FSD Early Adopters - A study - Jisc

deliriousattackInternet and Web Development

Dec 4, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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HE Associates

A Division of
HE
-
Shared Services Ltd









Study of

early ad
o
pters of shared
service
s

and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education


Authors:
-

Mark Clark, Gill Ferrell, Paul Hopkins








1st

May

2011

Final
Version

HE

Associates Ltd

9 Norham Close,

Wideopen,

Newcastle upon Tyne,

NE13 7HS

Tel:


07768 010863

Url:
http://www.he
-
associates.co.uk




Study on early adopters of shared service and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education



Page
1

Contents



Study of early adopters of shared services and cloud computing within Higher and Further Educ
ation

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1

1

Report Introduction

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1

1.1

The environment for the Study

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1

1.2

The readership

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2

1.3

Organisation for the Project and Reports

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2

2

The Context

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3

2.1

The Horizon Report 2011

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3

2.
2

The emergence of the Private Institution

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4

2.3

Agility

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4

3

Transformation issues and considerations

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5

3.1.1

Horizon issues

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.......................

5

3.1.2

Co
re business issues

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6

3.1.3

Administrative Systems and Services issues

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6

3.1.4

Business Processes issues

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...

7

3.1.5

Shared Services issues

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.........

7

3.1.6

Staffing issues

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8

3.1.7

A carbon reduced computing environment issues

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8

3.1.8

Shared Services provision issues

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.........................

9

3.1.9

Models of Shared Service issues

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..........................

9

3.1.10

The Cloud issues

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10

3.1.11

Strategic Alignment responsibility issues

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11

3.1.12

Agility Techniques BPM, EA and SOA issues

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.....

12

3.1.13

Adoption of external services issues

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...................

13

4

Agility: Tools, Pressures, and Implications

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............................

13

4.1

The Tools

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.............................

13

4.1.1

Enterprise Architecture

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13

4.1.2

Business Process Management and ICT Change

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..............................

14

4.1.3

Cloud Services

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................................
....................

14

4.1.4

Service
-
oriented architecture

(SOA)

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...................

15

4.2

The Pressures

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15

4.2.1

Supplier Engagement

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15

4.2.2

Greening ICT

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16

4.3

Implic
ations

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16

4.3.1

Flexible Delivery Models

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.....

16

4.3.2

The role of the IT service

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16

4.3.3

Supporting end
-
user agility

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................................
..

17

4.3.4

Target services

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17

5

Shared Services

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17

5.1

Background to Shared Services with HE and FE

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17

5.2

Types and categories of Shared Services

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19

5.2.1

Top
-
down and Bottom
-
up

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................................
....

19

5.2.2

Closeness

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............................

20

5.2.3

Categorisation: I do it; We do it; You do it

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20

5.3

The Benefits

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21

5.3.1

New Di
rections

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....................

22

6

The Cloud

22

6.1

The Crisis in current environments

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22

6.1.1

Readiness

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22

6.1.2

New Skills

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23

6.2

Categorisation of Shared Services as Cloud Models

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23

6.3

The Cloud: ‘everything as a service’?

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24

6.3.1

Cloud types

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..........................

25

6.4

Analysts view of Clouds and the role of IT

................................
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25

6.5

The Cloud

hype or reality

................................
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................................
..

26

6.5.1

A Caution

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.............................

27

Study on early adopters of shared service and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education



Page
2

6.5.2

Why is

Cloud hype different?

................................
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..............................

27

6.5.3

The six main presented benefits of Cloud Computing

................................
........................

27

6.6

Government viewpoint on Clouds

................................
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.......................

28

7

Agility utilising: BPM, EA and SOA

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28

7.1

Introduction

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..........................

28

8

Commercial Services for Academia

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29

9

Operational Considerations

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30

9.1

Delivering EA Strategic Alignment

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......................

31

9.1.1

The role of the CIO

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31

9.2

The impact on the IT professional staff role

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31

9.2.1

Changing staff models

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32

9.2.2

Changing Technical skills

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32

9.3

Considerations of an agile project

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33

10

Examples of Innovation of Service Delivery

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35

10.1

Introduction to abbreviated case studies

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................................
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35

10.2

Concise Case Study: The University of Canberra

................................
...............................

