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Nov 13, 2013 (4 years ago)

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UNDERSTANDING
ABA



Learning to Implement a Home
-
Based ABA Program


INTRODUCTIONS


Chrissy

McNair, Mom

INTRODUCTIONS



Melinda Henson, BCBA

SESSION OVERVIEW







Gain Understanding of ABA Outcomes,
Theories, Principles, and Guidelines


Learn How to Assess Your Child’s Needs


Understand How to Set Goals for Your Child


Learn Methods for Prompting, Reinforcement,
Generalization


Learn the Importance of Data Collection and
Different Collection Methods


TODAY’S SESSION



PART ONE


ABA Overview


Types of ABA Programs



PART TWO


Principles of ABA


Diving into ABA Components



PART THREE


Designing Your Own Home Program



http://www.nationalautismcenter.org/affiliates/rep
orts.php

ABA FACTS & MYTHS

MYTH



FACT


ABA is an intervention.



ABA is actually a theory that
encompasses many specific
interventions based on
principles of Behaviorism.


ABA FACTS & MYTHS

MYTH



FACT


ABA is specifically for autism.




ABA is used in a variety of
fields to help change
behaviors.


Examples: gambling,
smoking, weight loss,
teaching new skills



ABA FACTS & MYTHS

MYTH



FACT


ABA is discrete trial training.





Discrete trial training is one
specific type of intervention
that is based upon principles
of ABA.


Examples of other
interventions based in ABA:
video modeling, incidental
teaching, PRT, activity
schedules



ABA FACTS & MYTHS

MYTH



FACT


ABA is based on
punishments.






ABA focuses on the use of
reinforcement.



ABA FACTS & MYTHS

MYTH



FACT


Principles of ABA promote
simple, robotic skill
development.






Principles
of ABA can be
used to teach complex
behaviors that generalize
across situations.


Examples: toileting, problem
solving, dressing, social
skills, language




ABA FACTS & MYTHS

MYTH



FACT


Principles of ABA are used
only to reduce negative
behaviors.






Principles of ABA are used to
teach new skills
and

reduce
negative behaviors.




ABA IS….


Scientific

approach for discovering
environmental variables that reliably
influence
socially significant behavior










(Cooper, Heron, &
Heward
, 2007)

ABA IS MORE THAN
DTT

ABA

Discrete Trial
Training

Verbal

Behavior

Visual

Prompting

Modeling

Language,
Social Skills,
Behavior

AND MORE!

Generalization

USING
ABA

AT HOME


Structured Programs
-
Supervisors, Staff,
Parents as Managers or Teachers



Dinner Table ABA



NEED GOALS, PROTOCOLS & PROCEDURES,
ANALYSIS

PART 2



ABA 101











REINFORCEMENT


PROMPTING


BEHAVIOR SHAPING


DATA COLLECTION


VERBAL BEHAVIOR


GENERALIZING SKILLS





REINFORCEMENT



Reinforcement is KEY!


Preference Assessment (daily or weekly)


Differential Reinforcement


Continuous
vs

Intermittent


Fading Reinforcement


REINFORCEMENT AND ASD


Many times, children with autism’s behaviors
are not reinforced by naturally occurring
consequences, or the naturally occurring
reinforcement for negative behaviors outweigh
those of positive behaviors


For this reason, we must sometimes use
tangible items to reinforce specific behaviors

REINFORCEMENT


Reinforcement is
what makes the behavior more likely to
occur in the future
.


Should immediately follow the behavior you want to
strengthen.


Tips for strong reinforcement:


Conduct a preference assessment to see what your
child/student enjoys


Vary reinforcement to prevent satiation


Provide higher levels of reinforcement for new
responses and lower levels for more firmly established
behaviors


Remember the definition of reinforcement!


THINGS THAT AFFECT REINFORCEMENT


Deprivation
: To keep toys, foods, and activities fun, save
them for therapy or when you want to teach a difficult or
new skill. Think: Absence makes the heart grow fonder….


Immediacy
: Deliver reinforcement within a ½ second or you
run the risk of them thinking that you are reinforcing
anything that happened within the delay.


Size
: Do not expect your student to work for an hour for a M
‘n’ M. The reinforcer should match the level of work that was
done. Would you willingly work for a company that paid you
less than you deserve?


Contingency
: The reinforcement should be contingent on a
behavior you want to see more of.


