Complete Digital Communications Guide (Word) - Healthwatch

deadhorsecapableInternet and Web Development

Dec 8, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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1

Contents



Introduction

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................................
..................

2

Generating Content

................................
................................
.........

3

Web Content Accessibili
ty Guidance

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...................

17

Search Engine Optimisation

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..............................

20

Setting Up a local Healthwatch Site

................................
....................

35

Installation

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................................
.................

39

Operation Guide

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................................
...........

43

Video and Audio Guidance

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...............................

54

Using Social Media

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................................
.........

66

Jargon
-
buster

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................................
..............

73

Further reading

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................................
............

80

Appendix 1
-

Website Information Architecture

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......

81




2

Introduction


Healthwatch England
is the national champion for consumers of health and social
care
s
ervices throughout the country. Local Healthwatch is the ch
ampion for
consumers of health and social care at a local level.

Healthwatch England has a key role in providing support and advice local
Healthwatch. One of Healthwatch England’s recent initiatives was
to commi
ssion a
website for l
ocal Healthwatch
to use
.

The following pages explain everything you’ll need to know about setting up your
local Healthwatch site and will help resolve common issues about how content is
generated and published online. The text includes useful ‘do’s and don’ts’ as well
as essent
ial style tips; it offers clear guidance on hosting and installing a site,
acce
ssibility, search engine optimis
ation, using social media and working with text,
images, and audio and video material. Although aimed specifically at local
Healthwatch online pr
esence, the guidelines can be adapted to most areas of
content creation and delivery and will help groups to set up their own
organisations.



3

Generating Content


Identifying your audience

The priority in developing content is to identify who your audience

is and what you
want to say to them. The audience for local Healthwatch sites falls into three
groups:

1.

local care recipients and service users

2.

local health professionals, associations and bodies

3.

members of the public


Audience characteristics

The people w
ho will be using local Healthwatch content will not only have
different levels of knowledge about the services on offer, but also different types
of experience: for example, a healthcare professional will have a different
perspective from a first
-
time serv
ice user, or from a member of the public.
Service users will also have widely varying skills with regard to computer
-
literacy
and the Web, based on experience, training, personal circumstances and
accessibility needs. This doesn’t mean you’ll need to adapt

each and every
segment what local Healthwatch publishes, or develop ‘personas’ for groups of
users. What it does mean is that you should always keep your users in mind when
writing copy or making video and audio content.


Audience requirements

Understandi
ng the expectations and needs of your audience will drive the content
you create and influence how you present the content to them. Here are some tips
on developing content:



Perspective:

imagine you are the user. Think about how their
circumstances and exp
erience will affect the way they (a) use your
site, and (b) view the content and services you offer.


4



Signposting:

good content is useless if the audience can’t access it.
Make sure that the journey, from the homepage (or any other part of
the site) to all
your key content, is clear.



Results
: think about what services or tools the audience will need.
How will they communicate with you


via email or social media?
Will they benefit from any surveys or questionnaires? Be as specific
as possible to ensure that
your content is effective.



Accessibility and usability

Accessibility and usability are the twin pillars that must support public
-
facing web
services, especially those delivered by government, whether at national or local
level, which, though closely rela
ted, are not the same thing.


Accessibility
defines the level of ease with which

people with additional needs


such as
people with visual or hearing impairments, for example


can access the
content of your site. Some users will have problems with content

that is poorly
planned or not easily accessible. The ‘all
-
in
-
one’ site solutions provided by
Healthwatch England have taken this into account and are designed for ease of
access. You can, however, get more information on this topic from the Web
Accessibil
ity Initiative (WAI) Guidelines at
http://www.w3.org/WAI/



Bear in mind these basic points when you’re planning content:



Accessing content
:

audio or video files will need an accompanying
transcript, so keep these as
sets as short and as simple as possible.



Providing context:

images, audio and video files need clear
descriptions (including Alt tags).



Avoiding incompatible technologies: f
lash files are usually
incompatible with accessibility requirements


don’t use th
em for
essential content or functionality.



Testing
: it’s crucial that your content is accessible, so if in doubt
about any aspect of its usability, test it.



5

Usability

is the measure of how easily an audience can use a site. Good usability is
rarely notice
d, whereas bad usability can destroy your credibility: if it’s difficult to
use, the audience will leave.


There are several related factors that make some sites more ‘usable’ than others,
most of which arise from the design and development process. Numer
ous online
resources discuss this subject. The Nielsen Norman Group is a good place to start:
http://www.nngroup.com/articles/usability
-
101
-
introduction
-
to
-
usability/


But always bear these points in mind:



Navigation:

movement around the site should be simple and
intuitive; don’t allow users to get ‘trapped’ in sub
-
sections,
wondering how they got there and unable to get back to where they
were.



Visual design:

strong,
clear visual design helps signpost and
contextualise content and features.



Content design:

effective content ‘design’ is defined by audience
need, categorised by content type, and then organised to reflect
those findings; it should not be defined by the st
ructure of the site
publisher’s filing cabinet.



Ease of access:

content and features that are the most frequently
used should be the most prominent.



Legibility:
copy (written text) should be readable (a style issue) and
legible (a design issue).



Functional
ity:

site assets or tools that promise certain functions
must deliver on those promises in the same way each and every
time. Examples include search functions, contact forms and AV
playback.



Consistency:

functions that perform similar tasks should work in
similar ways. Content of a particular type (e.g. committee reports)
should be formatted and presented the same way each and every
time.



6

Tone of voice

The term ‘tone of voice’ has a specific meaning when used in the publishing of a
website or brand. Ideall
y it should embody the values and aims of the organisation
it represents. The right tone of voice will give consistency and accurately express
the character of the organisation. This can be achieved with a few phrases or
keywords that sum up the ‘personali
ty’ and intentions of the organisation. For local
Healthwatch sites, it will be important to make the users feel that they are not
interacting with just another government website, but are using a service that is
on their side, that will help them in a pro
fessional and trustworthy manner and
that will be the voice for their issues and concerns.


Defining tone of voice

To define the tone of voice it’s useful to distil (i) the site’s objectives and (ii) its
users.

Objectives:



to give a voice to the users of h
ealth and social services



to use evidence based on real experiences to highlight issues



to actively seek views from all sections of the community

Conclusion:
the objectives encourage the service to see itself as on the side of
the user, not the government
, to be active in helping them with their
problems, and a trustworthy advocate for their needs and concerns.

Keywords:

engaging, helpful


Users:



local care recipients and service users



local health professionals, associations and bodies



members of the publ
ic

Conclusion:
the users are mixed and generally non
-
professional. To engage
them will require open and honest conversation using clear, straightforward,
informative language and an informal, but not an overly familiar tone.

Keywords
: straightforward; info
rmative



7

Local Healthwatch tone of voice

The tone of voice of local Healthwatch is defined by the following keywords:



engaging



helpful



straightforward



informative


Addressing your audience

When used properly, modes of address can help establish an appropri
ate tone of
voice. Consider the following points in your writing:



Active, not passive:

an active voice gives the impression of
directness and action, and helps to keep your writing focused; e.g.
“You can use this” as opposed to “This can be used by you”.



‘You’, not ‘we’:

addressing your users directly helps to establish a
clear connection with them, and can make calls
-
to
-
action more
effective. Words such as ‘we’ and ‘us’ can come across as unearned
familiarity, and smacks of insincere marketing.