39

10.2.1

Environment

................................
................................
................................
........................

39

10.2.2

Starting Point

................................
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.......................

39

10.2.3

The Approach

................................
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40

10.2.4

The Supplier

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40

10.2.5

Transitioning to the Wipro model

................................
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.........................

40

10.2.6

Project Progress

................................
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................................
..................

40

10.2.7

Transferability
-

lessons

................................
................................
................................
......

41

10.2.8

Outcome

................................
................................
................................
..............................

41

10.3

Concise Case Study: An Chéim

................................
................................
..........................

41

10.3.1

Environment

................................
................................
................................
........................

41

10.3.2

The Approach

................................
................................
................................
......................

41

10.3.3

The Supplier

................................
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........................

42

10.3.4

Transitioning to the Chéim Model

................................
................................
........................

42

10.3.5

Project Progress

................................
................................
................................
..................

43

10.3.6

Transferability


lessons

................................
................................
................................
......

43

10.4

Concise Case Study: King’s College London

................................
................................
......

44

10.4.1

Environment

................................
................................
................................
........................

44

10.4.2

Sta
rting Point

................................
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.......................

44

10.4.3

The Approach

................................
................................
................................
......................

44

10.4.4

The Supplier

................................
................................
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........................

44

10.4.5

Transitioning to the Outsourced Model

................................
................................
...............

45

10.4.6

Project Progress

................................
................................
................................
..................

45

10.4.7

Transferability


lessons

................................
................................
................................
......

45

10.4.8

Outcome

................................
................................
................................
..............................

46

10.4.9

The Future

................................
................................
................................
...........................

47

10.5

Concise Case Study: SOA Rapid development demonstrator projects

..............................

47

10.5.1

Environment

................................
................................
................................
........................

47

10.5.2

Starting Point

................................
................................
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.......................

47

10.5.3

The Approach

................................
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......................

48

10.5.4

T
he Supplier

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........................

48

10.5.5

The Supply

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..........................

48

10.5.6

Implementation

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....................

48

10.5.7

Project Progress

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................................
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48

10.5.8

Transferability


lessons

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................................
......

49

10.5.9

Out
come

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..............................

49

10.6

Concise Case Study: Research Councils Shared Service Centre

................................
.....

49

10.6.1

Environment

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................................
................................
........................

50

10.6.2

Sta
rting Point

................................
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.......................

50

10.6.3

The Approach

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......................

50

10.6.4

The Supplier

................................
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50

10.6.5

The approach

................................
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................................
......................

51

10.6.6

P
roject Progress
-

Transitioning to the SSC service

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............................

51

Study on early adopters of shared service and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education



Page
3

10.6.7

Transferability


lessons

................................
................................
................................
......

51

10.7

Concise Case Study: Vignettes of Shared Services and Cloud Computing

.......................

52

10.7.1

Environment

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................................
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........................

52

10.7.2

Sta
rting Point

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.......................

53

10.7.3

The Approach

................................
................................
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5
3

10.7.4

Transitioning

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53

10.7.5

Transferability


lessons

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................................
......

54

10.7.6

Outcome

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..............................

54

11

Commentary and Guidance arising from the study

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54

11.1

Horizon scanning

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54

11.1.1

Commentary

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54

11.1.2

Guidance

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55

11.2

Strategic Alignment

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55

11.2.1

Commentary

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55

11.2.2

Gui
dance

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55

11.3

The Environmental agenda

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................................
.