LEVELS OF REINFORCERS



Edibles

Tangible

Activities

Social Approval

Praise

Exchangeable


Primary Reinforcers

Secondary Reinforcers




Generalized Reinforcers



PRIMARY REINFORCERS


Primary
reinforcers

automatically fill some biological
human need without learning


Examples:


Food (edibles), Water, Oxygen, Warmth



Advantages/Disadvantages of Edible Reinforcement:


Being fed is an basic need to survive & can be highly
effective


Avoid if secondary or generalized
reinforcers

are equally
effective


Check for food allergies and choking hazards


Avoid giving too much food before meal times


May not be effective if child is not hungry

SECONDARY REINFORCERS


Secondary
reinforcers

acquire their value through
learning (through association with primary
reinforcement)


Examples:


Tangibles, Activities, Social Approval, Praise



Advantages/Disadvantages of Secondary
Reinforcers
:


Disadvantages of edible reinforcement is avoided


More choices available


Social approval & praise is always available and reflects
more natural/real
-
world reinforcement


Tangibles/activities may not be reinforcing every time
they are presented



GENERALIZED REINFORCERS


Generalized
reinforcers

have been paired with a
variety of previously established
reinforcers



Exchangeable
Reinforcers
/Token Systems:


Tokens are earned that can be exchanged later for
access to reinforcement (e.g. money, stickers, points)


Token is given immediately following behavior, but actual
reinforcing activity or item is given after a certain
number of tokens are received.



Advantages/Disadvantages of Generalized
Reinforcers


Tokens themselves are not initially reinforcing


Student must be able to delay
reinforcement/understand that tokens add up to larger
reinforcer


SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT


A schedule of reinforcement determines how
often the behavior should be reinforced



Continuous Reinforcement:


Reinforcing the desired behavior
every time

it
occurs.


Used to teach and strengthen behavior.


Examples: Vending machine, ATM



Intermittent Reinforcement:


Reinforcing the desired behavior
some of the time
it
is observed.


Used to maintain behavior.


Time
-
based or response
-
based

INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT


Advantages of Intermittent Reinforcement


More resistant to extinction


Results in relatively high rates of responding


More closely approximates natural reinforcement
conditions


Less reinforcement from the outside allows for
intrinsic motivations to begin to maintain behavior
as competency increases


Less likely to create satiation


More cost effective



AUTOMATIC REINFORCEMENT


Automatic reinforcement occurs when behaviors
have an immediate affect on their environment
which in turn reinforce the behavior.


Visual, Auditory, Gustatory, Olfactory, Tactile



These can be tough to compete with because they do not
require social interaction


but we can figure out how to
control some of them and present the child with these
experiences during social interactions and exchanges.

HOW TO USE REINFORCEMENT


Better

reinforcement for
better

responding


Provide
higher

quality
reinforcement for:


Unprompted responses


Faster responses


Better articulated responses


Proper tone is used


Correct response required a less intrusive
prompt


No problem behavior occurring


WHAT ABOUT PRAISE?


Early learners may not work for praise


ALWAYS pair praise with back
-
up
reinforcers


Eventually praise will become valuable


Gradually thin the use of back
-
up
reinforcers



Advanced learners


Might work well for praise most of the time


Continue to sprinkle in back
-
up
reinforcers


VARIETY, NOVELTY, & CHOICE


Including a variety of
reinforcers

helps decrease
the chance of satiation



Novelty is often exciting to students


New things


Not knowing what is going to happen



When choice is given, the chances increase that
the preferred item is really preferred at that time


HOW OFTEN SHOULD I REINFORCE?


Each target behavior will be reinforced EVERY
TIME until child/student shows that s/he can
perform this behavior in a variety of environments
without mistakes!


Generally, prompted behaviors should result in
praise, while independent responses should
result in praise + tangible, edible, etc…


Continuous Reinforcement:


Reinforcing the desired behavior
every time

it is
observed


Used to teach and strengthen behavior



TIPS FOR REINFORCEMENT


Give choices


Always keep a box of
reinforcers

next to you
when working for quick access


Have a
reinforcer

in hand to immediately
give to him


Give child/student multiple
reinforcers

from
which to to choose


Place reinforcers in a “surprise grab bag” so
child is surprised each time


Vary the reinforcement to avoid satiation

PROMPTING

Physical

Hand Over Hand & Gestures

Visual

Pictures & Written

Verbal




3
-
STEP PROMPTING

Compliance Building


1. Tell

2. Show

3. Do


Must be consistent with follow
-
through and be
willing to implement step 3 if needed

BEHAVIOR SHAPING


Reinforcing even a slight approximation to the desired
behavior


After that behavior is being replicated, only reinforce a
closer approximation



Advantages


Used to teach new behaviors


It is a positive procedure


Can be combined with other procedures (fading, chaining, etc.)


