
?

o

How many people are in each of
the evacuation centers
?

o

What is the latest news on the
disaster?


o

How can I share what I see with
the rest of the world
?



Scenario 2
: I have a sister named XYZ who
went for an exchange program
me

to the affected
area ABC, and
I cannot get in touch with her
now:

o

Is she in any
of the evacuation
centers
?

o

How is she now?
Can I get
cons
tantly updated images of the
area ABC
?



How

does

area ABC look

like now?



How badly is area ABC
damaged?




Google, Yahoo and other
popular maps are not
updated. Everything is
still Jurassic
, what can
I
do to see if
area ABC has
transport infrastructures
that is still

accessible
?


o

How can I get the most recent
news

on the current situation in
the affected area?



Scenario 3
:
I am an NPO (Non
-
Profit
O
rganization
)

that
wishes

to
dispatch
a rescue
team to aid
relief efforts

in the affected areas:


o

Which area should I cho
ose to
deploy or focus my rescue team
in
?

o

How
bad
is the radiation level in
the affected area?

o

What is the population of
refugees
in each of the
evacuation centers?


o

How
can I obtain evidence to
help raise fund fr
om the global
community?


Scenario 4
:
I am a government official from
area ABC or any

other

Japanese state
:

o

Is all

evacuation centers fully
utilized?

o

What is the population density
like in the affected areas?

o

Whi
ch area requires the most
amount of relief effort?

o

If
sequential earthquake with
magnitude
s

of 6

and above

are
predicted

within the next 1 hour:




What will be the
estimated damage?



What is the estimated
population density of that
area now?



What
areas
will be
affected?

3



Figure 1 Interface of the application (http://202.161.45.170/GISProject/GISProject.html)
MOTIVATION

The opportunity to aid

quake victims and
the
international community at large to measure,
analyze and
understand the extent to which t
his
the disaster impacted the world was the
strongest motivation for us to work on this
project.

In addition,

with

close to half a million
people
having

been displaced from their homes
and
the worldwide community highly inte
rested
in the latest developments following the disaster,
the team’s motivation increased tremendously.

SITUATION

T
he
9.0 magnitude
earthquake hit right at the
oceanic plate of Japan,
causing
ruptures
between

oceanic plates and fault lines, which
resulte
d in

massive rise in sea level, leading to
tsunami waves reaching heights up to 15

metres

high
.
The resulting waves

even reached

the
shores of some countries in the southern
hemisphere like New Zealand and Australia.

Also,
explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi
nuclear plant reactor in eastern Japan
raised

anxiety levels to extraordinarily high

levels.
Worldwide, countries feared that radioactive
agents may travel by win
d to their lands. The
explosion at J
apan's Fukushima Daiic
hi nuclear
plant is reported to affect roughly 140,000
people who live within 18 miles of the plant,
who have been evacuated
.

4


In the post
-
disaster period, numerous maps
provided on the Internet did not possess crucial
information like
the extent of damages

caused;

affected areas or areas within a certain buffer
from the nuclear
sites.

None

provide
d value
-
added functionalities

like buffering capabilities
to capture micro
-
level details and attributes in
each state. For example, capturing the number
of public
toilets, evacuation centers or affected
homes within a certain buffer zone. In our
project, we will provide value
-
added services to
add quick relief teams, government agencies as
well as the worldwide population to gain more
insights as to the ex
tent of da
mage

caused. In
addition, our Geospatial system will en
able
disaster
victims to gain
useful information
like
the locations of

nearby

public toilets, evacuation
centers and other places of interests
which are
highly relevant to disaster
victims now. Hence,
our team will focus on providing information on
these POIs

(Places of Interests) to Japanese
disaster

victims. Hopefully, this will enable both
relief teams and victims to gain value, make
quick decisions and hasten the rescue or
recovery efforts in the ne
xt few months.

