Powerpoint Presentation: Genetic Engineering

deadstructureBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

220 views

GENETIC
ENGINEERING


Opening the book of life

… or pandora’s box?

The beginnings


1869


DNA isolated


1944


DNA proved to be the
hereditary material


1953


DNA structure
determined

Image Credit :
www.chem.ucsb.edu/

© 2010 Paul Billiet
ODWS

Working with DNA


1961


DNA can be split on heating and stuck
back together again on cooling
(reannealing)

DNA hybridisation possible


1962


The first restriction endonucleases
discovered

Molecular scissors

© 2010 Paul Billiet
ODWS

Working with DNA


1966


The genetic code worked out

Discovered to be a universal code


1967


DNA ligase discovered

Molecular glue

Fragments of DNA can be stuck together

© 2010 Paul Billiet
ODWS

Recombinant DNA technology


1973


DNA cloning carried out on bacteria

Gene identified

Cut with restriction enzyme

Spliced into a plasmid using ligase

Plasmid reintroduced into a bacterium


Gene copied whenever the bacterium
divides


Non
-
bacterial gene can be expressed in
the bacterium

© 2010 Paul Billiet
ODWS

Recombinant DNA technology


1977


Rapid sequencing of DNA developed

© 2010 Paul Billiet
ODWS

Recombinant DNA technology


1982


Transgenic mice and fruit flies produced

© 2010 Paul Billiet
ODWS

Recombinant DNA technology


1983 Polymerase chain reaction invented


1985 Genetic fingerprinting developed

Image Credit:
Kary Mullis

Image Credit:
Sir Alec Jeffreys

Medecine


1989


Cystic fibrosis gene cloned and sequenced


1990


Trials for gene therapy begin

© 2010 Paul Billiet
ODWS

Agriculture


1994

Genetically modified organisms for food

© 2010 Paul Billiet
ODWS

Human Genome Project


1990
-
2003

The human genome worked out

Goals of the human genome project


identify

all the approximately 20,000
-
25,000
genes in human DNA


determine

the sequences of the 3 billion chemical
base pairs that make up human DNA


store

this information in databases


improve

tools for data analysis


transfer

related technologies to the private sector


address

the ethical, legal, and social issues
(ELSI) that may arise from the project

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Genomics


Today:

Over 70 Eukaryotes sequenced

About 25 of these are mammals

Over 350 prokaryotes have been
sequenced

© 2010 Paul Billiet
ODWS