55

11.3.1

Commentary

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55

11.3.2

Gui
dance

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55

11.4

Shared Services Governance

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56

11.4.1

Commentary:

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56

11.4.2

Recommendation:

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56

11.5

D
is/Economies of Scale

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56

11.5.1

Commentary

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56

11.5.2

Guidance

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57

11.6

Enterprise Architectures

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57

11.6.1

Commentary

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57

11.6.2

Guidance

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57

11.7

Adopting Agile Technologies

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58

11.7.1

Commentary

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58

11.7.2

Gui
dance

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58

11.8

Cloud Services

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58

11.8.1

Commentary

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58

11.8.2

Guidance

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58

11.9

BPM. SOA, etc

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59

11.9.1

Com
mentary

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59

11.9.2

Guidance

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59

11.10

Staffing

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59

11.10.1

Commentary

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59

11.10.2

Guidance

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59

11.11

Commercial Services
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59

11.11.1

Commentary

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59

11.11.2

Guidance

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59

11.12

Outsou
rcing


including from shared services

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60

11.12.1

Commentary

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60

11.12.2

Guidance

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60

11.13

Outsourcing

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60

11.13.1

Co
mmentary

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60

11.13.2

Guidance

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60

11.14

Building Shared Services

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60

11.14.1

Commentary

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60

11.14.2

Guidance

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61

11.15

A core role for SOAs

in sharing data for common purpose
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61

11.15.1

Commentary

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61

11.15.2

Guidance

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61

11.16

Resear
ch Computing Support

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62

11.16.1

Commentary

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........................

62

11.16.2

Guidance

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62

11.17

Monitoring of Services contracts

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62

Study on early adopters of shared service and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education



Page
4

11.17.1

Commentary

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62

11.17.2

Guidance

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63

11.18

Establishing a Shared Service Administrative Computing Centre for struggling institutions

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63

11.18.1

Commentary

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63

11.18.2

Gu
idance

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.............................

63

Case Study 1

The University of Canberra

................................
................................
................................
...

1

CS 1.1

Overview

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................................
................................
................................

1

CS 1.2

An Outs
ourcing example

................................
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................................
.......

2

CS 1.3

The Australian Environment and UC

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.....................

3

CS 1.4

The Action Plan

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.....................

3

CS 1.5

The UC Wipro contract

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..........

7

CS 1.6

The approach

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........................

7

CS 1.7

Transition


Stable State


Steady State

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7

CS 1.8

Why did Wipro bid?

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...............

7

CS 1
.9

The Facilitation

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......................

8

CS 1.10

Results

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................................
...

8

CS 1.11

Key Factors

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...........................

9

CS 1.12

Lessons Learnt at UC

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..........

10

CS 1.13

Non
-
financial Benefits received

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...........................

10

Case Study 2

An Chéim: Case Study 2

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................................
.....

10

CS 2.1

Introduction

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................................
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..........................

10

CS 2.1.1

The origins

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...........................

11

CS 2.2

An Chéim phase 1

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...............

11

CS 2.3

An Chéim phase 2

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...............

12

CS 2
.4

Project Implementation: De
-
centralised

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..............

12

CS 2.5

Project Implementation: Centralised

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...................

13

CS 2.6

An Chéim Lessons

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................................
................................
..............

14

CS 2.7

Review

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................................
................................
................................
.

15

CS 2.8

Lessons for related projects

................................
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................................

15

CS 2.9

Questions and Answers

................................
................................
................................
......

17

Case Study 3

King’s College London: Case Study 3:

................................
................................
................

17

CS 3.1

Introduction

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................................
................................
..........................

17

CS 3.2

The Connected Campus Programme
................................
................................
..................

17

CS 3.3

The approach

................................
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................................
......................

19

CS 3.4

The Procured Services

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................................
........

19

CS 3.4.1

Commodity services

................................
................................
................................
............

19

CS 3.4.2

Mobility


remote access desktop and file
-
store

................................
................................
.

19

CS 3.4.3

Bespoke activity


Admissions Portal
................................
................................
..................

19

CS 3.5

Network access to hosted services

................................
................................
.....................

20

CS 3.6

Tendering towards Partnership

................................
................................
...........................

20

CS 3.7

Operations

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................................
................................
...........................

21

CS 3.8

Financials

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................................
................................
............................

21

CS 3.9

Enterprise Architecture

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................................
................................
........

21

CS 3.10

Monitoring the relationship and partnership

................................
................................
........

21

CS 3.11

Help Desk management and Escalation

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................................
.............

22

CS 3.12

Cost

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................................
................................
................................
.....

22

CS 3.13

Lessons reported

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................................
................................
.................

23

CS 3.14

The Future

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................................
................................
...........................

