Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 4 months ago)



Genetic Engineering or just good

Pet Cloning?

Genetically modified organisms

Genetically modified cows to be pain free to
be create a more humane slaughtering.

For thousands of years people have changed the
characteristics of plants and animals.

Through selective breeding

Through the exploitation of mutations deemed as desirable
traits were bred to keep these traits.

Since breeders have been able to take advantage of
naturally occurring mutations, they have dreamed of
being able to artificially create mutations.

Real or Not?


Gene Mapping

Diagnosis of genetic

genetic counseling

Human gene therapy

replacing bad genes

with functional ones.


products made by bacteria


DNA fingerprinting

Genetically modifying plants and animals

producing proteins of other species or

changing their traits


stem cells, organs, pets, endangered

or extinct species, etc.

The ability to design new varieties of plants
and animals has now become a reality
through genetic
we can change
their evolution at the genetic code level

Genetic engineering involves the
manipulation of genes

within a cell or
organism to bring about a change in the
genetic makeup of an organism.

There are several methods of gene
manipulation currently used,
most of which
include the removal and insertion of genetic
material into organisms.

This technique is also known as
gene splicing

recombinant DNA technology

because the DNA is
recombined in another’s DNA.

Gene Splicing

Once the location of the
DNA sequence has been
located, scientists can use
restriction enzymes to
separate the DNA at a
particular location on the

Once the pieces of DNA are
removed other DNA can be
spliced in or recombined with
the remaining DNA

This results in

recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA

The Recombinant DNA is put in little loops of
DNA or plasmids to be taken up by new cells
(even those of another species).

Using the chosen DNA fragments put into plasmids

to transfer into the plant chromosomes

gene copies

And then
they can
make the
from those

Making not
medicine but
proteins to
cure diseases
like diabetes.

Genetic Engineering

species gene splicing!

Engineered Plants

Plants may be genetically
engineered to enable them to
fix nitrogen, produce pest
resistant crops, have fruit
stay fresher longer, selective
herbicide resistance,
increased yield, improved
nutrient balance, plant
grown vaccines and
pharmaceuticals etc.

Making crops
more tolerant to
dry warm
mixing genes of
drought tolerant
native plants
with crops

Genetic engineering
experimental fun!

Fish® are brilliantly colored,
active fish. While they don't
actually glow in complete
darkness, they glow brightly with
the help of a black light.

The fluorescent mouse family had
a fluorescent gene

implanted in their embryos

Genetic Engineering with Bacteria as foreign
species protein and gene factories

Cows producing human proteins?!

Transgenic cows can do the following:

benefit animal health, for example, by improving growth

and survival of calves

prevent animal diseases, such as mastitis

make milk with human health benefits

assist milk processing into dairy products.

Transgenic refers to genetic material artificially
transferred into an organism from another

Goats have been changed to

make spider silk in their milk!

gone weird?!

Crime Scene

Uses of DNA Fingerprints

DNA fingerprints are useful

in several areas of society. They are used by

Human Health

cures for inherited disorders

Justice System
criminal/forensic investigations

Personal identification

DNA Fingerprinting

is a very quick way to
analyze and compare the DNA sequences of any
living organisms.

DNA Fingerprinting

Each person has a unique array of DNA
fragments inherited from their parents
in Mendelian fashion. Even full siblings
can be distinguished from one another
by DNA fingerprints.

Tandem (end to end) repeats are short
regions of DNA that differ substantially
among people. There are many sites in
the genome where tandem repeats
occur. Each person carries a unique
combination of repeat numbers.

DNA Fingerprinting

Gel Electrophoresis
is used to separate different sized
fragments of DNA. DNA is placed at one end of a gel and a
current is applied to the gel. DNA molecules are negatively
charged and move towards the positive end of the gel.
Smaller molecules move faster than larger ones

Analyzing DNA Fingerprints

In the photograph, DNA "fingerprints"
from the mother (M) of a child (C) and
two possible fathers (F1, F2) are
shown. The pointers on the left side
indicate DNA bands shared by the
child and the mother. The pointers on
the right side indicate DNA bands
shared by the child and possible father
F1. Possible father F2 appears to share
only one band (at the top) with the
child and is less likely to have been the
actual father of the child than is F1.

DNA fingerprints can be used to determine
the identity of a child’s parents

In this example, a family consists of a mom and dad,
two daughters and two sons. The parents have one
daughter and one son together, one daughter is
from the mother’s previous marriage, and one son
is adopted, sharing no genetic material with either


Human Genome Project

Human Genome Project
, an international quest to
understand the genomes of humans and other
organisms, will lead to unprecedented advances in
science and medicine.

One of the most important processes in gene
manipulation is that of finding the location of
genes on the chromosomes

Gene mapping involves the finding of the
particular location on the strand of DNA that
contains the genes that control certain traits

What is the promise of the Human
Genome Project ?

Hopefully, it will open new ways to
diagnose, treat, and prevent the
4,000 genetic diseases

humans, such as cancer, diabetes,
muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis,

Automated DNA Sequencer

The machine builds DNA molecules but uses
eight kinds of bases: four normal (A, T, C,
and G) and four that are modified to fluoresce
in laser light.

The automated DNA sequencer separates the
sets of fragments by gel electrophoresis.

The computer program in the machine
assembles the information from all the
nucleotides in the sample to reveal the entire
DNA sequence.

Mapping the
location of
genes on

Mapping the Human Genome

The Human Genome Initiative in which the
entire human genome was mapped was
completed in early 2001. It utilized the
technology we have been discussing. The
information gained will give insights into
genetic disorders and ultimately, provide for
gene therapy.

Genetic Counseling

patients genes

based tests are among the
first commercial medical
applications of the new genetic
discoveries. Gene tests can be
used to diagnose disease,
confirm a diagnosis, provide
prognostic information about
the course of disease, confirm
the existence of a disease, or
probability in their offspring.



Gene Therapy

Gene therapy which
is the transfer of
normal genes into
body cells to correct
a genetic defect will
become increasingly
possible now that
the human genome
has been mapped.


genes into the
cells of
patients who

Delivering the gene to the cells of the organism
can happen using at least the four methods shown.

Gene Therapy requires making lots of copies
(clones) of the modified gene you want to splice
into the organisms cells.