Tone of v
oice and content creation

The phrases and keywords that define local Healthwatch with regard to tone of
voice should be a constant echo during all aspects of content creation. Follow
these points to ensure that the organisation’s tone of voice comes throug
h:



Keywords:
keep a copy of the keywords in a prominent place where
they can be seen and checked regularly by the team and the content
creators.



Start right:

when generating new content consider which of the
keywords are most suitable, then frame the work
with those
keywords in mind.



Proofreading:

always proofread the finished content and compare it
with the keyword(s) to make sure it fits the tone of voice.


8



Fresh eyes:

ask someone else to look over the content


a fresh pair
of eyes will often spot inconsi
stencies or jarring notes that the
original creator will miss.


Style

The style you adopt will depend, to some extent, on the tone of voice you choose,
but it should always be straightforward. A good set of general
-
purpose style
guidelines that are applica
ble to all governmental communications can be found at
https://www.gov.uk/designprinciples/styleguide
).


Most users (79%, according to research by Nielsen) skim
-
read web pages; when they
do re
ad them they do so 25% slower than offline text, so pages of dense, unbroken
text will not be user
-
friendly. Visual design will play a part in maintaining the
user’s attention, but style is equally important. The following sections list some
dos and don’ts
.


Style guidelines

Following the guidelines listed below, in conjunction with the Tone of Voice
recommendations, will help to ensure that your site’s content reaches its
audience.


Writing style



Be direct:
get to the point. Start paragraphs (and web pages
) with
the most important thing you want to say, and then add supporting
or contextualising material (not the other way round).



Be clear:
say what you mean. Don’t waffle, use euphemisms or fuzzy
language. Muddy copy can be a symptom of poorly thought
-
throu
gh
ideas.



Be concise:

stick to one idea per paragraph, one theme to a page.
Avoid long sentences and confusing tenses. If you can’t say the
sentence out loud in one breath, it’s probably too long.


9



Use plain English:

text should be unforced and natural, as
common
speech would be. If in doubt, remember that if you wouldn’t say it
in conversation, don’t write it down.



Avoid jargon:
if the audience is unlikely to be familiar with it, leave
it out. Where this isn’t possible, make sure an alternative
description
is available (in brackets).



Don’t patronise:

read through your copy from the user’s point of
view and imagine what they’d make of it.



Avoid slang:

this usually comes across as unearned informality and
risks alienating the audience.



Be consistent:
do the
same things the same way on each and every
page. Consistency helps give an underlying structure and is a
significant aid to usability.



House style:

once a method of styling content has been established,
stick to it
-

inconsistency impacts on the style and
on the tone of
voice. A ‘crib sheet’ of regular style issues should be drawn up and
referred to when content is being formed or edited.



Practice:

writing copy is a skill like any other, and will be improved
with practice.

Spelling and grammar



Acronyms:
the

fewer acronyms that are used the better. But be
consistent in your styling when you do use them. For example, on
first use give the words in full, followed by the acronym in brackets,
e.g. “H
ealth Education England (HE
E)”; thereafter just give the
acronym

in the text.



Ampersands:
use ‘and’ rather than ‘&’ unless as part of a proper
name or title.



Apostrophes:
ensure correct use throughout your content
-

they are
not grammatical extras.



Brackets:
use curved brackets (like this), not square brackets [like
th
is]. Square brackets are only used for clarification or explanation
within reported speech, e.g. a minister’s speech on Inside
Government: “Thank you [Foreign Minister] Mr Smith.”


10



Capitalisation:
don’t write body text in capital letters
-

it’s the
equivale
nt of shouting at your audience. The first letters of proper
nouns, departments and organisations (unless their branding states
otherwise) are capitalised. Note that ‘government’ is an exception
to this rule, and is not capitalised.



Contractions:
these are

acceptable, and a useful way to make dry
material more informal.



E.g., etc., and i.e.:

according to government guidelines, these
notations should not take full stops (e.g., etc, ie)


there is no right
or wrong but whatever style you choose, always be con
sistent.



Exclamation marks:
best avoided, as a general rule.



Hyphens:

do hyphenate ‘re’ + words starting with ‘e’ (e.g. re

elect),
and co
-
ordinate; don’t hyphenate reuse
,
reorder
,
reopen
,
email,
online.



Italics:

don’t use italics; use ‘single quotation ma
rks’ if referring to
a document, scheme or initiative.



Spaces:
use only 1 space after a full stop, not 2.



Spelling:

always take time and effort to ensure there are no
mistakes. Don’t just trust to spell
-
check


proofread all content
thoroughly before it’s
published and get a second pair of eyes to
look over the finished content.



Quotes and speech marks:

use single quotes in all common
instances; only use double quotes for reported speech.



Tenses:
use active rather than passive tenses where possible


this
m
akes communication more direct.


Formatting



Headers:
simple and direct is best; active, not passive in tone. Make
headers relevant to the content that follows, using key words; refer
to our Search Engine Optimisation section for best practice.



Sub
-
headers:

make them descriptive; sub
-
headers are one of the
key ways to break up blocks of text, so they should clearly inform

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the user about the content
-

most users skim
-
read, so good sub
-
headers act as ‘anchor
-
points’ that help catch a their attention.



Strapline
s:
if you’re using straplines, make sure they’re relevant to
content


this is good SEO practice.



Pull quotes/callouts:
use them to enhance the sense of what a
section contains; don’t use them to repeat straplines or re
-
format
the sub
-
headers.



Paragraphs:
don’t indent paragraphs; instead, leave a blank line
between each paragraph of text. On websites with short, punchy
paragraphs, indentations break up the visual flow of a page.



Email addresses:

these should be written out in full, in lowercase
and always
linked. Don’t include any other words as part of the link.



File names:

develop consistent conventions for naming files (both
the actual filenames and the descriptive links for those files as they
appear on the site pages), and stick to them (PDF, audio, AV
, etc).



Metadata:

apply the same tone and style to all metadata and Alt
tags.



Dates and times:

consistency is the key; set a style for conveying
dates and times, and stick to it, for example:

2011 to 2012, not 2011

2012.

5:30pm, not 1730hrs.

Midnight, no
t 00:00.

Monday to Friday, not Monday

Friday.

10 November to 21 December, not 10 November

21
December.

10am to 11am, not 10

11am.



Measurements:

use Celsius, not Fahrenheit, and metric rather than
imperial weights and measurements. Representation should be

as for
other acronyms.



Numbers (
again, consistency is the watchword):

Represent numbers as numerals, not words.

For numbers over 999, use commas (e.g. 2,400).


12

For fractions use the % symbol (unless the fraction is
common, e.g. ‘one half’).

For money, use
the £ symbol; don’t decimalise unnecessarily

(e.g. £127, not £127.00; but £127.35).



Telephone numbers:
use ‘Telephone: 011 111 111’ or ‘Mobile:’ not
‘Mob:’.



Updates:

keep content current, especially news; ensure that
sufficient resources exist to maintain

regularly changing parts of the
site; users will notice stagnation.



Short run times:
be sparing with the length of audio or AV files


try
to keep these to less than 5 minutes. Anything over this should
probably be divided into separate ‘chapters’.


Sins
of governmental communication

Anyone who works for or has contact with government services will know that
governmental communication can be difficult to decipher.


Styles to avoid



Newspeak:

try to avoid terms that are likely to be unfamiliar to the
user, s
uch as buzzwords and acronyms, which are closely related to
‘brandspeak’, and ‘marketspeak’. These will accentuate the
differences between the content creators and the audience, and
result in alienation.