25

CS 3.15

Ge
tronics UK & Ireland

................................
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................................
........

25

CS 3.16

SCC

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................................
................................
................................
.....

26

CS 3.17

Sapient

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................................

26

CS 3.18

Questions and Answers

................................
................................
................................
......

26

Case Study 4

SOA ESBs: Case Study 4:

................................
................................
................................
..

26

CS 4.1

Summary

................................
................................
................................
.............................

26

CS 4.2

The stated Project Aims and objectives

................................
................................
..............

27

CS 4.2.1

Introduction

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................................
................................
..........................

28

CS 4.2.2

ESB/SOA as an opportunity for integrated system access

................................
.................

28

Study on early adopters of shared service and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education



Page
5

CS 4.2.3

Concept behind the project

................................
................................
................................
.

29

CS 4.2.4

Implementation

................................
................................
................................
....................

30

CS 4
.2.5

Issues for UK institutions arising from STEP
-
C

................................
................................
...

31

CS 4.3

STEP
-
C key Learning points

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................................
...............................

32

CS 4.3.1

Pre
-
requisites for success

................................
................................
................................
...

32

CS 4.4

STEP F

................................
................................
................................
................................

33

CS 4.5

The HED
D application

................................
................................
................................
.........

33

CS 4.6

Future cloud
-
based applications within the UK HE sector

................................
..................

36

CS 4.7

Criteria and governance model for success

................................
................................
........

36

CS 4.8

Questions and Answers

................................
................................
................................
......

36

Case Study 5

Research Councils SSC: Case Study 5:

................................
................................
.............

37

CS 5.1

About Research Councils UK

................................
................................
..............................

37

CS 5.2

About RCUK SSC Ltd

................................
................................
................................
.........

38

CS 5.3

The

UK’s Research Councils working together

................................
................................
...

38

CS 5.4

The Drivers of the SSC’s establishment

................................
................................
.............

38

CS 5.4.1

What is the approach?

................................
................................
................................
........

39

CS 5.4.2

Vision and values

................................
................................
................................
................

40

CS 5.5

Services

................................
................................
................................
...............................

41

CS 5.5.1

Finance Services

................................
................................
................................
.................

41

CS 5.5.2

Procurement services

................................
................................
................................
..........

41

CS 5.5.3

Grants Service

................................
................................
................................
.....................

41

CS 5
.5.4

Mission Statement of the processing Unit

................................
................................
...........

42

CS 5.5.5

HR Services

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.........................

42

CS 5.5.6

The Support Centres

................................
................................
................................
...........

4
2

CS 5.6

The Implementation

................................
................................
................................
.............

43

CS

5.7

Progress

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................................
................................
..............................

43

CS 5.8

SSC
-

'a fantastically expensive failure'

................................
................................
...............

44

CS 5.9

Private Eye
-

Dec 2009

................................
................................
................................
.......

46

CS 5.10

Project late, over budget, reduced functionality, questionable savings

..............................

46

CS 5.11

A Rocky Start

................................
................................
................................
.......................

46

CS 5.12

Lessons

................................
................................
................................
...............................

48

CS 5.12.1

Economy of scale or Right sizing

................................
................................
...........

48

CS 5.12.2

Purchasing

................................
................................
................................
..............

48

CS 5.12.
3

External requirement

................................
................................
..............................

49

CS 5.12.4

Project Approach

................................
................................
................................
....

49

CS 5.12.5

Project management

................................
................................
..............................

49

CS 5.12.6

Comparison with the An Chéim and King’s College Case Studies

........................

50

Case Study 6

UK HE sector: Vignettes

................................
................................
................................
......

50

CS 6.1

Sector Service Bodies

................................
................................
................................
.........

50

CS 6.1.1

JISC


Joint Information Systems Committee

................................
................................
.....

50

CS 6.2

Role
-
Based Associations within UK HE

................................
................................
..............

51

CS 6.2.1

Eduserv

................................
................................
................................
...............................

52

CS 6.2.2

EDINA

53

CS 6.2.3

MIMAS

53

CS 6.2.4

UCAS

53

CS 6.2.5

SUMS Consulting

................................
................................
................................
................

