GENETIC ENGINEERING - Sciencescion.info

deadstructureBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Genetic Engineering or just good
training?

Pet Cloning?

Genetically modified organisms
(GMO)


Genetically modified cows to be pain free to
be create a more humane slaughtering.


For thousands of years people have changed the
characteristics of plants and animals.


Through selective breeding


Through the exploitation of mutations deemed as desirable
traits were bred to keep these traits.



Since breeders have been able to take advantage of
naturally occurring mutations, they have dreamed of
being able to artificially create mutations.



Real or Not?

GENETIC ENGINEERING

Gene Mapping

-
Diagnosis of genetic


disease
-
genetic counseling

Human gene therapy

-
replacing bad genes


with functional ones.

Pharmaceutical

products made by bacteria

Forensics

-
DNA fingerprinting

Genetically modifying plants and animals





producing proteins of other species or


changing their traits

Cloning
-

stem cells, organs, pets, endangered


or extinct species, etc.


The ability to design new varieties of plants
and animals has now become a reality
through genetic
engineering
-
we can change
their evolution at the genetic code level
.


Genetic engineering involves the
manipulation of genes

within a cell or
organism to bring about a change in the
genetic makeup of an organism.


There are several methods of gene
manipulation currently used,
most of which
include the removal and insertion of genetic
material into organisms.

This technique is also known as
gene splicing

or
recombinant DNA technology

because the DNA is
recombined in another’s DNA.

Gene Splicing


Once the location of the
DNA sequence has been
located, scientists can use
restriction enzymes to
separate the DNA at a
particular location on the
gene


Once the pieces of DNA are
removed other DNA can be
spliced in or recombined with
the remaining DNA


This results in


recombinant DNA



Recombinant DNA


The Recombinant DNA is put in little loops of
DNA or plasmids to be taken up by new cells
(even those of another species).

Using the chosen DNA fragments put into plasmids

to transfer into the plant chromosomes
.

Making
gene copies
(clones)!

And then
they can
make the
proteins
from those
DNA
copies.

Making not
just
medicine but
actual
human
proteins to
cure diseases
like diabetes.

Genetic Engineering


Cross
-
species gene splicing!

Engineered Plants

Plants may be genetically
engineered to enable them to
fix nitrogen, produce pest
-
resistant crops, have fruit
stay fresher longer, selective
herbicide resistance,
increased yield, improved
nutrient balance, plant
-
grown vaccines and
pharmaceuticals etc.



Making crops
more tolerant to
dry warm
conditions
-
by
mixing genes of
drought tolerant
native plants
with crops

Genetic engineering
-
experimental fun!

Glo
-
Fish® are brilliantly colored,
active fish. While they don't
actually glow in complete
darkness, they glow brightly with
the help of a black light.


The fluorescent mouse family had
a fluorescent gene

implanted in their embryos

Genetic Engineering with Bacteria as foreign
species protein and gene factories

Cows producing human proteins?!

Transgenic cows can do the following:



benefit animal health, for example, by improving growth


and survival of calves



prevent animal diseases, such as mastitis



make milk with human health benefits



assist milk processing into dairy products.

Transgenic refers to genetic material artificially
transferred into an organism from another
species.


Goats have been changed to

make spider silk in their milk!

Genetic
Engineering
gone weird?!


CSI
-
Crime Scene
Investigation

Uses of DNA Fingerprints

DNA fingerprints are useful

in several areas of society. They are used by
professionals:

Human Health
-

cures for inherited disorders


Justice System
-
criminal/forensic investigations

Personal identification

DNA Fingerprinting

is a very quick way to
analyze and compare the DNA sequences of any
living organisms.


DNA Fingerprinting

Each person has a unique array of DNA
fragments inherited from their parents
in Mendelian fashion. Even full siblings
can be distinguished from one another
by DNA fingerprints.


Tandem (end to end) repeats are short
regions of DNA that differ substantially
among people. There are many sites in
the genome where tandem repeats
occur. Each person carries a unique
combination of repeat numbers.

DNA Fingerprinting

Gel Electrophoresis
is used to separate different sized
fragments of DNA. DNA is placed at one end of a gel and a
current is applied to the gel. DNA molecules are negatively
charged and move towards the positive end of the gel.
Smaller molecules move faster than larger ones

Analyzing DNA Fingerprints

In the photograph, DNA "fingerprints"
from the mother (M) of a child (C) and
two possible fathers (F1, F2) are
shown. The pointers on the left side
indicate DNA bands shared by the
child and the mother. The pointers on
the right side indicate DNA bands
shared by the child and possible father
F1. Possible father F2 appears to share
only one band (at the top) with the
child and is less likely to have been the
actual father of the child than is F1.

DNA fingerprints can be used to determine
the identity of a child’s parents

In this example, a family consists of a mom and dad,
two daughters and two sons. The parents have one
daughter and one son together, one daughter is
from the mother’s previous marriage, and one son
is adopted, sharing no genetic material with either
parent.


GENE MAPPING
-


Human Genome Project

The
Human Genome Project
, an international quest to
understand the genomes of humans and other
organisms, will lead to unprecedented advances in
science and medicine.


One of the most important processes in gene
manipulation is that of finding the location of
genes on the chromosomes


Gene mapping involves the finding of the
particular location on the strand of DNA that
contains the genes that control certain traits


What is the promise of the Human
Genome Project ?

Hopefully, it will open new ways to
diagnose, treat, and prevent the
estimated
4,000 genetic diseases

in
humans, such as cancer, diabetes,
muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis,
etc.


Automated DNA Sequencer


The machine builds DNA molecules but uses
eight kinds of bases: four normal (A, T, C,
and G) and four that are modified to fluoresce
in laser light.


The automated DNA sequencer separates the
sets of fragments by gel electrophoresis.


The computer program in the machine
assembles the information from all the
nucleotides in the sample to reveal the entire
DNA sequence.

Mapping the
location of
genes on
chromosomes!

Mapping the Human Genome


The Human Genome Initiative in which the
entire human genome was mapped was
completed in early 2001. It utilized the
technology we have been discussing. The
information gained will give insights into
genetic disorders and ultimately, provide for
gene therapy.


Genetic Counseling

mapping
patients genes

DNA
-
based tests are among the
first commercial medical
applications of the new genetic
discoveries. Gene tests can be
used to diagnose disease,
confirm a diagnosis, provide
prognostic information about
the course of disease, confirm
the existence of a disease, or
probability in their offspring.


GATTACA

scene


Gene Therapy


Gene therapy which
is the transfer of
normal genes into
body cells to correct
a genetic defect will
become increasingly
possible now that
the human genome
has been mapped.

Gene
Therapy
-

inserting
functional
genes into the
cells of
patients who
have
dysfunctional
genes.

Delivering the gene to the cells of the organism
can happen using at least the four methods shown.

Gene Therapy requires making lots of copies
(clones) of the modified gene you want to splice
into the organisms cells.