WEB RESEARCH PROJECTS

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Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Copyright ©

2013

Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall

WEB RESEARCH PROJECTS

TECHNOLOGY IN FOCUS:

UNDER THE HOOD



Discussion Questions


1.

List and discuss the function of the four steps in the cycle of the CPU.

The four steps are fetch, decode, execute
,

and store.


In the
f
etch stage
,

w
hen a

program begins
to run, the 1s and 0s that make up the
program’s binary code must be “fetched” from their temporary storage location in
RAM and moved to the CPU before they can be executed.


The chief goal of the decode stage is for the CPU’s control unit to decode the
pr
ogram’s instructions into commands the CPU can understand. The CPU knows and
recognizes only patterns of 0s and 1s

it cannot understand assembly language
directly

and human
-
readable instructions are translated into long strings of binary
code, known as mac
hine language.

In the execute stage, the ALU receives data from the CPU’s registers to perform
mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It
tests the comparison of values such as greater than, less than, or equal

to 1. The ALU
also performs logical OR, AND, and NOT operations. The ALU is specially designed
to execute such calculations flawlessly with incredible speed.

The last stage is store. The result produced by the ALU is stored back in the registers.
The ins
truction itself explain
s

which register should be used to store the answer.

2.

What is pipelining? What is the advantage of pipelining? What is the cost to
pipelining?

Answers will vary.


As an instruction is processed, the CPU runs sequentially through the four stages of
processing: fetch, decode, execute, and store. Pipelining is a technique that
enables
the
CPU to work on more than one instruction (or stage of processing) at a time, ther
eby
boosting CPU performance.

For example, without pipelining, it
might
take four clock cycles to complete one
instruction (one clock cycle for each of the four processing stages). However, with a
four
-
stage pipeline, the computer can process four instruct
ions at the same time.

Pipelined architectures
enable

several instructions to be processed at the same time.
The secret of pipelining is that the CPU is allowed to be fetching one instruction while
it is simultaneously decoding another, executing a third,
storing a fourth, and so on.
Using pipelining, a four
-
stage processor can potentially run up to four times faster
Copyright ©

2013

Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall

because some instruction is finishing every clock cycle rather than waiting four cycles
for each instruction to finish.

There is a cost to pip
elining a CPU as well. The CPU must be designed so that each
stage (fetch, decode, execute, and store) is independent. This means that each stage
must be able to run at the same time that the other three stages are running. This
requires more transistors a
nd a more complicated hardware design.








Copyright ©

2013

Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall

TECHNOLOGY IN FOCUS 4
:
UNDER THE HOOD

Web Project 1: Supercomputers: The Most Powerful Computers in the World

Supercomputers are needed to process the most complex computing tasks. Write a short report
detailing
three things that supercomputers are often used for. Why are they necessary for these tasks? In addition,
use the top500 site (see the link below) to answers to these questions:



How many countries have at least one supercomputer?



What country has

the most supercomputers?



Which country has the fastest supercomputer?



What is the most common application for supercomputer processing?



What company makes the majority of the CPUs used by supercomputers?


Suggested Web Sites

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercomputer

http://www.cnn.com/2011/09/22/tech/innovation/texas
-
supercomput
er/index.html

http://top500.org/lists



Suggested Keywords

supercomputers, what are supercomputers used for, applications for supercomputers

Copyright ©

2013

Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall

TECHNOLOGY IN FOCUS 4: UNDER THE HOOD

Web Project 2:
IBM’s Watson

Supercomputer

In early 2011, an IBM
super
computer
(nicknamed Watson)
played

on

the television game show
Jeopardy!

and won
against the
top two all
-
time reigning champions. Use the Internet to research Watson.
Write a short paper that discusses the
super
com
puter, its architecture, and how it can be used for real
-
world applications (outside of simply playing
Jeopardy!
).

Suggested Web
s
ites

http://www
-
03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/

http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2011/09/12/ibm
-
supercomputer
-
watson
-
to
-
help
-
diagnose
-
medical
-
problems/


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Watson

http://www
-
03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/watson
-
for
-
a
-
smarter
-
planet/watson
-
schematic.html

http://www
-
03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/watson
-
for
-
a
-
smarter
-
planet/industry
-
perspectives.html

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/17/whats
-
next
-
for
-
watson
-
ibm_n_824576.html



Suggested Keywords

IBM Watson
, Watson Jeopardy