54

CS 6.2.6

JANET


UK Data Network

................................
................................
................................
.

54

CS 6.2.7

Purchasing Consortia

................................
................................
................................
..........

54

CS 6.2.8

The Energy Consortium (TEC)

................................
................................
............................

55

CS 6.2.9

Covering financial risk in the HE and FE sectors

................................
................................

55

CS 6.3

Hosted Services


Administrative Services

................................
................................
.........

55

CS 6.3.1

City and Guildhall School of Music & Drama sharing services

................................
...........

56

CS 6.3.2

Hosted HR/Payroll Service


A
bertay

................................
................................
.................

56

CS 6.3.3

Association of Northern Ireland Colleges

................................
................................
............

57

CS 6.3.4

EMMAN Shared Information Security Service (ESISS)

................................
......................

57

CS 6.3.5

NorMAN Out
-
of
-
Hours Student Helpdesk

................................
................................
...........

57

CS 6.3.6

SCONUL Report on Shared Services Study

................................
................................
......

58

CS 6.3.7

Identity Management Service


Athens and OpenAthens

................................
..................

58

Study on early adopters of shared service and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education



Page
6

CS 6.3.8

Identity management Services


UK Access Federation

................................
....................

59

CS 6.4

Hosted Services


Teaching & Learning

................................
................................
.............

59

CS 6.4.1

Blackboard.com


A managed hosting servic
e

................................
................................
...

59

CS 6.4.2

The Bloomsbury Learning Environment

................................
................................
..............

59

CS 6.5

Data Centres

................................
................................
................................
.......................

60

CS 6.5.1

Data Centres


physical sharing

................................
................................
.........................

61

CS 6.5.2

Virtualisation


YHMAN Shared Virtual Data Centre

................................
..........................

61

CS 6.5.3

ULCC


a shared data centre

................................
................................
..............................

62

CS 6.5.4

LSE


Availability and Business Continuity Service

................................
............................

63

CS 6.5.5

INTO


Shared Application Services across Institu
tions

................................
.....................

63

CS 6.6

Research

................................
................................
................................
.............................

63

CS 6.6.1

National Grid Service (NGS)

................................
................................
...............................

63

CS 6.6.2

Gridpp

64

CS 6.6.3

JISC
-

Using Cloud Computing for Research

................................
................................
......

64

CS 6.7

Other Examples


Employability

................................
................................
.........................

64

CS 6.7.1

Jobs.ac.uk

................................
................................
................................
...........................

65

CS 6.7.2

London Careers Service


The Careers group

................................
................................
...

65

CS 6.7.3

HECSU


Higher Education Careers Services Unit

................................
............................

65

CS 6.7.4

Placement Management Agency

................................
................................
........................

66

Case Study 7

Non
-
UK H.E.: Vignettes

................................
................................
................................
.......

66

CS 7.1

Service Bodies

................................
................................
................................
.....................

66

CS 7.1.1

EUNIS


European Universities Information Systems

................................
........................

66

CS 7.1.2

EDUCAUSE

................................
................................
................................
.........................

67

CS 7.1.3

Standards Bodies


PESC, RS3G, CETIS

................................
................................
..........

67

CS 7.2

Hosted Services

................................
................................
................................
..................

68

CS 7.2
.1

Google vs. Microsoft


battleground student services!

................................
.......................

68

CS 7.2.2

Kogakuin University back
-
office infrastructure using a public

cloud

................................
...

69

CS 7.2.3

Austrian Universities share common finance system

................................
..........................

69

CS 7.2.4

Financial Modelling


cloud
-
based solution

................................
................................
........

69

CS 7.2.5

North Texas State


Shared IT across many Universities

................................
..................

70

CS 7.2.6

New York State


Shared IT se
rvices across many institutions

................................
..........

70

CS 7.2.7

Blackboard examples of services

................................
................................
........................

70

CS 7.2.8

K.U.Leuven Association


Implementation across HEIs and Schools

................................

71

CS 7.2.9

Microsoft Live rollout
................................
................................
................................
............

72

CS 7.3

Research

................................
................................
................................
.............................

