WHAT IS BIOENGINEERING? - Joanne Loves Science

deadstructureBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 4 months ago)

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WHAT IS
BIOENGINEERING?

Bioengineering is Diverse!

Each bioengineer only knows a tiny
fraction of the entire field

What is Bioengineering?

Any Area of Biology

Mixed with

Any Area of Engineering

In

Any Proportion

Biologists


Want to understand organisms and living
systems


Discover underlying mechanisms that
govern how organisms work


The knowledge is then used to develop or
improve medical, industrial or agricultural
processes.


Comfortable with uncertainty

Engineers


See a problem and want to come up with
a practical solution


Apply mathematics and scientific
knowledge


Want precision and reproducibility


Consider technical and economic
constraints


Bioengineering applies engineering methods and
techniques to problems in biology and medicine.


Biology

Engineering


Medicine



Tissue Engineering

Neural Implants

DNA Expression Arrays

Pumps

Pacemakers

Prosthetics

Biomechanics and Rehabilitation


Artificial limbs


Replacement joints


Cochlear implants


Pacemakers for
heartbeat regulation

Cochlear Prostheses

http://www.cochlearimplant.com/

All imaging and diagnostic
techniques


Help with medical diagnosis


Assist in research for better cures


EKG machines


MRI


Ultrasound imaging


MRI and Functional MRI

UIUC MRI researchers

Profs. Sutton (BioE), Liang (ECE)

Ultrasound Imaging


and Bioeffects

High resolution ultrasonic imaging of
liver with a microprobe

http://www.gemedicalsystems.com/rad/us/4d/thennow.html

UIUC Ultrasonics Led by Profs. Insana, O’Brien, Oelze, & Frizzell

GE Medical Systems

http://www.brl.uiuc.edu

What kind of scientists are
involved with Magnetic Resonance
Imaging?


Electrical Engineers: electromagnetics


Computer Engineers/Scientists: computation


Physiologists: biological function


Chemists: new imaging agents


Psychologists: mental function


Physicians: medical implications

Cell and Tissue
Engineering


Cell

and

Tissue

Engineering

allows

us

to

repair

or

replace

the

function

of

natural

tissue

with

bioengineered

substitutes
.


Principles

of

engineering,

chemistry,

and

biology

are

combined

to

create

tissue

substitutes

from

living

cells

and

synthetic

materials
.

Tissue Engineered Skin

New Companies: Advanced Tissue Sciences, Inc.

Organogenesis

The Potential Promise of Tissue
Engineering


To repair or replace damaged organs


Origins in the late 1980s


Rapid advances in stem cell biology


The tissue engineer needs to


manipulate,


produce, and


deliver

collections of cells as building blocks of tissues

A Wide Spectrum of Knowledge is
Required for Tissue Engineering


Basic biological sciences


Cell biology and histology


Physiology


Embryology


Wound healing


Clinical aspects


Surgery and
transplantation


Immunology


Pathology


radiology


Biotechnologies


Cell culture


Cell separation


Gene transfer


Engineering
fundamentals


Fluid dynamics


Transport phenomena


Materials science


Mechanics


Chemical kinetics

Participants in Tissue
Engineering


Bioengineers


Materials scientists


Cell and molecular biologists


Immunologists


Policy makers and ethicists


Chemical engineers


Surgeons

Neural Engineering


Neural Engineers

use modeling and analysis to
understand and control the nervous system.


Advances in neuroscience and microfabrication
have opened the doors to exciting applications in
neuroprosthetics, biosensors and hybrid
biocomputers.

Fluorescent Stained Myocyte

Microfabrication Surface

Designing Networks of Neurons in a
Petri Dish

Real Networks of Nerve Cells in Culture on Patterned Substrates

Input

Output

Ideal Neuronal Networks

Prof. Wheeler, UIUC; Prof. Brewer, SIU Med School, Springfield

Biomimetics


Mimicking biological systems to create
new technologies

Modeling Channels Through

Cell Membranes and

Protein / Surface
Interactions

Understanding Molecular Structure

by Applying Engineering Principles

Computer Image of a DNA Binding Protein

Biomolecular Modeling

Bioinformatics and
Genomics


Bioinformatics = computer science + biomedicine


Discover genetic basis for disease (cancer, diabetes)


Develop new diagnostic devices (cDNA chip)




cDNA Array

Genetic Engineering


Animals


To produce a high
-
value therapeutic protein


Pharm animals


Plants
-
GMOs


Improve plant yields


Grow plants with higher nutrient value


Plants with vaccines incorporated


Pharmaceutical products


Manipulate cells genetically


Produce large quantities of vaccine, insulin, other
useful proteins for medicine

Bioengineers make use of all of
these fields


Biology


Medicine


Materials Science


Electrical Engineering


Computer Science


Computer Engineering



Physics


Chemical Engineering


Mechanical
Engineering


Nuclear Engineering


Civil Engineering


Agricultural
Engineering