Using Genetic Engineering in Agriculture

deadstructureBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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Genetic Engineering


-
Process of changing an
organism’s DNA to give the
organism new traits

-
Transgenic organisms
-

contain genes from other
organisms




Using Genetic Engineering

Transgenic microorganisms
-

bacteria are used to produce important
substances for health and industry

Example:

-
The gene for human insulin can be put
into plasmids. The bacteria would now
be considered transgenic and would
make human insulin that can be
collected to treat people with
diabetes.


Using Genetic Engineering in
Agriculture




Produce

faster growing animals that are
resistant to disease due to the injection of
hormones and antibiotics



Farmers use genetic engineering to produce
animals that have desired traits, such as high
milk production.


Important part of our food supply. Plants
are inserted with genes that make them
resistant to disease, able to produce
their own insecticide, resist weed
-
killing
chemicals and increase vitamin content.


Genetic Screening
: the process of testing
DNA to determine a person’s risk of
having or passing on a genetic disorder.



Can help save lives but also lead to
difficult choices.


Why might genetic screening raise ethical
concerns about privacy?


Gene Therapy
: replacement of a defective
or missing gene,
or

the addition of a new
gene into a person’s genome to treat a
disease



Very experimental and controversial


Humans can influence the genotype and
phenotype of organisms by
selective
breeding.


Selective Breeding is when we (humans)
select the traits we think are most
beneficial to an organism and breed
organisms specifically to obtain that
particular trait.


Hybridization and inbreeding.


Hybridization:
crossing dissimilar
individuals to bring together the best of
both organisms


Offspring called hybrids


Cannot reproduce


Zorse: zebra +
horse

Zonkey: zebra
+ donkey

Zony: zebra + pony


Inbreeding:

continued breeding of
individuals within the same family line in
order to maintain the desired
characteristics


Can be dangerous because a chance of bringing
together two recessive alleles


Has pros and cons