Lack of clarity:

get to the point as soon as possib
le; focus on what
you’re trying to communicate, and to whom. Articles and site pages
are often full of waffle that obscures the main points. Editing down
content to ensure it’s effective and relevant takes time, but is worth
the effort.

Words to avoid

This

section was drawn from the government ‘design principles’ site
-

users
of government services will be familiar with most of these. Make sure your
users don’t use these words
(
https://www.gov.u
k/designprinciples/styleguide
).


13



agenda (unless it’s for a meeting)



advancing



collaborate (use ‘working with’)



combating



countering



deliver (pizzas, post and services are delivered


not abstract
concepts like ‘improvements’ or ‘priorities’)



dialogue (we s
peak to people)



disincentivise



drive out (unless it’s cattle)



empower



facilitate (instead, say something specific about how you’re helping)



focusing



foster (unless it’s children)



impact (as a verb)



initiate



land (as a verb. Only use if you are talking abou
t aircraft)



leverage (unless in the financial sense)



liaise



overarching



promote (unless you’re talking about an ad campaign or something)



robust



slimming down (weight
-
loss is slimming down; everything else is
probably removing x amount of paperwork etc)



st
reamline



strengthening (unless it’s strengthening bridges or other structures)



tackling (unless it’s rugby, football, some other sport)



transforming (what are you actually doing to change it)



utilize


14


What not to say

Some words and
issues should be avoided

because they may cause offence or be
misinterpreted. These include:



swearing



racial epithets or categorisations



sexually explicit material



religious comment



sexist comment (aim for gender
-
neutral tone and content)



homophobic comment



political comment (thi
s doesn’t mean you should pretend politics doesn’t
exist but that material with a political slant should be presented as
neutrally as possible, without bias)



Social media

Broadly speaking, social media encompasses those functions or areas of the
Interne
t that encourage users to make and share content, such as Facebook,
twitter, YouTube, Reddit, Digg, LinkedIn, and Flickr, as well as blogs, website
comment sections, and a host of other tools, either in stand
-
alone sites or as built
-
in features of traditio
nal top
-
down content providers.
For detailed guidance on
using social media, see our section on Using Social Media.


Key points

These are the key points to remember when developing content for local
Healthwatch sites.


The users:



remember your audience



eve
rything you do must be accessible by all



your content must be easy to use



15

The tone of voice:



be open and engaging



be straightforward



be helpful and informative



don’t patronise


The style:



be direct



be clear



don’t waffle




16

Useful resources

The sites below

take a more detailed look at the processes and practices discussed
in this section.


Accessibility

Web Accessibility Initiative (a part of W3C, the Worldwide Web Consortium):
http://www.w3.org/WAI/

RNIB Web Access C
entre:

http://www.rnib.org.uk/professionals/webaccessibility/Pages/web_accessibility.aspx

BBC accessibility guidelines:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/guidelines/futuremedia/accessibility/

BBC public accessibility pages:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/


Usability

Nielsen Norman Group:

http://www.nngroup.com/articles/usability
-
101
-
introduction
-
to
-
usability/


Usability First (user
-
centred design methods):

h
ttp://www.usabilityfirst.com/


Tone and style

UK government design principles:

https://www.gov.uk/designprinciples

UK government style guide:


https://www.gov.uk/designprinciples/styleguide








17

Web Content Accessibility
Guidance


It is a legal requirement to make all reasonable efforts to ensure that public
services are accessible to everyone. In practice this means that public sector
web
sites should comply with the Double A standard recommended by the World
Wide Web Consortium (W3C)* in its
Website Content Accessibility Guidelines

at
www.w3.
org/WAI/intro/wcag



Anyone using the Drupal ‘Website in a box’ product supplied by Healthwatch
England (download this and lots of guidance from
http://www.healthwatch.co.uk/website
-
in
-
a
-
box

)

will automatically be following
most of the accessibility guidelines, so you simply need to focus on these
five
golden rules
:


1.

Alt Text:

when images are added to the site, ensure that text is included in
the Alt Tag field to describe what is in the image.

For example, use
‘Healthwatch England’s logo’ rather than just ‘logo’ or ‘a group of
concerned patients at a meeting with doctors’ rather than just ‘people’.

2.

Video and audio transcripts:

always include a transcript with any video and
audio content so that

visually and hearing impaired users can access it.
Videos should also have captions. (Note: YouTube can be synchronised
automatically by using the transcripts file already created.) See our Video
and Audio Guidance for more information.

3.

Hyperlinks:
give
clear, specific instructions such as ‘
Download our
accessibility policy (PDF 2.1MB)
’, rather than
‘click here
’. Always complete
the Title tag information when adding links to ensure your l
inks are
meaningfully described.

4.

Colour:

avoid using colour as the only visual

means of conveying
information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a
visual element on a page.
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref/Overview.php
http://www.w3.
org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref/Overview.php


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5.

Page titles:

ensure that web

pages have titles that describe their topic or
purpose


these are the first things that the visually impaired are presented
with when using a ‘reader’ device. (This is also important for search engine
optimisation.)


*
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

is the definitive authority for the code
used to build websites. The consortium sets standards and provides an exhaustive
code validation service to ensure that all websites have a consistent and
homogenous code structure. Always make sure you’re complian
t with the W3C
standard.


Please check your site complies by using the online validation checker at
http://validator.w3.org



Compliance with the universal W3C standards helps to ensure that online products
are cons
istently and correctly displayed. It also helps ensure your web pages work
efficiently for as many people, on as many different systems as possible. There
are multiple browsers (Firefox, Chrome, Explorer, etc.) on multiple platforms (PC,
Mac, Linux), with
varying operating systems (Windows XP, 7, iOS Leopard, Lion,
etc.), as well as a wide range of devices (desktops, mobiles, tablets, and so on).
New variations and versions of all of the above are also constantly being released

fortunately, these are consi
stent with W3C standards.


You can check information and definitive guides for WC3 coding standards at
http://www.w3.org/standards/


A note on Accessible documents

The documents that you upload to your site sho
uld also be accessible. The best
format for them is as PDFs. To create an accessible PDF from a Word document
make sure you follow these tips:

1.

Structure your document


this means basically making your headers and
subheaders using the Heading 1,2, 3 featur
es in Word’s ‘Styles and
Formatting’. You can create the style, font, size etc you want on the text,
then select the text, select the pulldown arrow from the right hand side of

19

the Heading in the ‘Styles and Formatting’ column and choose ‘Update to
match s
election’. Now every time you select a heading and apply Heading 2
for instance it will have the right formatting and screen readers will be able
to work out the structure of your document.

2.

Describe the meaning of any images, charts or other visual items w
ithin
your document using the ‘Format picture’ feature, then choose ‘Web’ and
add some ‘Alternative text’. If you have images that are there purely for
decoration, consider removing them.

3.

Never scan text documents and include as images. Always find the ori
ginal
and then convert the text document to PDF. If this is impossible, retype the
document.

4.

Don’t use tables for layout. If you need columns, use the column feature in
Word. Only use tables for data that needs to be tabulated. Add information
to table hea
dings.

5.

Remove footnotes as these make the reading process needlessly
complicated for screen readers and are in any case inappropriate for most
communications aimed at the general public.

6.

Look at your export settings for PDFs and ensure that all security se
ttings
are removed from the document to ensure screen readers are not locked
out.

7.

Finally, once you have exported your document as a PDF, open it in Adobe
Reader and perform the full accessibility check.