72

CS 7.3.1

IBM Academic Skills Cloud

................................
................................
................................
.

73

CS 7.3.2

IBM/Google university cloud

................................
................................
................................

73

CS 7.3.3

Microsoft


Client plus Cloud Research initiatives

................................
..............................

73

CS 7.3.4

CERN/ Large Hadron Collider

................................
................................
.............................

74

CS 7.4

Tools & Environments

................................
................................
................................
.........

74

CS 7.4.1

AMUE


French HE: business application development
................................
....................

74

CS 7.4.2

Kuali


Open
-
source software for the HE sector

................................
................................
.

75

CS 7.4.3

EDUNIFY


An HE community Web

Services Registry

................................
......................

75

CS 7.4.4

Duraspace/Duracloud
-

cloud for digital content

................................
................................

76

CS 7.4.5

North Carolina State University


Virtual Computing Lab (VCL)

................................
.........

76

CS 7.4.6

CampusEAI Consortium Overview

................................
................................
......................

76

CS 7.5

Other Examples


Virtualisation

................................
................................
..........................

77

CS 7.5.1

Virtualisation
-

Databases

................................
................................
................................
...

77

CS 7.5.2

Purdue University


managing desktops

................................
................................
.............

78

CS 7.5.3

Ohio University


server virtua
lisation

................................
................................
.................

78

CS 7.5.4

University of Münster


Virtualisation of servers

................................
................................
.

79

Case Study 8

UK non
-
HE sector: Vignettes

................................
................................
..............................

79

CS 8.1

Other Examples

................................
................................
................................
...................

79

CS 8.1.1

Government G
-
Cloud

................................
................................
................................
..........

79

CS 8.1.2

The Learning Records Service


formerly MIAP

................................
................................
.

80

CS 8.1.3

South West Grid for Learning

................................
................................
..............................

80

CS 8.1.4

National College for School Leadership (NCSL)

................................
................................
.

81

CS 8.1.5

HM Prison Service

................................
................................
................................
...............

81

Study on early adopters of shared service and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education



Page
7

CS 8.2

Healthcare Examples

................................
................................
................................
..........

82

CS

8.2.1

Berkshire Healthcare Shared Services

................................
................................
...............

82

CS 8.2.2

Warwickshire hospitals


Business Continuity

................................
................................
....

82

CS 8.2.3

East Kent Finance Consortium

................................
................................
............................

82

CS 8.2.4

Derwent NHS Shared Services

................................
................................
...........................

83

CS 8.3

Examples from Local Authorities

................................
................................
.........................

84

CS 8.3.1

Two councils


shared services

................................
................................
..........................

84

CS 8.3.2

Durham cluster of 7 local authorities


for a shared ITT

................................
.....................

84

CS 8.3.3

Cross Sector shared financial systems

................................
................................
...............

85

Appendix 1

The Cloud


An in
-
depth overvie
w of the technologies

................................
.........................

1

A 1.1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
............................

1

A 1.2

NIST Definition of Cloud Computing:

................................
................................
....................

1

A 1.2.1

Essential Characteristics:

................................
................................
................................
......

1

A 1.2.2

Service Models:

................................
................................
................................
.....................

2

A 1.2.3

Deployment Models:

................................
................................
................................
..............

2

A 1.3

An Alternative view and definition for the cloud

................................
................................
....

3

A 1.4

The Private Cloud


is it a cloud or a step to the Cloud?

................................
......................

3

A 1.4.1

The Infrastructure Cloud

................................
................................
................................
........

3

A 1.5

Considerations necessary for Cloud deployment

................................
................................
..

4

A 1.5.1

The Major Commercial Cloud Providers

................................
................................
...............

4

A 1.5.2

Other key providers

................................
................................
................................
...............

5

A 1.6

Comparison of the Big 3

................................
................................
................................
........

5

A 1.7

Infrastructure
-
as
-
a
-
Service (IaaS)

................................
................................
.........................

6

A 1.8

Platform
-
as
-
a
-
Service (PaaS)

................................
................................
...............................

6

A 1.9

Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service (SaaS)

................................
................................
...............................

7

A 1.10

Public, Private Clouds

................................
................................
................................
...........

