Genetic Engineering - coachbishop

deadstructureBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

136 views

Gel Electrophoresis



The DNA must first be cut
using restriction enzymes.



An

electric current is used to
separate DNA fragments
according to the size.



The smaller fragments move
farther faster than the larger
ones.

Gel Electrophoresis

Gel Electrophoresis

DNA Fingerprinting


Method of comparing the genetic similarities or
differences between individuals.



This technology is often used as a forensic tool to
identify the source of blood and tissue samples found
at crime scenes.



Types of DNA Fingerprinting



Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP)
(old)


Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
(new)

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA Fingerprinting

Genetic Engineering


Altering the genetic material of a cell or organism to
change its ability to produce new gene products a.k.a.
Proteins!



Done by manipulating an organism's genetic material
by inserting or deleting specific genes.



This is also called


Genetic Modification
.


Thus, any organism that has been genetically altered
is called a
Genetically Modified Organism
(G.M.O.)

Genetic Engineering

Recombinant DNA


DNA combined from more than one source
-

often
from very different species.



Recombinant DNA is also referred to as
gene
splicing
. This technique is now the basis for many
biotechnology advances.



Usually, the gene wanted is inserted into a bacterium.
Because this bacterium divides quickly, the new gene
can be cloned in a short time.

Recombinant DNA


Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA

Transgenic Animals


An animal
that carries a foreign gene that has been
deliberately inserted into its genome.





Example:

Normal mice cannot be infected with polio virus.
They lack the cell
-
surface molecule that, in humans, serves as
the receptor for the virus. So normal mice cannot serve as an
inexpensive
, easily
-
manipulated model for studying the
disease. However, transgenic mice expressing the
human gene for the polio virus receptor can be
infected by polio virus and even develop paralysis and
other pathological changes characteristic of the
disease in humans.

Transgenic Animals

Transgenic Animals

Transgenic Plants


A genetically modified plant with a new gene that may
impart a new function.



Most transgenic plants are created to help increase
yield in crops through:



Improved Nutritional Quality


Insect Resistance


Disease Resistance


Herbicide Resistance


Salt Tolerance


Drought Tolerance



Transgenic Plants

Cloning


Process of making a clone, a genetically identical copy.



Cloning can refer to the technique of producing a
genetically identical copy of an organism by replacing
the nucleus of an unfertilized ovum with the nucleus
of a body cell from the organism.

Cloning


Dolly the Sheep



The first adult mammal cloned was Dolly the Sheep in 1997.

Cloning

Cloning

Gene Therapy


Insertion of normal or genetically altered genes into
cells.



Usually to replace defective genes especially in the
treatment of cancers and genetic disorders.

Gene Therapy