20



Search Engine Optimisation


Search Engine Optimi
sation (SEO) is the means of ensuring that your content is
found on the Internet by anyone using a search engine. You can increase your
impact and make sure your audience finds out what they need to know by thinking
about: the way your site is coded; how y
ou structure your pages and information;
and the language you use.


This section highlights opportunities for the improvement of online Healthwatch
offerings. It also examines best practice for the SEO of rich media generally, and
for YouTube channels spec
ifically.


Code

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the definitive authority for the code
used to build websites. For information on W3C, see our Accessibility guide.


For SEO, issues within your code can affect the process of a ‘spider’ (a robotic
com
puter program that is constantly trawling the Internet indexing content).
Incorrect or ineffective code can disrupt the spider and therefore affect your
search engine ranking. Keeping your code compliant should reduce the chances of
this happening.


(Note:

The local Healthwatch websites will have content entered via a Content
Management System (CMS) called
Drupal
. Adding content via the CMS will help
avoid many code errors and replicating existing issues.)


The W3C provides definitive information and guides

for coding standards here:
http://www.w3.org/standards/


They provide an online validation service for approved
code

for websites here:
http://validator.w3.org/


21


Recom
mendations:



Validate code through W3C to highlight errors or issues of concern.



Address any issues that are found.



Commit to W3C standard compliance to help ensure your site is viewable in
major browsers/systems/device combinations.



Test on mobile devices,

as their usage is increasing massively.


Page content

SEO analysis reviews a number of content elements that are used to construct your
web pages. These include Page Titles, Meta Descriptions, Header Tags and Body
Copy.

How these elements are used on your

websites will significantly impact search
engine placement.


Page title

Why is it important?

A
title tag

is the HTML code that creates the page title. It is one of the most
important elements for good SEO, as it is generally the first thing users see on a

search results page. The title tag also appears at the top of the browser when the
page is open, is also the ‘Bookmark’ and is usually what appears on external linking
websites. So describe the page succinctly, using your keywords.



In this example, the

Title is clear but wastes ‘prime real estate’ by using Homepage first: ideally,
Homepage would be LAST in the Title


if used at all


as it has little value to the user.





22

Meta description

Why is it important?

Although
the

Meta Description
of a page do
es not directly affect ranking, it will
impact click
-
through from search results. Meta Descriptions are the little snippets
of text displayed under the page title within search results. They are vital to
engaging the user, by providing a succinct descripti
on of the page content. They
also present a ‘call to action’ (CTA) for the user to click through to the website.
Like the page title, the meta description is one of the first elements a user sees.


Here the Meta Description is clear, concise and short (t
hey could even have added more text).
However, it does not have a call to action (CTA) to encourage or engage the user to explore further.
Note: they use ‘The’ in the meta but not in the title (a content branding error); the tone is a bit
terse, and ‘Homep
age’ is in the title but not in the meta tag.


Recommendations:



Optimise both carefully and think about the tone, branding, etc.



Do not duplicate title tags exactly. Search engines can respond more
effectively to a user’s query, and you can steer the user

to the correct
content too.



Page Titles
should be short and concise with no more than 70 characters, as
anything longer will get cut off.



The title should include the main keyword first, or near the front, as this is
one of the strongest on
-
page ranking
factors. Our recommended structure
is:
Primary Keyword


Secondary Keyword
-

Page Name



Meta Descriptions
should be

about 156 characters.



Meta descriptions should be unique, specific to the page, incorporate
keywords relevant to the page and include a call

to action.






23

Header tags

What are they?

Header Tags are HTML code ‘tags’ used to provide the structure of a website.
Header tags run from a <H1>, the most important, to <H6>, the least important.
They are often used for section headings on a page.


Why
are they important?

They are used to indicate to the search engines which part of the text has the most
prominence on any given page. It’s important to not overuse header tags as this
will devalue the authority they provide.


Tagging

Tagging is a vital par
t of the structure of any web page, ensuring both search
engine and user understand what this page contains and how it fits within the rest
of the site.


Meta Tags
are used to tell search engines the content of a page and appear to
users, either within the

search engine results page, such as title or description
tags, or on the page itself, in the form of header tags.


Body copy

Recommendations:

The various search engines consider keyword themes as part of their search. Each
has a different mathematical equ
ation regarding the use of keywords that is
rewarded with higher search ranking placement. There is also a different level of
tolerance between the different search engines as to the degree of repetition of
keywords permitted before a penalty is imposed.


First 250 words:

these are important both for SEO (search engines give more
weight to first words) and usability (internet users will read the first words and
continue only if these words have caught their interest).



24

Place
keywords in paragraphs.
You may
also want to include your keywords in
bulleted lists.

There will often be keyword targets associated to the SEO campaign


these
keywords should ideally appear within the first 250 words and linked on at a
further stage.

Variations:

don’t use just one keyw
ord over and over again: use many variations to
avoid being penalised by search engines as a possible spammer.

Bold and italic:

when the word is part of a statement making a specific point, bold
it or italicise it.

Focus on readability:

the focus of the pa
ge should be readability. If the page does
not make sense to human eyes, then it is no good for a search engine and it will
not benefit you. You want to use keywords often, but not to the point where it
sounds like you are writing for the search engine and

not the user.


Assets

What are they?

Assets are anything other than text on a page. Every website will have many
images, as well as videos, audio, documents, downloadable tools, games etc, all of
which are considered assets. And if they are tagged and nam
ed correctly, they can
help increase visibility to search engines as well as the usability and enjoyment of
users.


Why are they important?



Images may appear within search results; Google in particular presents the
Search Images option very effectively.



T
hey can help to increase click through rates from search engines.



They provide additional web site traffic.



They increase user engagement.



They may increase social media sharing.


Search engine crawlers cannot see images, so keywords need to be within the
image ‘alt tag’ and image file name itself.



25

Recommendations (images):



Add relevant file names to the images and videos when uploading them to
the CMS.



Use clear descriptions for image alt tags to help the search engines
understand what the image is.



R
ecommendations (video):



Create a separate video XML sitemap.



Make sure all videos have keyword rich titles, descriptions and tags.



Make sure videos are hosted on their own, separate page, with keyword rich
content.



Use internal links with keyword anchor

text to link to the videos.



Don’t use pop
-
ups or iframes to display videos.


Robots.txt

What is it?

Search engines such as Google use web robots (also known as ‘spiders’) to index
web content. A Robots Text File (robots.txt) allows you to specify any area
s of the
site you
do not want

crawled and blocks any spiders you do not want to crawl your
website.


Why is it important?

A well
-
written and refreshed robots text file will keep Google from crawling pages
you don’t want to appear in the search engine resu
lts. Pages that should be de
-
indexed are any pages that contain personal information, dynamic pages, password
protected pages and any pages that don’t add value to the user’s journey on the
site.


This is done by adding a ‘disallow’ command to the robots
text file that tells them
to ignore a particular page or folder. However, this can also be a ‘site killer’
because a misplaced ‘disallow’ tag can result in your site being de
-
indexed. It is
best to write this carefully and then maintain the text file regul
arly.


26


Recommendations:

Implementation of robots.txt files, and then regular refreshing and maintenance of
these files, are highly recommended. Your hosting service provider can do this.



Only pages that add value to users should be indexed.



‘Disallow’ an
y pages that shouldn’t be indexed such as password protected
sections and admin areas of a website as well as dynamically generated
URLs.


HTTP response codes

What are they?

