Chapter 1

dactylonomyskittlesBiotechnology

Feb 12, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Chapter 1

The Main Themes of Microbiology


Chapter Summary



This chapter introduces the student to the world of microbiology, both the positive aspects and the
detrimental. The chapter reveals the scope of microbiology and gives a broad overview of the ar
eas of
science included in this topic. The student will receive an introduction to the history of microbiology,
covering the major scientific contributions to the development of microbiology

including the
development of the microscope and the formation of
the germ theory.

The student will also be introduced to the hierarchy of classification. The basis of taxonomy is
discussed and the order of assigning specific names is clearly presented. Different systems of
classification are outlined. There is also a di
scussion of the origin and evolution of microorganisms that
should trigger a good classroom discussion.


Chapter Outline


1.1.

The Scope of Microbiology

A.

The study of organisms too small to be seen without magnification.

B.

Including bacteria, viruses,

fungi, protozoa, algae and helminthes.

C.

Includes agricultural microbiology, biotechnology, food microbiology, dairy microbiology,
aquatic microbiology, genetic engineering, public health microbiology and epidemiology,
and immunology.


1.2.

The Impa
ct of Microbes on Earth: Small Organisms with a Giant Effect

A.

First bacterial
-
type organisms on the planet for 3.5 billion years

B.

First eukaryotic cell types arose 1.8 billion years ago

C.

Ubiquitous

D.

Energy and nutrient flow


1.3. Human Use of Microorganisms

A.

Biotechnology and genetic engineering

B.

Bioremediation


1.4.


Infectious Diseases and the Human Condition

A.

Pathogens

B.

Worldwide infectious disease statistics

C.

Emerging diseases


1.5.

The General Characteristics of Microorganisms

A.

Cellular organization

1. Prokary
otic cells

2. Eukaryotic cells

B.

A note on viruses

C.

Microbial dimensions: How small is small?



1. Millimeters to nanometers

D.

Life
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styles of microorganisms

1. Parasites

2. Hosts




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2

1.6.

The Historical Foundations of Microbiology

A.

The development o
f the microscope: "Seeing Is Believing"



1. Hooke



2. Leeuwenhoek

B.

The establishment of the scientific method



1. Hypothesis



2. Deductive approach



3. The theory

C.

The development of medical microbiology



1. The discovery of spores and ster
ilization



2. The development of aseptic technique



3. The discovery of pathogens and the germ theory of disease

1.7.

Taxonomy: Naming, Classifying, and Identifying Microorganisms



A.

Nomenclature



B.

Taxonomy



C.

The levels of classification



D.

Assigning specific names



D.

The origin and evolution of microorganisms

E.

Systems of presenting a universal tree of life

1.


Five
-
kingdom system: Whittaker

2.

Three
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domain system: Woese
-
Fox


Key Terms and Phrases


Emerging diseases

Pathogens

Bioremediat
ion

Genetic engineering

Microbiology

Microscopic

Microorganisms

Microbes

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi

Protozoa

Algae

Macroscopic

Adaptability

Immunology

Epidemiology

Biotechnology

Infectious

Prokaryote

Eukaryote

Parasites

Hosts

Spontaneous generation

Abiogenesis

Biogenesis

Scientific methods

Hypotheses

Deduction

Deductive

Theories

Law

Sterilization

Aseptic techniques

Germ theory of disease

Nomenclature

Taxonomy

Taxa

Classification

Identification

Domain

Kingdom

Phylum

Division

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Hierarchies

Scientific method

Species

Scientific names

Evolutionary

Morphology

Physiology

Genetics

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Kingdom Procaryotae

Kingdom Protista

Kingdom Myceteae

Kingdom Animalia

Kingdom Plantae