New Crops and Genetic Engineering.ppt - APES20092010

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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New Crops and Genetic
Engineering

Chapter 11

APES 2007

Objectives:


What plants have we been using?


What is the Green Revolution?


What are GMO’s?


Are they safe?


What is Pest Resistance?


How do we control weeds?


What does the public think about all this?

What plants have we been
using? Where are they from?


Some interesting links:


Underutilized crops



The new green revolution



Effects of the green revolution on women





What is the Green Revolution?

The term
Green Revolution

is used to describe
the transformation of agriculture in many
developing nations that led to significant
increases in
agricultural

production between
the 1940s and 1960s. This transformation
occurred as the result of programs of
agricultural research, extension, and
infrastructural development largely funded by
the
Rockefeller Foundation
, the
Ford
Foundation
, and national governments.

What was the point?

To improve the crop yields and end world
hunger.


Did it work?

Really cool site to check out:


It caused some problems..it really did.

Some facts:

The Green Revolution really involved:


Better genetic crops


Better technology


More use of chemicals on the fields


These crops and techniques spread
across the world and have allowed us to
keep up with the population…but at what
cost?

Norman Ernest Borlaug


From Brittanica:



(born March 25, 1914, Cresco, Iowa, U.S.) U.S. agricultural
scientist and plant pathologist. He earned his Ph.D. at the
University of Minnesota. As a researcher with the Rockefeller
Foundation in Mexico (1944

60), he developed strains of grain
that tripled Mexican
wheat

production. Later his dwarf wheats
raised harvests in Pakistan and India by 60%, ending the food
shortages that had plagued the subcontinent in the 1960s. For
helping lay the groundwork of the
Green Revolution
, he was
awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1970. Afterward he
worked on improving crop yields in Africa and taught at Texas
A&M University.


What are GMO’s?

A
genetically modified organism

(GMO)
is an
organism

whose
genetic

material
has been
altered

using techniques in
genetics

generally known as
recombinant DNA technology
.


From wikipedia.


GMO’s on your dinner table…


A
genetically modified food

is a product
developed from a different
genetically modified
organism

(GMO) such as a crop plant, animal
or microorganism. Genetically modified foods
produced by
genetic engineering

have been
available since the 1990s. The principal GM
foods derived from plants are soybean, maize,
canola, cocoa beans, and cotton seed oil.



From wikipedia.

An angry public
outcry…justified? Or not?



The public

Is split…

Links about GMO’s


Say no to gmo’s


Great site on the issues



GMO free Europe


Local action against GMO’s


So what are the PROS?


More yield


Drought resistance


Less fertilizers


Insect resistance/less need for
pesticides


Ability to harvest more cheaply

And the cons?


Super weed potential


Not enough research on the safety


Expensive to produce


Not a natural food source….


Others?

NEWS FLASH:

70 % of the processed foods in North
America contain GMOS.





Meet (Bt) Bacillus thuringiensis


This baby is lethal…..

This little guy has genes that make it lethal
to it’s predators.


Hmmmm…let’s put that gene into some
plants and then we will get rid of the
pesky little buggers!


Sound like a plan?

Why is this a problem?

Resistance.


SUPER BUGS!

What about friendly fire?

What if this toxin starts hitting species we
actually care about?



Why worry?



Weed Control

The most popular crops are not the insect
resistant but the herbicide resistant
strains:


Monsato’s “Roundup Ready


And

AgrEvo’s “Liberty Link”

So what’s the problem?

Super weeds?!


Yep. If there’s a native species that is
close, these babies can “jump the fence”
and cause some issues.



Terminator Genes

Is this an issue?

So what’s the deal

Should you be afraid of GMO’s?


Are you protected by buying organic?