HTTP status codes are response codes given by website servers. They identify the
problem when a page does not load correctly so that it can be fixed. There are
over 50 different server response codes: the most important status codes are
explained below.


Why are they important?

Status codes help the owner understand and redirect any br
oken pages, thereby
lowering the ‘bounce’ rate, or, rate of lost/broken pages.


Examples of http response codes

200


OK:
the ideal response code to receive; the page was correctly located and
loaded with no issues for the server.


404


page not found:
this code is given when a user tries to access a page that
doesn’t exist. This could be due to an incorrect URL or an old page that has been
removed
.

When a user tries to access a page that cannot be found the server will
produce this response code and can

display a specific message to the user.


301


permanently moved:

when migrating your content to the new Drupal CMS it
is important to assess what content will be moved. For users who have bookmarked
their favourite pages to return to later, redirects ne
ed to be in place.


27


Recommendations:



Use 301 redirects rather than 302 (temporary) to ensure that link equity is
passed between pages.



Create or commission a
customised 404 page

with recommended
navigational options so users don’t leave the site.


Optimis
ed 404 errors pages should contain:



Notification that the user has reached a page that does not exist.



A search box and a link to the home page.



Easy to understand navigation to help the user find their way back.




Examples of Custom 404 pages:



Example

1: cute, not useful


Although this page design is
visually pleasing, it offers no
help to the user.



It simply says ‘404 robo no
find’, which is of no value to
a user who is expecting a
page on the site.


It is particularly confusing to
an inexperienced

user


what do they do next? What
happened?


28


Example 2: decorative,
useful


On this 404 page, the user
is:

-

presented with the same
brand as the rest of the
site

-

told what is wrong (page
ending/smashing_magazi
ne is missing)

-

offered a positive
message (‘d
on’t give
up’)

-

presented with a link
back to ‘homepage’ to
start over

-

invited to email the site

-

offered a phone number
(not recommended
unless you have the
resources for this)

-

offered a link to a
similar category of
information (link to the
catalogue)

-

the
tone and mood is
light, positive and
welcoming







29

XML sitemap

What is it?

An XML sitemap is in place to assist search engines in finding pages of a website
that they might not find otherwise. In its simplest form, an XML sitemap is a
'behind the scenes
' XML file that lists URLs for a site along with additional metadata
about each URL (when it was last updated, how often it usually changes, and how
important it is, relative to other URLs in the site).


An XML sitemap can also include images and videos t
o ensure these are also
indexed by search engines.


Why is it important?

In addition to assisting spiders discover pages of your website to index, XML
sitemaps can include more information, such as how often the page is likely to
change, the importance of
the page, when the page was last modified, and when
the sitemap was last updated.


An XML sitemap can contain all of the pages within the website. For news, blogs,
videos and images, a separate XML sitemap can also be placed within the website
for each of
these separate elements. This can assist with the indexing of content
and help achieve visibility for this content within Google results.


Recommendations:



To ensure correct geo
-
targeting for different country/language selections
the XML sitemap should inc
lude ‘Href = lang’.



Within the list of site URLs it is possible to include the priority of each page
and how regularly the page is updated; this helps search engine crawlers to
understand the hierarchy of the site.



For very large sites that are clearly spl
it into sections it’s best to use XML
sitemap indices. This involves creating one overarching general XML sitemap
that makes reference to other XML sitemaps specific to a subdomain or
subsection.



Keep XML sitemaps short


search engine crawlers get bored e
asily.


30


Breadcrumb navigation

What is it?

Also known as a breadcrumb trail or breadcrumbs, breadcrumb navigation is
designed to help users take a step back in their journey and return to previous
pages without repeated clicks of the back button.


Impleme
nting breadcrumbs makes it possible for both a user and a search engine
crawler to move back and forth in their journey around the site.


Breadcrumbs are great for SEO, allowing ‘spiders’ to crawl the site both up and
down the website’s architecture. And t
hey are increasingly common, especially on
larger or information
-
heavy websites because they are signposts: useful, usable and
easily understood.




Why is it important?

Pages deep within the site architecture which receive high numbers of quality links
a
re also able to pass Page Rank and value to closely related sections of the
website. Usually this is back along the site’s architecture to the most important
categories.


Recommendations:



Use Breadcrumbs to repeat the downward site architecture, just like
a
smaller version of the overall sitemap.



Ensure your page names always incorporate keywords.





31

Internal navigation

What is it?

Internal navigation is the system whereby internal links target deeper pages on the
same domain. It is ensuring that your page
s all link up logically and usefully; that
the deeper, lower pages are easy to get to; and that users or the spiders don’t lose
them.


Internal Links are most useful for establishing site architecture.



On each page, search engines need to see content in
order to list pages in their
massive, keyword
-
based, indices. They also need to have access to a crawlable link
structure


structures that let spiders browse the pathways of a website


to find all
the pages on a website.


Why is it important?

To make i
t possible for the major search engines to find the deeper pages on
websites it is important that your site has good internal navigation. If a search
engine can’t get at your sites’ pages, there’s no hope for them showing up in
search engine results.


Rec
ommendations:

Use clear and effective links on pages to lead users to other relevant content
within your site.



Internal linking

What is it?

Interlinking is the process by which an owner of multiple sites links them up to one
another. It is also the proce
ss of linking different pages of one given website to
each other; eg local Healthwatch linking to Healthwatch England.





32

Why is it important?

In the same way a website benefits from external links from other websites, it also
benefits from keyword focused

internal links to its other pages. The best links in
SEO are keyword links within good quality content. It is vital to link to the
important pages on your website from other relevant pages.


These keyword links can be used to improve the search engine ra
nkings of another
page and to lead your users through the website.


Recommendations:

Instead of text such as ‘more info’ or ‘click here’, proper keyword links ie
Watch
Anna Bradley of Healthwatch England’s message to Local Healthwatches

not only
improve the Google relevancy of the pages they link to, but are more likely to be
clicked on as they are relevant. Using the keyword of the page gives the user and
th
e search engine an idea of what to expect at the other end of the link.


Online businesses often use blogs for internal link building, as well as social media
marketing.


Google has begun to punish poor quality and ‘shallow’ content. So try not to use
mo
re than 1 link per 200 words of content for the best results. And the most
important links should always appear first to receive the most SEO value.


URL and file naming optimization

What is it?

Using SEO
-
friendly naming conventions can assist in optimisin
g each page on the
site to be keyword rich, descriptive and unique, cutting down the amount of
duplicated content on a website.


Why is it important?

If a page subject is mentioned in the URL or file name, it will reinforce the
relevancy of the page in th
e search engine rankings. Because Google is like an

33

index, it is more likely to rank web pages that exactly or closely match a search
query higher in the results than pages that do not.


Top
-
level URL structure is defined by CMS. URL structure is very impo
rtant for SEO.

Some users define relevance of a page within Search Engine results pages by the
URL.


Recommendations:



Use the same language throughout the URL.



Keep sections of URL short and snappy.



Put the main keyword at the beginning.



Separate words usi
ng a hyphen ‘
-
’.



Don’t use special characters (only a

z and 0

9).



Don’t use abbreviations (or other elements which are not self
-
explaining).



Don’t use underscores ‘_’ (they get hidden in the underline).



Don’t use capital letters, only lower case.



Don’t stu
ff URL with keywords.


SEO healthcheck

Offsite:
external links from the outside to your site (including social media).

Onsite technical
:

‘behind the scenes’ of the site, its code and structure.

Onsite content:

elements of the site viewable by users.