Disadvantages


Time consuming


Progress is not always linear


Implementer needs some skill

COLLECTING
DATA

Must have all variables defined

Must be consistent across all collectors

Consider what variables you want to track

WAYS TO ANALYZE DATA


What do the scores tell you?


Visual
interpretation better in graph vs. table
form

VERBAL BEHAVIOR

VB

MANDS

LISTENER

TACTS

ECHOIC

PLAY

SOCIAL


INTRAVERBALS

IMITATION

GENERALIZING SKILLS



Across Environments


Across People


When to Generalize?


Building a Maintenance Schedule

PROGRAMMING FOR GENERALIZATION

41


Generalization occurs when behaviors
learned under one set of circumstances
occur:


At other times


In other places


With other people


For different stimuli


PROGRAMMING FOR GENERALIZATION


Natural maintaining conditions


Practice the skill in naturally occurring situations and
make sure it maintains during natural contingencies
(antecedents & consequences)



Train sufficient exemplars


Teach the behavior to occur in the presence of many
examples of stimuli that include the
critical stimulus
features



Train loosely


Prevent stimulus
overselectivity

by teaching in various
settings, with various stimuli, in various forms



PROGRAMMING FOR GENERALIZATION


Program common stimuli


Include as many of the physical and social
elements that exist in the “real life” setting into
the practice setting



Mediate generalization


Teach self
-
instruction techniques



FLUENCY


Fluency is performing a behavior smoothly,
rapidly, correctly, and with ease.



Taught with repetition


Target speed & accuracy


Remember to include fluency in your goal as
appropriate


Fluent skills maintain better across time


Maintenance is the ability to continue
the behavior after intervention has
ended.



What contributes to poor
maintenance?


Ending reinforcement too soon


Reinforcement of unwanted behaviors


Punishing the behavior


MAINTENANCE

INTERSPERSING MAINTENANCE


When conducting trials, it is best to
intersperse maintenance trials.


Alternate acquisition (learning) trials with
learned concepts to:


Build momentum


Increase success & reinforcement


Increase practice of learned skills


Maintain skills over time

46


Minimize unwanted behaviors during initial
learning (errorless teaching)



Be sure the behavior is fluent before ending
intervention



Teach self
-
management strategies


Self
-
recording


Self
-
reinforcement


Asking for reinforcement



PROGRAMMING FOR MAINTENANCE

PROGRAMMING FOR MAINTENANCE


Fade reinforcement slowly and transfer to
natural contingencies



Fade antecedents from structured to natural


Adjust schedule, quality, & quantity of
reinforcement


Increase criteria for reinforcement


Set up peer supports for reinforcement




PART THREE

BUILDING YOUR OWN HOME PROGRAM



Set Goals


Child’s Needs

Family’s Needs

Sibling’s Needs


Language/ Behavioral/ ….or Both

START SMALL


Determine Motivators

Reinforcement



Immediate Reinforcement (toys, tickles, etc)



Longer Term Reinforcement (trips out in
community)


Reserve these reinforcement objects ONLY for
instruction time!

DEVELOP PROGRAMS FOR WEEK


Choose 4
-
6 Areas to Focus On


Motor Imitation


Following Directions


Tacting


Behavioral Skill


Social


Etc

WRITE PROCEDURES & PROTOCOLS


Make definitions as specific as possible


Write exactly what instructor needs to do


Define desired response from child


Define Mastery


DEVELOP DATA SHEET FOR
EACH

PROGRAM


Consider amount of learning opportunities
needed to achieve mastery and fluency


Establish and follow steps to mastery!


Develop own sheets


Download


Copy from manual





DATA SHEET


Target:


Target:


Target:



Delay:


Delay:


Delay:



FP

PP

I

E


FP

PP

I

E


FP

PP

I

E



















































































Data

FP = Full prompt

Delay

0 = 0
-
s


PP= Partial prompt


2 = 2
-
s


I = Independent


4 = 4
-
s


E = Error



N = No prompt


54

FIRST RESPONSE DATA SHEET

55

56

CURRICULUM GUIDES



57

ASSESSMENTS & CURRICULUM GUIDES

58

Verbal Behavior


Milestones
Assessment and Placement Program

http://www.avbpress.com/vbmapp
-
set.html

Assessment of Basic Language and
Learning Skills

http://www.behavioranalysts.com/shop
/home.php