Bio 130 Human Biology

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Dec 14, 2012 (5 years and 23 days ago)

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Bio 130 Human Biology

Chapter 20


DNA and Biotechnology

DNA molecule

Bio 130 Human Biology

DNA Is a Double Helix
Consisting of Two Strings of
Nucleotides

Bio 130 Human Biology

During Replication of DNA

Each Original Strand Serves

As a Template for a New

Strand


This process is also used by Man to
determine the sequence of DNA


Semiconservative

replication


Each new strand

has half an original
strand


Bio 130 Human Biology

DNA Sequencing

Figure 20.1

Gel Electrophoresis

Figure 20.1 (2 of 3)

DNA Sequencing

Figure 20.1 (3 of 3)

Bio 130 Human Biology

DNA Codes for RNA, Which Codes
for a Protein


This is the central dogma of DNA


transcription

This RNA Molecule will be translated by Ribosomes
into a protein. This protein has an activity that will
give us a phenotype

Bio 130 Human Biology

DNA Codes for RNA, Which
Codes for a Protein


Translation is protein synthesis


the genetic code


Table 17.7 page 405 (from ch 17)


A codon is 3 nucleotides together


Each codon, represents a specific Amino Acid


Changes in a sequence, will change a codon
which will change the protein


Codons and their AA

Fig 17.7

Bio 130 Human Biology

The Human Genome Project


An effort to sequence the entire human
genome


What Does it do


Function


Change over time


Identify disease/health


Sequencing

Bio 130 Human Biology

Genetic Map

Figure 20.12 (1/4)

Now we know the sequence


What tools do we have and how can we use
them.

Bio 130 Human Biology

Recombinant DNA Technique

Figure 20.3


What to do when you don’t want or need a
vector?

Bio 130 Human Biology

Bio 130 Human Biology

Polymerase
Chain
Reaction
(PCR)

Figure 20.5 (1/2)

Bio 130 Human Biology

Polymerase
Chain
Reaction
(PCR)

Figure 20.5 (2/2)

Bio 130 Human Biology

Genetic Engineering Is the
Manipulation of DNA for
Human Purposes


Recombinant DNA is made of DNA from
different sources


Humans can not mix and match various
genes from different organisms


This allows us to do things in a few years
which previously would take deckades

Bio 130 Human Biology

Laboratory
-
Modified DNA


Recombinant DNA: cutting, splicing, copying
DNA


Restriction enzymes


DNA ligases



Plasmids

Bio 130 Human Biology

Recombinant
DNA Technique

Figure 20.4

Bio 130 Human Biology

Genetic Engineering:
Transgenic Organisms


Transgenic bacterial uses to make bioactive
molecules (medicine):


Insulin


Human growth hormone


Erythropoeitin


Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)


Vaccines

Bio 130 Human Biology

Genetic Engineering:
Transgenic Organisms


Transgenic plants:


Increased resistance to freezing


Longer shelf life of fruits and vegetables


Increased vitamin A (and overall nutrition)


Edible vaccines


Human proteins (i.e., albumin) (when required in very
large amounts)

Bio 130 Human Biology

Transgenic Animals


Bigger challenges:


No plasmid use


Cloning more difficult


Successes:


Bovine growth hormone for faster animal growth


“Gene farming”

Bio 130 Human Biology

Genetic Engineering Is the
Manipulation of DNA for
Human Purposes


Recombinant DNA is made of DNA from
different sources

Bio 130 Human Biology

Genetic Engineering Is the
Manipulation of DNA for
Human Purposes


Gene therapy replaces faulty genes with functional
genes


methods of delivering a healthy gene


examples of conditions suitable for gene therapy


Faulty information in mRNA may someday be
correctable


Gene silencing may someday adjust gene activity


DNA fingerprinting can identify individuals


Bio 130 Human Biology

Gene Therapy: Hope of the
Future


Obstacles:


Transplant into “right” cells


Into reproductive cells?

Bio 130 Human Biology

Vectors
Transfer
Genes to
Human Cells

Figure 20.13

Bio 130 Human Biology

Vectors Transfer Genes to
Human Cells (cont.)


Retroviruses


Liposomes


Direct DNA injection

Bio 130 Human Biology

Gene Therapy Successes


Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
success


Cystic fibrosis


Cancer research

Bio 130 Human Biology

Gene therapy


ornithine transcarboxylase deficiency
(OTCD).


X
-
linked severe combined immunodeficiency
disease (X
-
SCID),


Not approved by the FDA

Bio 130 Human Biology

The Purpose of the Human
Genome Project Is to Identify the
Complete DNA Sequence of the
Human Genome

A way to identify and characterize all the genes and the entire
sequence of the human genome.


Funded by the DOE


A way to look at change in the human genome and health
over time

Bio 130 Human Biology

What we can do with this
info?


Individual medicine


Diagnose Disease faster


Identify individuals

Bio 130 Human Biology

DNA Fingerprint


Using an individuals unique DNA sequence
and 20 or so specific marker we can
determine who and individual is


Process


DNA sample cut with restriction enzymes and
separated by size.


Probes that bind to specific sequences of DNA
will highlight their specific matches.


The pattern is used to identify individuals