7

A 1.10.1

The Public Cloud

................................
................................
................................
...................

7

A 1.10.2

The Private Cloud

................................
................................
................................
..................

8

A
1.10.3

The Hybrid Cloud

................................
................................
................................
...................

8

A 1.10.4

Public or Private

................................
................................
................................
....................

9

A 1.10.5

Public cloud merits

................................
................................
................................
................

9

A 1.10.6

Hybrid power

................................
................................
................................
.........................

9

A 1.10.7

Enterprise
-
class security

................................
................................
................................
.....

10

A 1.10.8

Onshore or offshore?

................................
................................
................................
..........

10

A 1.11

Being Cloud Ready
................................
................................
................................
..............

10

A 1.12

Virtualization: the Yellow Brick Road to Cloud

................................
................................
....

10

A 1.13

Virtual Infrastructures Can’t Match Cloud Economics

................................
.........................

11

A 1.14

The Road to Cloud is paved with Vir
tualisation

................................
................................
...

12

A 1.15

Virtualisation Stall
-

VM Stall

................................
................................
................................

12

A 1.15.1

Infrastructure and Application on Demand

................................
................................
..........

13

A 1.16

Validating readiness for Cloud and shared computing
................................
........................

13

A 1.16.1

Assessing Maturity to adopt a cloud
approach

................................
................................
...

13

A 1.17

Performance Metrics

................................
................................
................................
...........

14

A 1.18

Security Concerns of Cloud Computing

................................
................................
..............

15

A 1.19

Considerations for Cloud Deployment

................................
................................
................

17

A 1.20

A Legal Minefield awaits Cloud users

................................
................................
.................

18

A 1.21

Who are the major players in the Cloud Computing Ecosystem

................................
.........

19

A 1.21.1

Nine Companies that Can Help You build an Internal Cloud

................................
..............

19

A 1.22

Standards for Cloud Computing

................................
................................
..........................

20

11.19

Considerations

................................
................................
................................
.....................

21

A 1.23

A Cloud Summary

................................
................................
................................
...............

22

A 1.24

IS the G Cloud a lesson for HE

................................
................................
...........................

23

A 1.25

Is the G Cloud running into difficulties

................................
................................
.................

24

A 1.26

Questions and Answers

................................
................................
................................
......

25

A 1.26.1

What about data security?

................................
................................
................................
...

25

A 1.26.2

What is the value proposition for my Institution?

................................
................................
.

26

A 1.26.3

Is the Institution the right size to consider Clouds?

................................
.............................

26

A 1.26.4

How about Integration wit
h legacy infrastructures?

................................
............................

26

Study on early adopters of shared service and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education



Page
8

A 1.26.5

What are the Legal/compliance issues concerning data location?

................................
.....

26

A 1.27

Commercial Cloud Services

................................
................................
................................

27

A 1.27.1

Amazon Cloud Services

................................
................................
................................
......

27

A 1.27.2

Attracting new clients
................................
................................
................................
...........

28

A 1.27.3

Microsoft Azure

................................
................................
................................
....................

28

A 1.27.4

Case Studies

................................
................................
................................
.......................

29

A 1.27
.5

Transport for London

real time travel information

................................
.............................

29

A 1.28

The Cloud adoption Strategy

................................
................................
...............................

30

A 1.28.1

Towards cloud computing

................................
................................
................................
...

30

A 1.28.2

Create the IT strategy and roadmap

................................
................................
...................

30

A 1.28.3

Consider workloads for cloud

................................
................................
..............................

30

A 1.28.4

Determine the cloud delivery model

................................
................................
....................

30

A 1.28.5

Question Value

................................
................................
................................
....................

31

A 1.28.6

Determine architecture

................................
................................
................................
........

31

A 1.28.7

Implementation

................................
................................
................................
....................

32

Appendix 2

BPM, EA and SOA

................................
................................
................................
..............

32

A 2.1

Business Process Modelling

................................
................................
...............................

32

A 2.2

Enterprise Architecture

................................
................................
................................
........

35

A 2.2.1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
..........................

35

A 2.3

Enterprise Architecture

................................
................................
................................
........