An
agency

noted to be

quick to respond to this
disaster was
ESRI

(
Economic and Social
Research Institute)
. It developed a Geospatial
-
enabled system which provided information like

the location

and magnitude of
earth
quakes
,
tremors and ruptures around the
epicenter

of the
9.0 magnitude earthquake. In addition, the
system incorporated the use of social
networking tools like YouTube, T
wit
ter and
RSS feeds
,

in hope of providing

more
interactive information to

users.

However,
the information provided was not
pertinent to the most important a
udiences
-

quick relief teams. Relief teams required more
detailed information like damage assessment
reports, state
-
level information

and buffer zone
analyses around affected nuclear plants

in
eastern Japan. Hence,
ESRI’s

Geospatial system
w
as too sophisticated, incomprehensible by

the
laymen
, and irrel
evant to important target users.
Distinctively, our system will provide not only
analysis and insights on the affected areas, but
also a cent
ralized platform for aggregation of
data from different sources around the world.
The use of social media tools like Twitter feeds
and ability to upload CSV (Comma
-
separated
value) files onto our system are some examples
of how aggregation of data is possi
ble.

IDEA EVOLUATION

The followings are some highlights of our idea
evolution
and formularization:

1.

Bronze Stage

o

Developed t
he idea of finding
friends via

simple search

functionality and displaying the
location of the friend, geo
-
referenced onto the map.

o

Developed t
he idea of the n
e
arest
evacuation center function.


2.

Silver Stage

o

Developed t
he idea of providing
live news using Twitter feeds.


o

Developed t
he idea of
Heat

Map

analyses

of affect
ed

area
s
.



3.

Gold Stage

o

Developed t
he idea of a
dd
ing
Geo
-
Tagging
capabilities

using
mobile and pervasive
technologies.


o

Developed the idea

Dynamic

Buffer

Zone
instead of static
buffer zone.





5


TARGET USERS

Figure 2
English map



Figure 3
Japanese map

Figures 2 and 3 depict maps in both English and
Japanese,

target
ed

towards our English and
Japanese
-
speaking user groups. These users will
use

the system for both high
-
level and personal
level purposes.
The following are some of our
target user groups:

1.

Aid relief t
eams

2.

Government ag
encies

3.

Disaster v
ictims

4.

Friends and
family members of d
isaster
victims

5.

Interna
tional and Japanese a
udiences

As shown i
n the illustrations in Figure 2 and 3
,
users can view maps in both

the

English

and
Japanese

language
. The availability of the
Japanese
-
language map is aimed to help
Japanese quake victims better relate to the maps,
as well as catered for Japanese who are
currently overseas. We intend to in
ternationalize
the system to provide more language sets if
required.


FUNCTIONALITIES

Dynamic Buffer Search



Figure 4
Dynamic
Buffer

Figure 4 depicts the

revolutionary

Dynamic

B
uffer

functionality
.

This function
is one
-
of
-
a
-
kind because it allows users to conveniently
drag the
buffer across the map
and see Points of
Interests which are within the buffer. The
movement over the map

will display a popup
which includes Places of Interests such as
Evacuation
Centers
, Hotels and othe
r POIs.

The
Dynamic

buffer

creates a circular

sprite on the
map layer. By using

the

hitObject
function
available in Flex (Adobe Flash Builder)
, the
sprite is able to capture all the objects that

touch
es’

it.

In addition, t
he user can easily
manipulate

the
buffer’s radius from a scale of 1 km to 100 km.

The following depicts the benefits of the
Dynamic

Buffer

for the various stakeholders
:



Aid r
elief teams: Used to e
stimate the
required
logistics and manpower
resources such as food and
water

supplies
needed to assist the people
within certain area.



Government agencies:
Used to pin point
distance between
predicted sequential
earthquake
s zones
and

evacuation
6


centres within the buffer zone. In
addition, the use of the
Heat

Map

functionality will hasten evacuation
speeds tremendously.



Disaster victims: Use our application

to
s
earch for the numbers of evacuation
centers within a certain radius from
where they are situated
. Victims
can
decide which evacuation centre to go
,
based on the existing population in each
evacuation centre.