Access
ibility:
the site from a search engine crawler point of view.


Offsite

1a

Are links coming from a variety of link types?

1b

Number of inbound links vs. competitors?

1c

Has content been shared and distributed across social platforms?

1d

Is there a good
variety of anchor text in links pointing to the site?


34

1e

Are social platforms optimised to bring maximum SEO benefit to the site?

Onsite technical

2a

Does the site have SEO friendly URLs?

2b

Does the site have both user and XML sitemaps?

2c

How is the

site speed compared to other websites?

2d

Is there a lot of Flash, documents or other content that is not visible to search engines?

2e

What is the code to text ratio?

Onsite content

3a

Are the headers correctly implemented, and do they target appropr
iate keywords?

3b

Does the site have unique meta titles and descriptions on all key pages, where possible?

3c

Does the body copy include the correct ratio of keywords?

3d

Is there a blog, or any other form of regularly updated content?

3e

Are image alt

attributes optimised across all images where possible?

Accessibility


4a

Are there a significant number of 404 error pages?

4b

Are redirects used best for SEO purposes?

4c

Is internal linking SEO friendly? Are there any orphaned pages?

4d

How many pa
ges have been indexed vs submitted in the sitemap?

4e

Is the site structure coherent, logical, and easily crawlable?




35

Setting up a local Healthwatch
s
ite

Hosting advice


The 'Website in a box' bundle (
http://www.healthwatch.co.uk/website
-
in
-
a
-
box

)
includes everything you’ll need to build your local Healthwatch website. It uses the
Drupal content management system (CMS). The CMS publishing tools create the
blueprint for your website and the
home for your local content, but your website
also needs a place to live on the Internet.


To use the bundle, and publish your website, you’ll need to have it hosted on a
web server.

The installation guide in this document lists the hosting requirements
f
or a new website. You need to ensure that these requirements can be met by a
potential host or Internet Service Provider (ISP). The requirements are very basic
and we’ve included a sample letter email you can use to check your potential host
will meet thes
e requirements.



We’ve also provided guidance on how to install the files necessary for the CMS and
website to work. Many ISPs will do this for you for free or for a small charge. The
installation of the Drupal CMS is a straightforward process.




Healthw
atch England is not in a position to host and maintain local Healthwatch
sites beyond the 'website in a box' bundle we’re supplying for free.


However, we have investigated a range of commercial hosting solutions.
Reasonable quotes range from £2 per month

to £50 per month, with sufficient
bandwidth, storage space and technical support for a small
-
to
-
medium Drupal
website (with potential to expand if needed).





36

You do
not

need:



A ‘Drupal specialist’. Drupal is an open
-
source solution and this
configuratio
n does not have extensive custom modification.



A high
-
end transactional system, as you’re not likely to be processing secure
cash transactions, for example.



A media server, unless you have a lot (ie hours and hours) of popular video
files that you want to
stream continuously.



A high
-
bandwidth, high
-
data transfer solution


at least initially these will
be quite small sites and you can always upgrade if you need more.


Try to contact at least three hosting providers with the basic requirements we’ve
provided
. A draft enquiry for you to email a potential hosting service is given
below.


If you’re committed to using UK services, you should confirm that they’re located
in the UK.


Support during your office hours is crucial: if you use a company based overseas
,
make sure they have support available during your regular office hours.



Dear Sir/Madam


Local
Healthwatch is looking for hosting for our main site, which has been
developed in Drupal. We have a minimum spec (essentially the Drupal minimum
specification
) as follows:

A web server set up with access to the Internet with the following minimum
requirements:



2GB RAM



2 x CPU cores



Disk space: 15 Megabytes for a minimum base installation, 60 MB
with many contributed modules and themes, and more for database
co
ntent, media, backups and other files.



Web server: Apache, Nginx, or Microsoft IIS


37



Database server: MySQL 5.0.15 or higher with PDO



Note: Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle are supported by an
additional module PHPPHP 5.2.5 or higher (5.3 recommended)


so
me of the modules require 5.3



The recommended PHP memory limit setting is 128MB



Root access or CPanel/Plesk access is available




The site should be of moderate size and we project moderate traffic levels. Please
advise us of cost effective and suitable h
osting solutions. Please also advise if you
are able to help with the basic site installation and if there is a charge for this.



Many thanks....


Migrating content


For some local Healthwatch, migrating content to the new site may be a simple
task invol
ving copying and pasting content about team members, and adding
contact information and a few basic pages. But for other local Healthwatch the
task could be more complex.


Before you start content migration, consider the following checklist:

1.

Audit your ex
isting site.

2.

Clean your content.

3.

Save your images, video and audio files, PDFs etc.

4.

Create redirects.

5.

Migrate internal hyperlinks properly.

6.

Pe
r
form quality assurance tests.


Auditing your existing site

Be ruthless as you go through your existing site: deci
de which pages will really add
something useful to your new site and are still relevant to your new identity as a
local Healthwatch. If you have access to website analytics, you’ll also be able to

38

see which pages were getting traffic


this is a useful gui
de to what is worth
keeping.

Cleaning your content

If you have a large amount of content on an old site or locked up in PDF format, it
can be time
-
consuming to update and remove formatting, line breaks etc. Copy
and paste content into a simple text editor

like Notepad. Use this as an
intermediate stage before importing into the Content Management System


a lot
of hidden formatting can be more easily removed.

Saving your images, video and audio files, PDFs etc

It is good practice to have a back up copy of
your entire images folder(s) as well as

other media files. Make sure you download any images used on your site that may

be useful on your new one, eg profile pictures of staff with a role in the new local

Healthwatch.


Creating redirects

Any bookmarks to

the old site that users might have, or any links embedded in
online and offline advertisements will break when the new site is published. To
resolve this, a 301 redirect will have to be created that points old URLs to the
corresponding page in the new sit
e. It is worth prioritising those pages that were
getting significant traffic on the old site.


Migrating internal hyperlinks properly

Similar to the issue with redirects, if you migrate your site into a new directory
structure, you will need to create new

hyperlinks within your site.


Performing quality assurance tests

Performing quality assurance on a newly migrated web site is an important task.
Make sure you check every page and every link on every page, especially links in
the body of the content.


39

In
stallation


This section outlines the steps you should follow to install and configure your local
Healthwatch website using the source code and database downloaded from the
Healthwatch England website. It is intended for system administrators who have an
appropriate level of knowledge around the Linux operating system, and are familiar
with the basic tasks required to setup a website.

Requirements

A web server must be setup with access to the Internet and should meet the
following minimum requirements:



RAM

and CPU

o

2GB RAM.

o

2 x CPU cores.



Disk space

o

15 Megabytes for a minimum base installation, 60 MB with many
contributed modules and themes, and more for database content,
media, backups and other files.



Web server

o

Apache, Nginx, or Microsoft IIS.



Database
server

o

MySQL 5.0.15 or higher with PDO.

o

Note: Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle are supported by an
additional module PHP.



PHP

o

PHP 5.2.5 or higher (5.3 recommended)
--
some of the modules
require 5.3.

o

The recommended PHP memory limit setting is 128MB.



Root acc
ess or CPanel/Plesk access is available.



The local Healthwatch codebase has been downloaded from the
Healthwatch England site.



The MySQL dump file has been downloaded from the Healthwatch England
site.



40

Installation procedure

1. Create a domain name for yo
ur local Healthwatch site.

2. Point the domain name to your web server document root. The document
root of the web server varies with installation and operating system. Its best
to get advice from the hosting provider to confirm the web server’s
document

root.

