Daphnia - Jamestown Public Schools

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 4 months ago)

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Biology: Chapter 1 Notes

By:

Brianna Shields

September 12, 2005

DO NOW


1. What process combines oxygen with
glucose to create energy?


2. Who is the father of evolution?


3. What do you call the double stranded
helices that make up chromosomes?

VOCAB NOTEBOOK
-

list
the terms in your vocab notebook, leaving about 3
-
4 spaces between
each term


Metabolism


Homeostasis

ƒ
Heredity

ƒ
Mutation


Evolution


Natural Selection

ƒ
Interdependence

ƒ
Genetic engineering


Human Genome


Emerging diseases


Gene therapy

ƒ
Hypothesis

ƒ
Experimental group


Control group


Independent variable

ƒ
Dependent variable

ƒ
Theory

Biology


Biology


The study of life

7 Characteristics of Living
Organisms


1. Cells


All living things are made of one
or more cells


Cells= highly organized,
membrane bound, capable of all
life functions

7 Characteristics of Living
Organisms


2.
Reproduce


Organisms make more of their
own kind

Life Span


Cats, whales, dolphins= 20
-
30 years.


Large herbivores (cattle, horses, camels, deer= 30
-
50 years


Birds= 10
-
30 yrs (Macaw Parrotss 40
-
80 yrs)


Elephants, Blue Whales = 50
-
80 yrs


Dogs= Up to 25 yrs


Turtles= up to 150 yrs


Certain trees have outlived recorded human history;


Baobab tree= 1,000
-
4,000 years, although it is understandably hard
to measure this.


Olive Trees
-

may nurtured by ancient Greeks


Coral
-

potentially up to 100,000 yrs

7 Characteristics of Living
Organisms


3.
Metabolism


Sum of all energy consuming
chemical rx carried out in an
organism

7 Characteristics of Living
Organisms


4.
Homeostasis


Maintenance of stable internal
conditions despite changes in
environment

7 Characteristics of Living
Organisms


5. Heredity


Traits passes from parents to
offspring through genes/DNA


Mutation = change in DNA

Mutations



Mutations can be
positive and negative


Ex: Hemoglobin
mutation


Negative Effect = sickle
cell anemia


Positive Effect=
resistance of malaria

7 Characteristics of Living
Organisms


6. Evolution


Change in inherited traits of a
species over generations


Natural Selection= organisms
with favorable genes


Better competitors


Will survive & reproduce more


Will pass on the “good” genes

7 Characteristics of Living
Organisms


7.
Interdependence


Organisms in a community live
and interact with others


Study of Ecology

Assessment One


Q: Identify atleast 3 characteristics that
all living things share………..



A: Cells, Reproduce, Metabolism,
Homeostasis, Heredity, Evolution,
Interdependence


Assessment One


Q: Differentiate between homeostasis and
metabolism



A: Homeostasis is the maintenance of internal
conditions despite external changes, whereas
metabolism is the sum of all energy using
chemical reactions in the body


Assessment One


Q: Explain natural selection



A: Organisms with better genes, will be better
competitors, survive & reproduce more and pass
on those genes


Solving Real
-
World Problems


Conserving and
Preserving the
Environment


Earth overpopulated (over 6
billion people)

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Conserving and
Preserving the
Environment


Rainforest destroyed at rate of
one acre every second (in 30 yrs,
1 million species will be gone)

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Conserving and
Preserving the
Environment


Need to balance human need
and need for preservation

Ex: Cutting down on waste to
conserve


A. Half of french fries are
thrown out because they aren’t
visually appealing


B. Leftovers can be mixed w/
grain and fed to cattle


C. Potato particles in water
used as methane gas for power
plants


D. Nutrient rich water used
on crops

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Improving the
Food Supply


Crops can be genetically
engineered

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Genetic
Engineering of
Crops


1. Makes them resistant to
herbicides


2. Makes them poisonous to
pests, not humans

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Genetic
Engineering of
Crops


3. Improves their nutritional value
and visual appeal

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Genetic
Engineering of
Crops

4. Long
-
term safety is unknown

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Human Genome


2000: Human DNA has been
sequenced


Can read every human gene like
a map


Helps with treating and
preventing genetic diseases

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Fighting Disease


1. AIDS


Caused by HIV
-

destroys immune
system


Currently working on vaccine


HIV has high mutation rate


Targeting 2 parts of virus will
ensure effectiveness

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Fighting Disease


2. CANCER


Uncontrolled cell growth


Many cancers can be prevented


Great progress in treatment

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Fighting Disease


3. EMERGING
DISEASES


West Nile Virus
-

mosquito transfer


Mad Cow Disease
-

transferred by
eating infected animal parts

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Fighting Disease


4. GENE THERAPY


Using viruses to replace defective
genes with normal ones

Assessment Two


Q: Explain how genetic engineering can
improve food supplies



A: Resistant to herbicides, poisonous to pests,
improve nutrition, appearance


Assessment Two


Q: Define the human genome



A: All the genetic material in human
chromosomes


Assessment Two


Q: Describe the problem with creating an HIV
vaccine



A: High mutation rate of the virus prevents the
development of an effective vaccine


Assessment Two


Q: Describe gene therapy



A: Use of viruses to replace defective human
genes


Scientific Method


Observation


Noting objects or events using
the senses

Scientific Method


Asking
Questions


What do you already know?

Scientific Method


Hypothesis


A testable
prediction/explanation that
might be true

Scientific Method


Experiment


Planned procedure to test
hypothesis

Scientific Method


Experimental
Group


Control Group


A group receiving the experimental
treatment


A group that does not receive a
treatment (for comparisons

Scientific Method


Independent
Variable


Dependent
Variable


The factor that is changed



The resulting variable that is measured

Scientific Method


Conclusion


Does the data support or reject
the hypothesis?

Scientific Method


Theory


Set of hypotheses that have
been repeatedly tested and
confirmed


To study the effects of common
substances on the heart rate of a
tiny aquatic organism known as
Daphnia
, students placed a
Daphnia

in a drop of water on a
glass slide. The students then
added 1 or more drops of a test
substance dissolved in water on
the slide, waited 10 seconds, then
counted heart beats for 10
seconds. The students used a
clean slide and a new Daphnia
each time. Their data table is
shown at the right:




1. Identify the hypothesis


2. Identify the independent and
dependent variables


3. List some constants


4. Identify the experimental
groups


5. Propose a liquid that could be
used for the control group


6. How could you improve the
experiment?

Substance
Tested

Heart Rate
(beats/min)

None (control)

58

Coffee

65

Ethanol

50