April 14 Chapter 12: Genetics + Heredity Fundamental of Genetics ...

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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April 14
Chapter 12: Genetics + Heredity
Fundamental of Genetics
Examples of Genetic Engineering
Publicity of Genetically Modified (GM) Organisms and Plants
Genetically Modified/Bioengineering
Which of the following gives the best description of
bioengineering?
a) early humans saving the seeds of good producing plants
to
use in the future
b) planting two types of flowers next to each other to get a
cross pollination
c) two people are attracted to each other, get married, have
baby
d) the rearrangement of DNA in order to create an
organism/plant that is different than the parent
Genetics: Fundamentals
Human Genome:
- 10 million million

(10x10
12
) cells with a

nucleus
- each cell has a
complete

set of
genetic



instructions to make

another you(biologically)
- 23 pairs of
chromosomes
- 100,000 genes
- def’n: totality of human
hereditary information in
molecular form
DNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid):
molecule that carries genetic
information in all species
- DNA of one cell unraveled = 2
meters long
3 parts to DNA:
(i) Phosphate group
(ii) Sugar (deoxyribose)
(iii) Nitrogen bases
DNA
Put all 3 groups
together, called a
nucleotide
Adenosine phosphate
A DNA molecule consists of
thousands of nucleotides put
together in a long chain (left)
DNA
Turns out that:
Adenine bonds
with Thymine
Guanine binds
with Cytosine
Called
complementary
bases:
A=T
G=C
DNA Double Helix

DNA is double stranded
and is shaped like a spiral
staircase.
Ex. What is the
complementary strand of
DNA for the following
sequence:
ATAGCCG
DNA Replication
How does DNA provide genetic information, where does the
information come from?
DNA: Blueprint of Life?
How does DNA provide genetic information, where does the
information come from?
DNA: Blueprint of Life?
Key is in the sequences of nitrogen
bases.
DNA
: blueprint for making proteins
Proteins
: made up of amino acids
consist of/or regulate everything in the
chemistry of life
DNA to Proteins
OK, the instructions are in the sequence of bases.
There are 20 amino acids
How many bases encode for an amino acid?
DNA to Proteins
OK, the instructions are in the sequence of bases.
There are 20 amino acids
How many bases encode for an amino acid?
if it were 1 base = 1 amino acid, then there would
only be 4 amino acids found in proteins. There are up to 20
amino acids found in proteins.
DNA to Proteins
OK, the instructions are in the sequence of bases.
There are 20 amino acids
How many bases encode for an amino acid?
if it were 1 base = 1 amino acid, then there would
only be 4 amino acids found in proteins. There are up to 20
amino acids found in proteins.
if it were 2: 4
2
= 16, not enough
DNA to Proteins
OK, the instructions are in the sequence of bases.
There are 20 amino acids
How many bases encode for an amino acid?
if it were 1 base = 1 amino acid, then there would
only be 4 amino acids found in proteins. There are up to 20
amino acids found in proteins.
if it were 2: 4
2
= 16,
3 bases = codon
3 bases: 4
3
= 64
Transcription: DNA to
mRNA
Translation: mRNA to
protein
DNA to Proteins
-
Mythology
-
Horse + Donkey =
-
Dogs, cats, fish, etc.
-
Insulin
: small protein made up of 51 amino acids
-
Prior to 1982: all insulin came from pigs and cows
pancreas’s
-
Cow and pig insulin not the same as human insulin
=> decreased effectiveness
-
Can be synthesized in lab, but too complex for mass
prod.
-
Since 1982: bacterium E. Coli has been making human
insulin

Recombinant DNA: manipulating gene pools
Selective Breeding has
occurred for as long as
we know
Recombinant DNA: manipulating gene pools
Cut out DNA that encodes
for human insulin
Splice it into E. Coli
plasmid (DNA)
Ecoli reads DNA and
starts making insulin.
Human Growth Hormone
(HGH):
previously, a 1
year supply required
harvesting the pituitary
glands from 80 human
cadavers
Genetic Engineering Applications
Engineer new drugs
- interferon (anti-viral)
Diagnoses of Diseases
- gene therapy
Genetic Fingerprinting
- if DNA is a match from crime scene, there is a 1 out
of
100,000,000 chance that it was NOT them
Mixing Genes: Transgenic Organisms
Transgenic Example
Designing sweet potato with enhanced protein content.
- poorer tropical countries where high quality protein sources
are expensive use sweet potato as a dietary staple
Transgenic: Good or Bad
Transgenic: Good or Bad
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/biocon.html
http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/gene/mol_gen.htm
http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/nonmajorsbiology/dnalibrary.html
Transgenic: Good or Bad
Transgenic: Good or Bad