MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW SHEET ANSWERS 2007

dactylonomyskittlesBiotechnology

Feb 12, 2013 (4 years and 2 months ago)

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MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW SHEET ANSWERS


1.

simple, reproduce fast, and able to adapt

2.

micrometers

3.

assigned a genus & species name, source is usually Latin or Greek, named using a characteristic of
bacteria

4.

Semmelweis

5.

make food, medicine, hu
man hormones,
biotechnology, recombinant DNA, immunology, etc. (see
page 2 in your textbook)

6.

microbes, spores

7.

pathogen

8.


emerging, reemerging

9.

emerging

10.

Van Leeuwenhoek

11.


Pasteur

12.

barren or devoid of life

13.

Koch

14.

sca
nning electron microscope

15.

contains 2 or more known species

16.

see page 72 in your textbook

17.

multiply the eye piece magnification and objective magnification (ex. 10x X 40x = 400
)

18.

has unwanted microbes of unknown species

19
.

discrete moun
ds of cells of 1 species

20
.

inoculation, isolation, incubation, inspection, & identification

21
.

test tubes, flasks, or Petri dishes

22
.

no

23
.

macroscopic, media

24
.

cell without a membrane bound nucleus

25
.

amphitrichous, monotrichous, lophotrichous, pe
ritrichous

26
.

different in cell wall structure/composition

27
.

see page 105 in your textbook (coccus, bacillus, spirillum, etc)

28
.

control nutrients passage into the cell, control waste discharge, & site of metabolic activities

29
.

lipid bilayer with imb
edded proteins


Selectively permeable

30
.

survival

31
.

peptidoglycan (PG)

32
.


peritrichous

33
.

cell membrane, glycocalyx, DNA, ribosomes, inclusion bodies,


Cell wall, appendages (flagella, pilus, fimbria), endospores, plasmids

34
.

pilus

35
.

see #
28

36
.

Sporosarcina, Bacillus, Clostridium

37
.

between cell wall & cell membrane

38
.

protect against water/nutrient loss

& phagocytosis

39
.

capsule & slime layer

40
.

peptidoglycan (PG)

41
.

nucleic acid & protein


Capsomers

42
.

cell membrane

43

cell cultures, bird

embryos

44
.

capsid, nucleic acid (RNA/DNA), and proteins


envelope

45
.

detect antibodies in blood, isolate & cultivate virus, & evaluate signs & symptoms

46
.

No

47
.

No, particle

48
.

all organisms

49
.

cytoplasm


Nucleus

50
.

plaques

51
.

circular
pieces of D
NA


used as vectors, passed on in conjugation

52
.

use both physical & chemical agents

53
.

fragments of DNA that are cut & leave “staggered” ends


restriction enzymes

54
.

DNA ligase

55
.

Is sterilization required? Item to be reused? Can the agent penetrate

the material to extent
necessary?

Can the item withstand heat
, pressure, & radiation? Is the method suitable for a given
application? Is the method cost and labor efficient? Is it safe?

56
.

permanent loss of reproductive ability

57
.

chemical
-
see pages

335
-
343 in your textbook


Physical
-
heat (including dry & moist),
gamma waves, & radiation

58
.

sterilize
-

destroy or remove all viable microbes including viruses




Ex.
-
autoclave


disinfection
-
use an agent to destroy vegetative pathogens, but not endospore
s


Ex.
-
bleach

59
.

sanitizing

60
.

drug can’t damage a particular disease causing organism

61
.

destroys microbes

62
.

endospores

63
.

Penicillin
-
affects the cell wall;
heat
-
affects protein function;
triclosan
-
affects cell membrane;
surfactant
-
affect cell membr
ane;
ethyl alcohol
-
affect the cell membrane;
bleach
-
affects protein
function;
radiation
-
affects protein & nucleic acid synthesis

64
.

reduce the number of microbes on an object

65
.

number of bacteria present, temperature of the environment, presence of orga
nic matter, nature of
microbes in the population, concentration of the agent, & mode of action

66
.

conjugation
-
involves a pilli on the donor bacterium, DNA gets passed from one bacterial cell to
another, allows bacterium to acquire a new trait


transductio
n
-
requires a bacteriophage, virus donates the DNA to the bacterium, allows bacterium
to acquire a new trait


transformation
-
pieces of DNA in the environment are taken in by the bacterium, allows the
bacterium to acquire a new trait


All 3 ways allow the ba
cterium to acquire a positive new trait

67
.

number of microbes, nature of microbe, & mode of action of microbe

68.

agar

69.

log phase

70.

192 cells

71.

Thermophile
-
45
-
80º C


Mesophile
-

20
-
40º C


Psychrophile
-
0
-
15ºC

72.

See page 211

73.

tissue dea
th

74.

active infection with no noticeable symptoms

75.

infections that wouldn’t normally occur in healthy person; show up in a host who has been
compromised

76.

epidemic
-
sudden localized infection; number of infected individuals higher that expected


Pa
ndemic
-
affects many nations; world wide infections

77.

in hospitals

78.

1
-
find evidence of a particular microbe in every case of the disease; 2
-
isolate that microbe from an
infected subject and cultivate it artificially in the lab; 3
-
inoculate a susceptibl
e healthy subject with
the lab strain and observe the resulting disease; 4
-
reisolate the agent from the subject