Normal Abdominal Radiographic Anatomy

daughterduckUrban and Civil

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

66 views

Introduction to Abdominal
Radiology

Meghan Woodland, DVM


Indications



Vomiting/Diarrhea


Abdominal Pain


Hematuria


Abdominal Mass/Distension


Tenesmus (Pain on Defecation)


Technical Factors



Abdomen has low inherent contrast


Lower kVp


Higher mAs


Collimation


High amount of scatter


Use grid (if patient is >10
-
11cm thick)


Take exposure on expiration

Positioning



VD and R lateral views


Include from diaphragm to pelvic inlet


Fore limbs pulled cranially


Hind limbs pulled caudally


Additional views as necessary


Radiographic techniques: the dog


By Joe P. Morgan, John Doval, Valerie Samii

Radiographic techniques: the dog


By Joe P. Morgan, John Doval, Valerie Samii

Improper
positioning.
Could miss a
diaphragmatic
hernia.

Unprepared

Abdomen

“Butt Shot”


Urethral Calculi

Interpretation of Abdominal
Radiographs


Liver


Spleen


Kidneys


GIT (Stomach, SI, Cecum, LI)


Bladder


Prostate


Extra
-
abdominal structures

Structures Not Normally Seen


Gall bladder


Pancreas


Adrenals


Ovaries


Uterus


Ureters


Lymph Nodes


Mesentery


Vasculature

Liver


Lateral view:


Caudo
-
ventral margin angular


Should not extend beyond the costal arch


Normal gastric axis parallel to ribs or perpendicular
to spine


VD view:


Liver margins not well seen


Long axis of stomach perpendicular to spine


Over
-
inflation of chest gives false appearance of enlarged liver

Spleen


Size is subjective


Lateral view:


Tail of spleen visible, but position varies


Not usually seen on this view in cats


VD view:


Head of the spleen is visualized


Caudo
-
lateral to stomach
fundus


Cranio
-
lateral to left kidney


Cats : often seen lying along the left body wall

Dog


Lateral View

Dog


VD View

Cat


Lateral View

Cat


VD View

Kidneys


Right located cranial to left


May be difficult to see in young or emaciated
animals


Size (only evaluated on VD view)


Dogs: 2 ½ to 3 ½ times the length of L2


Cats: 2 to 3 times the length of L2

Dog


Lateral View


Dog


VD View

Cat


Lateral View

Cat


VD View

Gastrointestinal Tract


Stomach


Caudal to liver


Gastric Axis


Less than 3 ICS wide on lateral view


VD:


Dog = U
-
shaped


Cat = J
-
shaped

Dog


VD View


“U
-
Shaped” Stomach

Cat


VD View

“J
-
Shaped” Stomach

Gastrointestinal Tract


Small Intestine


Size: Width less than 3 times the last rib


Duodenum


Fixed along the right side


Extends caudally from the pyloric region of the stomach


Jejunum/Ileum


Position Varies


Mid
-
ventral abdomen


Gastrointestinal Tract


Cecum


Comma shaped


Mid, right abdomen


Not often seen in cats


Large Intestine


Ascending, transverse and descending colon


Size: Width less than 5 times the last rib


Cecum


VD View

Cecum


Lateral View

Megacolon in a Dog

Descending colon

Transverse Colon

Ascending Colon

Contrast Study

Transverse Colon

Ascending Colon

Descending colon

Bladder


Size varies


Dog:


Oval to ellipsoid


Caudal abdomen or pelvic


Cat:


Ellipsoid


Always intra
-
abdominal (elongated bladder neck)


Dog


Lateral View

Bladder more
pelvic

Cat


Lateral View

Long Bladder Neck

Prostate


Intact males ++


Caudal to bladder


Symmetrical with smooth margins


Size:


Lateral: Less than 70% of sacro
-
pubic distance


VD: Less than 50% of pelvic inlet width


Extra
-
Abdominal Structures



Soft Tissues


Bone (Spine, Pelvis, Hind limbs)


Diaphragm


Thorax (if visible)

Decreased Abdominal Detail


Inability to distinguish organs


Causes:


Young Animals *


Emaciated Animals


Peritoneal Fluid


Inflammation (Peritonitis, Pancreatitis)


Carcinomatosis




Normal finding

Emaciated Cat

Abdominal Fluid

How Many
Babies?

Fun Slides

Where is the
foreign body?

What organs are mineralized?

????

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2

THE END!