PHYSICS 231
INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS I
Lecture 22
•
Simple Pendulum
•
Traveling Waves
•
Longitudinal, Transverse
•
Sinusoidal wave
•
Speed, frequency, wavelength
Last Lecture
Speed of a Wave in a Vibrating
String
T
is tension.
Pitch = frequency:
Example 13.9
A string is tied tightly between points
A
and
B
as a communication device. If one wants to
double the wave speed, one could:
a) Double the tension
b) Quadruple the tension
c) Use a string with half the mass
d) Use a string with double the mass
e) Use a string with quadruple the mass
Superposition Principle
Traveling waves can pass
through each other without
being altered.
Reflection
–
Fixed End
Reflected wave is inverted
Reflection
–
Free End
Reflected pulse not inverted
Chapter 14
Sound
Sound Waves
•
Sound is longitudinal pressure (compression) waves
•
Range of hearing: 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
FREQUENCY DEMO
Speed of Sound
Liquids and Gases: B is bulk
modulus,
r
楳 mass/volume
Solids: Y is Young’s modulus
331 m/s is
v
at 0
°
C;
T is the absolute temperature.
Example 14.1
John Brown hits a steel railroad rail with a hammer.
Betsy Brown, standing one mile down the track, hears
the bang through the cool 32
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s楳瑥t Boops楥 楳 ly楮朠g數琠瑯th敲 and h敡rs 瑨攠扡n朠
through the steel by placing her ear on the track.
DATA: Y
steel
=2.0x10
11
Pa,
r
steel
=7850 kg/m
3
What is the time difference between the moments
when Betsy and Boopsie hear the bang?
4.54 s
Intensity of Sound Waves
SI units are W/m
2
Power
Area
Intensity is proportional to square
of amplitude (pressure modulation)
Intensity Range for Human Hearing
Threshold of Hearing
•
10

12
W/m
2
•
D
倠~ 10

10
atm !
Threshold of Pain
•
1.0 W/m
2
Decibel Scale
Sensation is logarithmic
•
I
0
is threshold of hearing
(0 dB)
•
Threshold of Pain is
therefore 120 dB
Intensity vs. Intensity Level
•
INTENSITY
is P/A, W/m
2
•
INTENSITY LEVEL
is in decibels (dimensionless)
Sound Level Demo
Example 14.2
A noisy machine in a factory produces a sound with a level
of 80 dB. How many machines can the factory house
without exceeding the 100

dB limit?
a) 12.5 machines
b) 20 machines
c) 100 machines
Spherical Waves
Energy propagates equally in
all directions
Example 14.3 (skip)
A train sounds its horn as it approaches an intersection.
The horn can just be heard at a level of 50 dB by an
observer 10 km away. Treating the horn as a point source
and neglect any absorption of sound by the air or ground,
a) What is the average power generated by the horn?
b) What intensity level of the horn’s sound is observed by
someone waiting at an intersection 50 m from the train?
a) 126 W
b) 96 dB
Example 14.4
Bozo Bob buys a 20

W train whistle and figures out
that he won’t have any trouble standing 2 meters
from the whistle since his stereo speakers are rated
at 100 W and he has little trouble with the speakers
turned all the way up. What is the intensity level of
the whistle?
116 dB
Doppler Effect
A change in the frequency experienced by an
observer due to motion of either the observer or
the source.
DOPPLER DEMO
Doppler Effect, Moving Observer
Fig 14.8, p. 435
Slide 12
When not moving,
When moving,
If observer moves away:
Fig 14.9, p. 436
Slide 13
Example 14.5
Mary is riding a roller coaster. Her mother who is
standing on the ground behind her yells out to her at a
frequency of 1000 Hz, but it sounds like 920 Hz.
(v=343 m/s)
What is Mary’s speed?
27.4 m/s
Doppler Effect
Source in Motion
applet
Doppler Effect
Source in Motion
Doppler Effect, Source in Motion
Approaching source:
Source leaving:
Example 14.6
An train has a brass band playing a song on a flatcar. As
the train approaches the station at 21.4 m/s, a person on
the platform hears a trumpet play a note at 3520 Hz.
DATA: v
sound
= 343 m/s
a) What is the true frequency of the trumpet?
b) What is the wavelength of the sound?
c) If the trumpet plays the same note after passing the
platform, what frequency would the person on the
platform hear?
a) 3300 Hz
b) 9.74 cm
c) 3106 Hz
Fig 14.11, p. 439
Slide 15
Shock Waves (Sonic Booms)
When the source velocity approaches the speed of sound,
Application: speed radar
Application: weather radar
Both humidity (reflected intensity) and speed of clouds
(doppler effect) are measured.
Doppler Effect:
Both Observer and Source Moving
Switch appropriate signs if observer
or source moves away
Example 14.7
At rest, a car’s horn sounds the note A (440 Hz). The
horn is sounded while the car moves down the
street. A bicyclist moving in the same direction at
10 m/s hears a frequency of 415 Hz.
DATA: v
sound
= 343 m/s.
What is the speed of the car? (Assume the cyclist is
behind the car)
31.3 m/s
Example 14.8a
A train has a whistle with a frequency of a 1000 Hz,
as measured when both the train and observer are
stationary. For a train moving in the positive
x
direction, which observer hears the highest frequency
when the train is at position x=0?
Observer
A
has velocity V
A
>0 and has position X
A
>0.
Observer
B
has velocity V
B
>0 and has position X
B
<0.
Observer
C
has velocity V
C
<0 and has position X
C
>0.
Observer
D
has velocity V
D
<0 and has position X
D
<0.
Example 14.8b
A train has a whistle with a frequency of a 1000 Hz, as
measured when both the train and observer are
stationary. A train is moving in the positive
x
direction. When the train is at position x=0,
An observer with V>0 and position X>0 hears a
frequency:
a)
> 1000 Hz
b)
< 1000 Hz
c)
Can not be determined
Example 14.8c
A train has a whistle with a frequency of a 1000 Hz,
as measured when both the train and observer are
stationary. A train is moving in the positive
x
direction. When the train is at position x=0,
An observer with V>0 and position X<0 hears a
frequency:
a)
> 1000 Hz
b)
< 1000 Hz
c)
Can not be determined
Example 14.8d
A train has a whistle with a frequency of a 1000 Hz,
as measured when both the train and observer are
stationary. A train is moving in the positive
x
direction. When the train is at position x=0,
An observer with V<0 and position X<0 hears a
frequency:
a)
> 1000 Hz
b)
< 1000 Hz
c)
Can not be determined
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