Ship Design & Engineering

cypriotcamelUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Ship Design

& Engineering

Introduction


Principles of ship design


Basic ship structure, including forces


Ship structural elements


Compartment Numbering


Submarine Design


Piping Systems & Coloring

Basic Design Considerations


Operation Employment


Mission:

task or job ship is designed to perform


Armament:

measure of offensive & defensive
power of ship


Protection:

features designed to thwart or
minimize destructiveness of enemy attack


Maneuverability:

rapid course/speed changes


Cruising range:

distance a ship can travel at
cruising speed without refuel/reprovision

Basic Design Considerations


Structural design & seaworthiness


Stability:

ability of ship to return to an upright
position when heeled over


Displacement:

measured in tons of water


Freeboard:

vertical distance between top of
hull and water line


Hull shape


Beam

Basic Forces Acting on Ships


Stress


Load per unit area (psi)


Tension, compression, shear, torsion


Strain


Deformation per unit length


Longitudinal Bending


Sagging


Hogging

Stress


Def’n: load a member is carrying per unit
area (psi)



Types:



Tension:

axial stress
exerted by pulling



Compression:

axial stress
exerted by pressure on ends



Shear:

equal but opposite
forces at right angle



Torsion:

stress caused by
twisting motion

Strain


Def’n: the distortion/deformation per unit
length as a result of stress


Measured in inches per inch (in/in)

Sagging


Condition where ship is supported more at
its ends


Compression of main deck


Tension of the bottom/keel

Hogging


Condition where ship is supported more in
its middle


Tension of main deck


Compression of bottom/keel

Ship Structural Elements


Keel


Centerline backbone of ship


Runs the length of the ship


Framing


Ribs of ship, provide structural strength
-
> define
form of ship


Types:


Transverse (extend outward from keel)


Longitudinal (parallel to keel, run length of ship)

Ship Structural Elements


Bottom


Cellular region comprised of keel & framing


Plating


Skin over framework
-
> rectangular steel plates
welded together

Ship Structural Elements


Decks


“Floors” of a ship (sometimes called “levels”)


Horizontal partitions that form tiers


Main deck is uppermost complete deck


Bulkhead


“Walls” of a ship


Horizontal partitions that form compartments


Can either be structural or non
-
structural
(joiner)

Ship Structural Elements

Ship Structural Elements


Doors


Passage between spaces on SAME level


Can be Water
-
Tight (sealed with “dogs”)


Individually acting v. Quick
-
acting


Hatches


Passage between spaces on DIFFERENT levels


Most are water
-
tight boundaries

Compartment Numbering


System used for ships built after 1949


4 main parts


Deck



Frame


Compartment


Use




ex:

5


32


0


E



Deck


Frame

Compartment

Use

Compartment Numbering


Deck:



Meaning: “Space is located on this deck”


Upper levels are 01,02… successively from main


Main deck is 1



Lower decks are 2,3,4… successively from main

Compartment Numbering


Frame:



Meaning: “Forward boundary of compartment
is on or immediately aft of this frame number”


Sequential number given to transverse frames
fore to aft

Compartment Numbering


Compartment:



Indicates position of compartment relative to
centerline


Centerline compartments are “0”


Numbers follow in succession from centerline
outboard


Even numbers for Port side (2,4,6, …)


Odd numbers for Starboard side (1,3,5, …)

… 6 4 2 0 1 3 5 …


Port

Centerline

Starboard

Compartment Numbering


Use:



Letter that designates primary use of the space


Examples


“A”: Supply & Storage


“C”: Control (ship control or fire control)


“E”: Engineering


“F”: Fuel tank


“L”: Living


“M”: Ammunition


“T”: Trunk


“V”: Void


“W”: Water tank


Submarine Design


Hull (made of HY
-
80 or HY
-
90 steel)


Watertight envelope designed to resist
submergence pressure at CRUSH DEPTH


Inner hull (pressure hull)


Outer hull (non
-
pressure hull)

Submarine Design


Structural Members


Similar to surface ship but rounded for
submarine hull shape and THICKER


All levels have expansion joints (varying
submergence pressures)

Piping & Valve Numbering
Systems


White


Yellow


Purple


Dark Gray


Light Gray/Tan


Blue


Light Blue


Orange

Steam

Oil

JP
-
5

HP Air

LP Air

Chillwater

Feedwater

Hydraulics



Numbering system for valves similar to that for
compartments (ie: MS
-
1, MS
-
2, etc.)

Questions, Comments,
Concerns?