Friends and family members of disaster
victims: Used to u
nderstand the various
infrastructure
s

within the affected area
which their

love
d

ones
are residing in.

Dynamic Buffer
Control



Figure 5
Buffer Size Control

Figure 5 depicts the
Buffer
Size Control

function

which allows the
use
r to specify the radius of
the
Dynamic B
uffer
. The user can specify a
range of

between

1

to 100

km for the dynamic
buffer
’s radius
.

This function is a sub
-
functionality within the
Dynamic B
uffer

function.
Upon zoom
ing

in a
nd out of the map,
the
Dynamic

B
uffer

will scale based on the
map
’s specified

scale.
By having the flexibility
to specify d
ifferent radius
es of the
Dynamic

B
uffer
,
results are more customized

to the
geographic location
which the user intends to
analyze on.

Heat Map



Figure 6
Heat Map

Figure 6 depicts the
Heat M
ap

function which

portrays

an immediate visualization of
the
density of evacuation centres

around the
affected area.

The
Heat Map

is rendered using
Michael Vandaniker’s

API. D
ata is thrown in
as
points

to gener
ate a heat map on the map. It

auto
render
s

upon any change of sca
le on the map
layer. Cluttered evacuation
centres

are
represented
by the
brightest color
, whereas
sparsely
-
populated evacuation centres are
represented by the darkest color
. There are
many
usages

for the

Heat Map
. One instance
will be to allow organizations like

the

Red Cross
Organization
to deter
mine the are
a that needs
the most resources, based on the population
density of evacuation centres.

Usage for various targeted users:



Aid relief t
eams:
Used to e
stimate the
amount of resources need
ed

for each
area
.



Government agencies:
Used to do quick
an
alyses on the evacuation centre
densities.



Disaster victims:
Used to locate areas
that are less populated to reside in, based
on the evacuation centre

density

levels.

7




Friends and family members of d
isaster
victims:
Used to better understand

t
he
terrain and

evacuation centre’s

location
.

Point of Interest Panel



Figure 7
Point of Interest

Panel


Location info


Figure 8
Location Information



Figure 9
Charting
Radiation Level
-

Candle Stick

Figure 7 depicts the
Point of
Interest

function
which
allows
users

to select the type of POI
s

to
include and show on the map when the user uses
the system.

The

toggling of the
Point of I
nterest

tab

is

done through the use of
Tween A
lpha

to
create the fading in

and out effects on the map
.

The user can select multiple types of POIs to
include in the dynamic buffer overlay. The
resulting information displayed will reflect only
POIs which are specified by the user.
In
addition, t
his

tab contains

intuitive icons which
are easily

comprehended a
nd

interpreted by the
user.


The user is able to select the following POIs to
be included in the dynamic buffer search
function:



Evacuation Centers:
Used to display
evacuation centres in the disaster
affected areas.




Nuclear Sites:
Used to display nuclea
r
plants in eastern Japan, including the
affected nuclear plants like the
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant.



Schools:
Used to display

densely
populated infrastructure which is
required in the event of an immediate
evacuat
ion.



Hospitals: Usage is s
imilar to s
chool
infrastructure.



Hotels: Usage is s
imilar to school
infrastructure.



Meteorological Statio
ns: Used to display
stations which records outstanding

ra
diation level in eastern Japan.


The aforementioned POIs are chosen
after
careful
consideration
s
. Infrast
ructures such as
Schools

and
Hotels

are important because they
tend to be
areas that have

high populatio
n
densities
. Therefore, by knowing where these
schools and hotels are,

people can better gauge
the number of affected people within an area
.
On the othe
r hand, although nuclear sites are not
often densely populated
, displaying it is
imperative

because of the

impacts that
8


radioactive agents can cause
during natural
disasters.

Usage for various targeted users:



Aid relief t
eams:
Used for logistics and
manpower planning and resource
distribution purposes.




Government agencies: Used for quick

decision
-
making

on which infrastructure
to evacuate in t
he event of predicted
disasters.