For example, if using CPanel/Plesk, this should look like
/home/<username>/public_html; if using a local Redhat/Centos
installation, this should look like /var/www/html; if using a local
Ubuntu/Debian installation, this should look like /var/www

3.

Create a virtual host for the domain, and configure it to point at the
document root.

4. Place the code in the apache document root.

5. Create a MySQL database and import the database dump download from
Healthwatch England site.

6. Create a MySQL user wit
h full permissions to that database.

7. Login to the file manager in CPanel/Plesk or SSH to your hosting server.

8. Locate sites/default/settings.php in your document root.

9. Update the database, username, password and host details in settings.php

10. Giv
e full permission (755) to sites/default/files.

11. Change the ownership of sites/default/files to the apache user.

Post
-
installation checks

1. Confirm that Apache is running (default port 80).

2. Confirm that MySQL is running (default port 3306).

3. Brows
e to the site home page and confirm that the local Healthwatch
homepage is visible. The URL for this will be specific to the domain name
you have chosen, but will be something like:
www.yourdomainname.com

Post
-
installation configuration

Change the default password for the site administrator

1. Login using the default administrator account. The username and password
will have been sent to you by Healthwatch England.


41

2. Click on the red ‘Hello Admin’ button that
appears in the top administration
menu.

3. Click on the ‘Edit’ tab.

4. Enter the current password.

5. Enter a new email address.

6. Enter a new password.

7. Click ‘Save’.

Change the site name

1. Login using the default administrator account.

2. Hover over
the ‘Configuration’ link on the administration menu.

3. When the dropdown appears, hover over the ‘System’ link and click on ‘Site
information’.

4.
Enter a new site name (eg local

Healthwatch).

5. Enter a new email address. This is the address that all sys
tem notifications
will be sent to.

6. Click ‘Save’.

Change the Google analytics UID

1. If you are using Google Analytics to track you site usage, login using the
default administrator account.

2. Hover over the ‘Configuration’ link on the administration me
nu.

3. When the dropdown appears, hover over the ‘System’ link and click on
‘Google Analytics’.

4. Enter a new Web Property ID.

5. Enter a new email address. This is the address that all system notifications
will be sent to.

6. Click ‘Save’.

Upload your lo
go

1. Login using the default administrator account.

2. Hover over the ‘Appearance’ link on the administration menu.

3. When the dropdown appears, hover over the ‘Settings’ link and click on
‘myhealthwatch’.

4. Scroll to the bottom of the page, and in the
‘Logo image settings’ section
ensure that ‘Use the default logo’ is unchecked.


42

5. In the same section, click the ‘Browse’ button and select the logo supplied
to you by Healthwatch England. Use the logo that ends in ‘.png’

6. Click ‘Save configuration’.


43

Op
eration Guide

Overview

This document outlines the basic user operations necessary for the using and
maintaining the Local Healthwatch website. It is intended for users who have are
familiar Content Management Systems (CMS) and creating content to be publis
hed
on a website. This document is not intended to substitute basic training in Drupal,
which should be considered as a pre
-
requisite for any users who have limited
experience in this area.

Basic Operations

Logging in and out

Public users of the site will
not be permitted to log in to the website. This
functionality is reserved for Local Healthwatch Organisation administrators and
content editors only. To login, please follow the steps below:


1.

On the homepage, click the ‘Admin’ link in the footer.

2.

When the
login page appears, enter your username and password that were
supplied to you by Healthwatch England (if you are the site administrator
logging in for the first time) or by your local system administrator.

3.

If you have forgotten your password, click the ‘R
equest new password’ tab on the
login page, where you will be required to enter your username or email
address.

4.

The website will send you an email with a ‘one
-
time’ login link. Clicking on this link
will take you through to the ‘Edit your account’ page whe
re you can set a new
password. Please note that this link can be used only once.

The administration menu

Once logged in, you will see that a black administration menu appears across the
top of the page. This menu will give you access to all the CMS functio
nality on the
site, and the contents of the menu will be different depending on what role your
user account has been assigned.


44

Managing users

Roles and permissions

The l
ocal Healthwatch website has been setup with three distinct role types


Administrator,

Editor and Publisher. The purpose of these roles is as follows:


Role

Purpose

Administrator

The
administrator

role is a very powerful one, and should
be assigned only to users with a good understanding of
system administration and configuration.


Users
with this role will carry out tasks such as:



Creating and deleting users



Amending permissions of users



Changing configuration of installed modules



Installing new modules



Creating site reports

Users with this role will not be able to create content.

Editor

The
editor

role is primarily intended for users who are
responsible for creating (but not publishing) content.


Users with this role will carry out tasks such as:



Creating new content pages and submitting for review



Creating new block content and assign r
egions where the
block should be displayed

Note: in order to create content pages AND publish them so
that they can be viewed by the public, the ‘Publisher’ role
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publisher

role is primarily intended for users who are
respo
nsible for publishing (but not creating) content.


Users with this role will carry out tasks such as:



Publishing (or rejecting) content changes that have been
submitted for review by a content editor



Making editorial changes to submitted content prior to
p
ublication


Note: where possible, it is desirable to assign separate roles to distinct users to
ensure responsibilities are clearly defined. Where users have multiple
responsibilities this will not always be appropriate, in which case a user can be
assign
ed multiple roles (e.g. a user can be an ‘editor’ as well as a ‘publisher’ in
which case they will be able to create and approve their own content.


45

Creating and deleting users

Creating new users

New users are created from the ‘People’ dropdown on the admin
istration menu.

1.

Hover over the ‘People’ link on the administration menu

2.

When the dropdown appears click the ‘Add user’ link

3.

Complete the new user’s details including username, email address, password and
role

4.

Tick the ‘Notify user of new account’ checkbox

5.

The new user will receive an email containing a one
-
time login link. Clicking on this
link will take the user through to the ‘Edit your account’ page where they will
be required to set a new password.

Deleting users

Users are deleted from the ‘People’ dro
pdown on the administration menu.

1.

Click on the ‘People’ link on the administration menu

2.

Identify the user to be deleted and click the ‘Cancel’ link

3.

The default setting is to ‘Disable the account and keep its content’. This is the
setting to be used unless
you are completely sure that the user will never
require reinstatement. If the user will not require reinstatement, choose the
setting ‘Delete the account and make its content belong to the
Anonymous

user’

4.

Click ‘Cancel account’


46


Managing content

Content
types

Content types in Drupal are preformatted templates that assist in content editing
and creation. Each content type has a specific purpose, and requires different
information to be input. The Local Healthwatch site has been setup with the
following con
tent types:


Content type

Purpose

Basic page

This
Basic page

content
type is used for the
simplest content on the
site. It contains a title
and body field and should
be used for all general
site content (e.g. site
terms and conditions,
privacy policy etc.
)

Basic sectioned page

The
Basic sectioned page

is content type is
designed for pages that
require the content to be
displayed in sections with
separate section headers.
The content type has the
standard title and header
fields, but also allows the
user t
o add an unlimited
number of section blocks,
and a mini table of
contents. Each section
block will be displayed
with the pink header
ribbon that can be seen
on the ‘About us’ or
‘frequently asked
questions’ pages.
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ensure that the ‘Generate
Menu’ option is set to
‘No’.
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ensure the ‘Collapse
Sections’ option is set to

47

‘No’

CQC provider

The
CQC provider

content type is used to
create new pages fo
r
local care service
providers. The site is
preconfigured with a full
listing from the CQC
website, however over
time you may be required
to add new providers
and/or amend and delete
existing ones

Document

The
Document

content
type is used to upload
word,

excel or PDF
documents to the site.
These will automatically
be displayed in the ‘About
| Useful info’ section of
the website

News

The
News

content type is
used to create news
articles on the site. The
homepage on the Local
Healthwatch website is
configu
red with a view
that automatically
displays the 4 most recent
news articles in
descending order by
publication date. Content
that use the
News

content type is different
from other content types
in that they can be
scheduled for auto
-
publication

Team/Board

The
Team/Board

content
type is used specifically
for profiles of
organisation team and/or
board members

Video

The
Video

content type
allows users to embed a
YouTube video into a
page on the site.