35

A 2.3.1

EA definitions

................................
................................
................................
.......................

35

A 2.4

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)

................................
................................
..................

37

A 2.5

No single SOA definition

................................
................................
................................
.....

38

A 2.6

Top
-
Down versus Bottom
-
Up Service Definition

................................
................................
.

39

A 2.6.1

Top
-
Down
-

SPA / SOE / SOA

................................
................................
............................

39

A 2.6.2

Bottom
-
Up
-

SOC / SOA

................................
................................
................................
......

39

A 2.7

The SOA Structure

................................
................................
................................
..............

40

A 2.8

SOA Solution Reference Architectures

................................
................................
...............

40

A 2.9

Understanding Service
-
Oriented Architecture

................................
................................
.....

42

A 2.9.1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
..........................

42

A 2.9.2

Definitions

................................
................................
................................
............................

42

A 2.9.3

SOA Basics

................................
................................
................................
.........................

43

A 2.10

Architectures

................................
................................
................................
........................

45

A 2.10.1

The Service Architecture and the BSB

................................
................................
................

46

A 2.10.2

The SOA Platform

................................
................................
................................
...............

46

A 2.11

Critical Success Factors towards Services Orientation

................................
.......................

47

A 2.11.1

Services Oriented Maturity

................................
................................
................................
..

47

A 2.11.2

Choreography of Services

................................
................................
................................
...

47

A 2.11.3

Quality of Services
................................
................................
................................
...............

47

A 2.11.4

Granularity of Services

................................
................................
................................
........

48

A 2.12

SOA Summary

................................
................................
................................
.....................

48

A 2.12.1

Adopting SOA

................................
................................
................................
......................

48

A 2.13

EA and SOA Overlap
................................
................................
................................
...........

49

Appendix 3

The HEFCE Definition of Shared Service

................................
................................
...........

50

Appendix 4

The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing

................................
................................
............

52

A 4.1

Definition of Cloud Computing:

................................
................................
............................

52

A 4.2

Essential Characteristics:

................................
................................
................................
....

52

A 4.2.1

Service Models:

................................
................................
................................
...................

53

A 4.
2.2

Deployment Models:

................................
................................
................................
............

53

Study on early adopters of shared service and cloud computing

within

Higher and Further Education



Page
1


1

Report
Introduction

This report has been commissioned as part of
The Flexible Service Delivery
1

programme
which
focuses
upon helping UK universitie
s and colleges to improve the IT service delivery for students and staff by
helping institutions to
(a) understand and strategically plan cost
-
effective changes to their service provision,
(b) pilot new service delivery options, and (c) work towards enabli
ng greater flexibility and modularity to
their IT service provision.
The programme is being driven by the need for greatly increased
:




Efficiency

cost and time saving;



Effectiveness

business process and service quality improvement (enhancing the student an
d staf
f
experience of administration); and



Enablement

improved agility, flexibility and ability to respond to new opportunities

This particular study on

Early
a
dopters of shared service and cloud computing


has
sought

to collate
overviews of technologies and architectures and related
inspirational initiatives from the global HE/FE
sector and also from other sectors
;

we intend to demonstrate how

agility
and innovation using emerging
paradigms
including

collaboration can be
of relev
ance to the UK
HE an
d

FE institutions.

1.1

The environment for the Study

The Universities and Science M
inister

David Willetts

is reported to say

that the recent

capital cuts would
force HEIs to

"learn to share and pool more
2
".

At th
is report is authored
,

indic
ative figures suggest the "era
of collaboration" will be heralded by a decrease in the average capital spend
on research of 45.7% compared
with the 2010
-
11 baseline.
The Large Facilities Capital Fund will fall by an average of 14.8%

across the

4
years.

The

think
-
tank Policy Exchange

published
3

'Higher Education in the Age of Austerity: Shared
Services, Outsourcing and Entrepreneurship'
; this document makes three proposals:



shared services

"can make a sizeable contribution to making UK universities more competitive in the
future and allow for the utilisation of savings in sup
port of teaching and research";



outsourcing:

the report claims

that £2.7bn could potentially be saved annually