D
isaster victims: Used to find the nearest
evacuation centres, hospitals and

other
POIs.




Friends and Famil
y members of Disaster
victims: Used to u
nderstand the terrain
of the affected area and might facilitate
in searching for their love
d ones.

News Box



Figure 10
News Box

from Live Twits

Figure 10 depicts the
News Box

function
displays real
-
time Twitter feeds provided by the
WPPO (
World Earthquake Prediction
Organization
)
.
The
News B
ox

leeches
on

the

Twitter user through the user of Twitter

Search

function. Twitter Search function feeds

the
News

Box

using the
A
TOM

tech
nology
. Wiping
effect is used here to do the rotation.
The
information includes earthquake predictions in
and around Japan. Users will not only be able to
interact with the GIS, they can also receive real
-
time updates on any possible
forecasted
post
-
quake
tremors or earthquakes whic
h are
imminent.



Search Results Panel

Figure 11
Search Results Panel

Figure 12
Mouse
-
Over Search Panel

Figure 1
2

depicts the

Mouse
-
Over Search Panel

which
is used to display results from the
Dynamic

B
uffer
. The
Mouse
-
Over Search Panel
is another function that compliments
the
Dynamic

B
uffer

function
. It grabs the data from

the results of the
Dynamic

B
uffer

and looks for
the cor
responding icon to display on the panel
.
This panel will also display information on
poi
nts which are sel
ected by the user selectively.
Upon mouse hover over each icon, the panel

will
display the

facility

names of the points
of
inte
rest. Users are able to comprehend the
population density of an area covered by the
Dynamic

Buffer

which is hovered over the map.
This will aid the user to infer the degree of
damage and radiation effect which has impacted
9


these areas based on the population levels of
each facility.

Figure 11 depicts the
Search Results Panel

which displays the populat
ion of each
evacuation centre in eastern Japan.

U
sers are
able to immediately view the number of people
residing in each facility or point of interest.

Friends Finder Search Engine



Figure 13
Friends Finder Box



Figure 14
Friends Finder Result

Figure

13 depicts the
Friends

F
inder

Box

search

engine

which

searches the GIS's backend
database

for any matching records.

Users are
required to
specify the

'first name' and 'last
name'
of a friend
.
Friends

Finder

Box

search
engine
posts
a

request to the
back
-
end database,
which
retrieve
s

all relevant information
based
on the user’s input search values
. The data is
been fetched in as a
JSON

object
.

An

exclamation mark

will appear on evacuation
centres which contain the user’s search input
values.

The displ
aying capability is
enabled
with the help of

the
PointMarker

class.
(
PointMarker

class is a class that stores all
attributes of Point o
f Interest object)
The search
function looks for friends or family members
currently residing in evacuation
centers

in Ja
pan.
Figure 14 depicts the
Friends Finder Results

Panel which displays the list of refugees
residing in each evacuation centre.


Upload
Refugee List at Evacuation cent
ers
via
CSV

(
Comma Separated Value
)

files



Figure 15
CSV
Up
load

Figure 15 depicts the
CSV

Upload

function that
facilitates government

organizations to maintain
an up
-
to
-
date list of people
in

each evacuation
centre
.

The
CSV

U
pload

function
reads the
temporary file of the
CSV
and reads each row

in
the uploaded file
. Before insert

each row into
the database, the application
check
s if the
uploaded data already exists in the database. If it
does not exist, the
CSV

Upload

will insert

the
uploaded data

into the database
. The checking
process serves to
maintain consistency

in
contributi
on of the name list instead of
refreshing a new list for every CSV uploaded.
This allows
easier
compilation of

the CSV data.


Usage for various targeted users:



Aid relief t
eams:
Used to
co
nstant
ly

update
survivor name lists

at each
evacuation center
.