Webform

The
Webform

content
type should be used for
crea
ting new contact
forms. The Local
Healthwatch site is

48

preconfigured with two
forms already


‘Contact
us’ and ‘Feedback’ forms



The workbench module

The l
ocal Healthwatch website has been setup with the Drupal Workbench module.
This module ensures that c
ontent is created and a managed through a controlled
workflow whereby content changes have to be submitted for approval before they
become visible on the website

Creating a new page

In order to create and publish content, please follow the steps below:


Co
ntent Editor

1.

Hover over the ‘Workbench’ link on the administration menu

2.

When the dropdown appears hover over the ‘Create content’ link, and click on the
type of content type that is required

3.

Enter the content

4.

In the ‘Revision information’ tab at the bottom

of the page, ensure that ‘Draft’ is
selected in the ‘Moderation’ dropdown and click ‘Save’. This will save the
content but not yet submit it for review. Content can be submitted directly for
review by changing the dropdown value to ‘Needs Review’ and then

clicking
‘Save’

5.

To submit a ‘Draft’ page for review at a later date, click on ‘My Drafts’ page from
the ‘Workbench’ dropdown in the administration menu; locate the page to be
submitted in the table, and then click on ‘Needs Review’ in the ‘Moderate’
colum
n next to the page title.

Publisher

1.

Once a page has been submitted for review, it will appear in the Publisher’s ‘Needs
review’ queue. To access the queue, hover over the ‘Workbench’ link on the
administration menu

2.

When the dropdown appears click on the ‘N
eeds review’ link

3.

Identify the page to be published in the table

4.

Open the page by clicking on the page title link

5.

To set the page back to ‘Draft’ status, click on the ‘Draft’ link in the moderate
column

6.

To approve and publish the page, click on the ‘Publis
hed’ link in the moderate
column

7.

Click ‘Apply’


49

Scheduling a News item for automatic publishing

News content types are different to other content types in that they can either be
published through the ‘Workbench’ method as described above OR can be
schedule
d for auto
-
publishing. This feature is useful if news articles need to be
prepared and reviewed in advance of publications, and then need to be published
on a specific date and time in the future. The steps for auto
-
publishing News
articles are:


Content E
ditor

1.

Create the page as you would any other content type and submit for ‘Needs
Review’


Publisher

1.

Once a page has been submitted for review, it will appear in the Publisher’s ‘Needs
review’ queue. To access the queue, hover over the ‘Workbench’ link on th
e
administration menu

2.

When the dropdown appears click on the ‘Needs review’ link

3.

Identify the page to be published in the table

4.

Open the page by clicking on the page title link

5.

Click on the ‘Edit draft’ tab at the top of the page

6.

Click on the ‘Scheduling o
ptions’ tab at the bottom of the page

7.

Enter a date and time in the ‘Publish on’ field in the format shown

8.

Click ‘Save’


Note: this document will be published the next time that the Drupal task scheduler
runs
after

the date and time specified. By default th
e task scheduler is set to run
hourly. Site administrators can amend the frequency that the scheduler runs.

Displaying content links on the homepage

The homepage incorporates a dynamic panel, which displays a summarised version
of pages and ‘Read more’ lin
ks. The summarised version of a page is uses the page
title, the text in the ‘Summary’ field, and the ‘Promo image’ (if present). The
‘Read more link’ will display automatically, and clicking on it will take users to the
full version of the page.



50


The lis
t of pages that are displayed on the homepage is controlled by site editors
and publishers.

Adding a page to the dynamic panel on the home page

1.

As a site editor or publisher, open the page to be added

2.

Click the ‘New draft’ tab at the top of the page

3.

At th
e bottom of the page, click the ‘add to home page’ button

Removing a page from the dynamic panel on the home page

1.

As a site editor or publisher, open the page to be added

2.

Click the ‘New draft’ tab at the top of the page

3.

At the bottom of the page, click the

‘remove from home page’ button

The media gallery

The Local Healthwatch website incorporates a media gallery that editors and
publishers can add images to. Once added, these images can be incorporated into
site pages and blocks using the text editor menu f
or creating/amending content.
To add new images to the media gallery, follow the steps below:

1.

Hover over ‘My Workbench’ in the administration menu

2.

When the dropdown appears click on the ‘Import media’ link

3.

Click on the ‘Media’ tab at the top of the page

4.

To

add a new file, click on the ‘Add file’ link, and choose the file to upload

5.

To remove an existing file, select the file by checking the tickbox adjacent to it;
select ‘delete’ in the ‘Operations’ dropdown and click the ‘Submit’ button

Creating and managin
g blocks

Blocks are regions of content that can be positioned around the site such that they
appear in a certain screen location on one or more pages, and can contain text,
images and/or links. An example of block on the Local Healthwatch site is the ‘This

is a sample block…’ on the homepage.

Creating a new block

1.

From the administration menu, choose Structure | Blocks | Add block

2.

Add a block title, description and body

3.

In the ‘myhealthwatch (default theme)’ dropdown, choose the region where you
want the blo
ck to appear. The most common region used is the ‘Sidebar

51

Second’ region, which represents the right hand side column on all of the site
pages

4.

Click the ‘Pages’ tab at the bottom of the page. If you want the new block to
appear on all pages in the site, ch
eck the ‘All pages except those listed’ radio
button, and leave the text box below empty. If you want the new page to
appear only on certain pages, check the ‘Only the listed pages’ radio button
and enter the page path in the box below. For example, if you

wanted the new
block to only show on the ‘About us’ page, enter the path content/about in the
box below.

5.

Click ‘Save block’

Amending the content or settings of existing blocks

To amend the content or settings of an existing block, follow the steps below:

1.

From the administration menu, choose Structure | Blocks

2.

Click the ‘Configure’ link next to the block to be amended

3.

Amend the block title, description and/or body text or amend the settings, which
determine on which pages the block does/does not appear.

4.

Cli
ck ‘Save block’

Amending the location of existing blocks

To amend the location where an existing block is displayed, follow the steps
below:

1.

From the administration menu, choose Structure | Blocks

2.

Drag and drop the block listing to the region section here
you want it to appear.

3.

Click ‘Save blocks’ at the bottom of the page

Adding an image to a block (or page)

1.

With the block (or page) in edit mode, click the location in the body field where
the image will appear

2.

Click the ‘Add media’ button on the editor men
u as shown in the screenshot:








52


3.

To insert the image from the media gallery, click on the ‘Library’ tab

4.

Select the image from the gallery, and click ‘Submit’

5.

Leave the format as the default, and enter a description

6.

Click the ‘Submit’ button

Creating a

new video page

In order to create and publish content, please follow the steps below:


Content Editor

1.

Hover over the ‘Workbench’ link on the administration menu