10


Geo
-
Tagging Images of Disaster Area



Figure 16
Geo
-
Tagging Image Icons




Figure 17
Geo
-
T
agg
ed

Images

Figure 17 depicts the image uploaded using the
Image

Upload

and

Location

Geo
-
Tagging

function. The
Image

Upload

and

Location

Geo
-
Tagging

service allow
s

users to snap a disaster
-
related image in Japan and upload the image to
the GIS server. Other users of the GIS are able
to benefit from this capability because
of its
ability to

encompass real
-
time updates
using
UGC by Japanese users on gro
und. As shown in
Figure 16,
the

user
-
generated information will
be shown on the map as thumbnails for users to
click on
.

Figure
18
Workflow diagram for Geo
-
Tagging
11


Implementation

of Geo
-
Tagging

Imagery
Function

Figure 18 depicts the process flow of the
Geo
-
Tagging

imagery

function, which

is highly
dependent on 3G mobile devices. Although it
can be implemented on various 3G mobi
le
platforms,
we have chosen to implement this
function on
the
A
ndroid

platform due to
the

wide
usage popularity.

The
Android
-
based
mobile application allows
user
s

to
upload
capture
d

image
s

together with
the
geo
-
location
s

of the spot at
which the image
was
taken
. The latitude and longitude of the
user’s geo locations are uploaded to the server.
The
se

coordinates
of
the

image
are

derived from
the GPS coordinate system
in

any

3G mobile
device. When the
coordinates

are
successful
ly
uploaded

to
the
PostGIS

G
eospatial

D
atabase
,
it is instantly reflected
in our system
. A

camera
icon
is displayed
at the exact location on the
map. U
ser
s will then be able to

click on the
camera icon to view
the uploaded image
s
.


LIMITATIONS

The limitations of our projects lie in the
availability of data, such as
lack of
i
nfrastructure

information on the

disaster area
,

as well u
navailability of
l
ive d
ata
of refugees
residing in

Japanese evacuation centers
.

This
could

compromise

the accuracy of

search results
.
Nonetheless, our system will become more
reliable with
data contributed by respective
parties with vested interests, such as the victims,
Japanese government, NGOs and meteorology
stations on demographic inf
ormation or level of
radiation,
using the
CSV

Upload

function.

FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

Much work could be done to gather more
feedback on our prototype. We
would like to

ask users to perform specific data exploration
tasks. Essentially, these tests should

be run with
a variety of sample data, including data sets
with known anomalies. This would help us
determine
the level of usefulness in

data mining
analyses
, as well as improvements for
better
visual representation
s

of current live
information.

We would like to
g
ather more live

data and represent it as visual information for
quick
comprehension
. O
ne

p
ossibility
is the use
of

live web services to update the backend
database with real
-
time data
.
Also, while it is
p
ossible

to incorporat
e
video upload
ing
,
it is
subjec
t to the speed of mobile 3G network
s
within disaster
-
affected areas.

A possible
enhancement to the project is to c
ontact and
collaborate with the Japanese government
agencies

to better

refine our project base on
their needs and feedbacks.

SUSTAINABILITY

The c
ore features and application of
fundamental

functionalities in our project

can be
easily re
-
used and applied in any other disasters.

Be it Europe or even Singapore, this application

can

be deployed and customized to the disaster

zone’s

terrain for dis
aster relief

analysis
purposes
.

CONCLUSION

This paper presented a novel
and
interactive tool
for visualizing

all related information in the
disaster areas
. The

intuitive user
-
interface
supports

user interactivity with

functionalities
such as
the
CSV
Upload

function,
Image Upload
and Location Geo
-
Tagging
,
Dynamic Buffer

and
Radiation Level C
harts
,

which are part of its
interactive interface.
This allows user
s

to
engage in data exploration where

different
representations

satisfy different interests of
v
arious
stakeholders
. Since we aim to
present

the

same
available information

in a variety of
ways
, we proceeded to implement a
Heat

M
ap

as well as a combination of numerical data,
visual and text
information to assist users’

comprehension of

vital

information.
In hindsight
,
12


the project
was

developed in a short period

of
time

right after the

disaster and our

objective is
provide assistance to the victims
in Japan
as
well as
to support

the
aid
relief efforts by
government

agencies

and NGOs.

W
e
sincer
ely
hope that people in Japan can benefit from our
project
and encourage people to contribute aid
to

disaster victims

in the
affected areas
.
In
addition,
this application not only supports

disaster
relief efforts
,

we also look forward

to
any future
disaster sites outside of

the

Japan
ese
boundary, revolutionizing
a one
-
stop
informational web application for any
disaster
-
related domain.

DATA SOURCES

We would like to thank the following data
providers for the data provided in the creation of
the Quake R
elief System.


OpenStreet Map



Location of evacuation
centers

in Japan.
There are records of 8413 evacuation
centers

in this Shape File (.shp)
.

Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture,
Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)




Hourly data across 218 states. We
obtained the respective state codes from
System for Prediction of Environment
Emergency Dose Information (SPEEDI).
The hourly records of radiation are used
to compute the average radiation of each
state's daily radiation r
ecord.

Twitter News




The Twitter feed provided by the World
Earthquake Prediction Organization
nicknamed 'Earthquakejapan'. The
agency posts real
-
time earthquake
predictions in and around Japan.

Additional
D
ata
on

E
vacuation
C
enters




http://www.city.kawagoe.saitama.jp/kor
yucenter/e/guide/102.htm




http://www.city.sanda.lg.jp/english/disas
ter/list
-
of
-
evacuation.html




http://www.city.aichi
-
miyoshi.lg.jp/english/living/escape.html


Software
List
and

Server
Architecture

1.

Manifold

Server

2.

Adobe Flash Builder 4

3.

Post
g
resSQL 9.0

4.

Modest Map

5.

Android
Mobile


Figure 19 Server Architecture

DISCLAIMER

While we try everything to ensure accuracy, this
information is purely indicative and should not
be used for any decision making without
alternate sources of information. JQuakers is not
responsible for any damage or loss resulting
from the use of the info
rmation presented in our
system.



13


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to thank
Dr. KAM Tin Seong

for
his undying support

and encouragement

throughout our project and
giving us
valuab
le
feedbacks which helped us
to
achieve
breakthroughs in project. We also like

to thank
Isaac Lim’s Final Year Project Group
,
B.I. JOE
,

teammates who have
generously

provided
us
with the code to create the
Dynamic B
uffer

function
and Leonard’
s
Final Year Project
Group
,
Societale
, for
the Android M
obile Geo
-
T
agging
capabilities which

greatly improved

the
scope and flexibility of our project.

REFERENCES


1)

OpenStreet Map
, (2011).
OpenStreetMap Extracts for Japan
.
Retrieved March 14, 2011, from
OpenStreet Map
Website:
http://labs.geofabrik.de/japan/


2)

Marian Steinbach:
Blog
, (2011).
Japan
Radiation Open Data
. Retrieved March

16
, 2011, from
Marian Steinbach:
Blog

Website:
http://www.sendung.de/japan
-
radiation
-
open
-
data/


3)

T
witter
, (2011).
earthquakejapan
.
Retrieved March
2
4, 2011, from
Twitter

Website:

http://twitter.com/earthquakejapan


4)

Kawagoe International Center, (2011).
Emergency Evacuation Area List
.
Retrieved March

21
, 2011, from
Kawagoe International Center

Website:
http://www.city.kawagoe.saitama.jp/koryuce
nter/e/guide/102.htm


5)

SMU IS480 Wiki
, (2011).
B.I.
JOE
.
Retrieved March

28
, 2011, from
SMU
IS480 Wiki
Website:
https://wiki.smu.edu.sg/is480/IS480_Tea
m_wiki:_2010T2_B.I._JOE


6)

SMU IS480 Wiki
, (2011).
Societale
.
Retrieved March

28
, 2011, from
SMU
IS480 Wiki
Website:
https://wiki.smu.edu.sg/is480/2010
-
2011_Term_1#Societale