Sustaining the spirit of enterprise - LESSONS FROM THE CAMBRIDGE CLUSTER

crunchkingofprussiaBiotechnology

Dec 6, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

174 views

Sustaining the spirit of enterprise

LESSONS FROM THE CAMBRIDGE CLUSTER

Shailendra Vyakarnam

Visiting Professor
-

Nottingham Business School

Director


Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning

Founder Director
-

Transitions


November 2003


Cluster development


beware the unit of analysis


The “real” story behind the Cambridge Phenomenon


What we learn about the entrepreneurial spirit


Multiple roles of entrepreneurs


Conclusions


and questions

Presentation Agenda

Characteristics for High Technology Regions

Gibbon’s Top 10


Universities and centres of academic excellence


Entrepreneurs with marketable ideas and products


Business angels and established seed funds


Sources of early stage venture capital


Core of successful large companies


Quality management teams and talent


Supportive infrastructure


Affordable space for growing businesses


Access to capital markets


Attractive living environment and accommodation

There are many contributory factors have been cited for the success of
Cambridge such as:



the strength of University research,


the availability of finance in the early days from Barclays Bank,


and the relaxed approach that the University took to IP transfer.


However,
one of the key factors that is

most difficult to quantify is the importance of networks,
both social and professional, that bind the Cambridge companies together in a
close community.


At the centre of these networks
move a small number of key individuals


habitual entrepreneurs



who are believed to have an

important influence on the success of
the cluster
through providing advice to new entrepreneurs, identifying promising opportunities and providing angel
investment
.

Industry Clusters..

Barclays Bank


Judge Institute of
Management
Studies


St. John
Innovation
Centre



C
ambridge
University




1960


1970

MRC
Laboratory of
Molecular
Biology


CAD

Centre

Sinclair
Radionics


CCL



1980

Cambridge
Interactive
System

Cambridge
Science Park


Acorn

PA
Technology


Eicon
Research
Ltd


Sinclair
Research Ltd



1990

Analysys


Olivetti Research
Laboratory
(acquired by AT&T
in 1999
)


Scientific
Generics

The Technology
Partnership

TTP


Cambridge Research and
Innovation Ltd (CRIL)


Institute of
Biotechnology


Cantab
Pharmaceuticals


Hitachi
Cambridge
Laboratory

Nickerson
Biotech
Laboratory

Glaxo


2000

Toshiba
Cambridge
Research
Laboratory


Seiko Epson
Research Lab


Unilever Cambridge Centre
for Molecular Informatics

Cambridge
Network

Institute of
Manufacturing


Amadeus Capital
Partners


TTP Ventures


Entropic Research
Laboratory (acquired
by Microsoft in 1999)

Glaxo Institute
of Applied
Pharmacology

BP

Judge Institute of
Management Studies


St. John
Innovation
Centre



Until 1985


1986
-
1990


1991
-
1995


1996
-
2000


2001
-
2002


C
ambridge


University



Acorn

Hermann Hauser



Acquired by
Olivetti


Olivetti
Research Lab

Andy Hopper



Adaptive
Broadband

Andy Hopper




Cambridge
Broadband

Acquired by
American
Microwave

Acquired by
Western
Multiplex
Corp

Andy Hopper

Peter Warton



IPV (Telemedia
Systems)

Andy Hopper



Virata(ATML)

Hermann Hauser

Andy Hopper

Merged
with
Globespan

Acquired by AT &T

RealVNC

Virtual Network
Computing

Cambridge
Internetworking

Andy Hopper



ANT

Alex Van Someren

Niko

nCiphaer

Alex Van Someren

Niko

Netchannel

Hermann Hauser

Jack Lang



Acquired by NTL

ARM

Robin
Saxby

Element 14

Stan Boland

Acquired by
Broadcom

Amadeus Capital Partners

Hermann Hauser



IQ Bio

Hermann Hauser

Chris Keightley



Part of DAKO
Diagnostics

DakoCytomation
-

Merged with
Cytomation Inc

CDT

Richard Friend

Richard Friend

Plastic Logic

Analysys

Dr. David Cleevely

Cambridge
Network

Dr. David Cleevely

Hermann Hauser

Sir. Alec Broers

Cambridge
3G

Dr. David Cleevely

Virtual Business
Network

Dr. David Cleevely

Dr. Simon Elloit

CPS

Peter Duffett
-
Smith

Akubio

Dr. Matthew Cooper

Victor Ostanin

Dr. David Klenerman

Dr. Tony Minson

Polight
Technologies

Prof Stephen Elloitt

Dr. Pavel Krecmer



ART

Daniel Hall

Pilgrim Beart

ActiveRF

Pilgrim Beart

Antenova

Zeus
Technology

Adam Twiss

David Reeves

Cambridge
Semiconductor

Prof Gehan
Amaratunga

Dr. Florin Udrea



Muscat

John Snyder

Dr. Martin Porter

Cambridge
Accelerator

John Snyder

John Snyder

Webtop

Library House

Smartlogik

Acquired by Dialog

CU’s spin
-
outs/ Start
-
ups





Until 1985


1986
-
1990


1991
-
1995


1996
-
2000


2001
-
2002


AGC


1984

Alan
Goodman


(FD)

ATM

Alan
Goodman



Salix
pharmaceutical

Alan
Goodman



Peptide
Therapeutics

Now Acambis

Daniel Roach

Alan
Goodman



Amura

Alan
Goodman



Avlar
BioVentures

Alan
Goodman

Daniel Roach



Oxford
Biomedica

Alan
Goodman



LIDCO

Alan
Goodman



Alan
Goodman



CORE

CeNes

Daniel Roach

Alan
Goodman



Chiroscience

Alan
Goodman


Chris Evans

Enzymatix

Chris Evans

Merged by
Celltech
Group

Rapigene

ChiroTech

Enviros

Chris Evans

Chris Evans

Cerebrus

Toad

Chris Evans

Chris Evans

Chris Evans

Merlin Ventures

Celsis

Amedis
pharmaceutical

Prof William Bains

Prof John Caldwell



Axis Genetcs

Iain Cubitt

Iain Cubitt

Pestex

Changed its name
to MicroBio Group

Acquired by
Becker
Underwood


MRC

LMB


1960s

Dr. Greg Winter

Daivd Chiswell



CAT

Dr. Greg Winter



Diversys

RiboTargets

Simon
Sturge


Celltech


C
ambridge


University



Martin Davies



BioRobotics

Cantab
Pharmaceuticals

Alan Munro

Merged
with
Xenova
Group Ltd

Dr. Chris Lowe

J. McCann

Cambridge
Sensors

Affinity
chromatography

Dr. Chris Lowe

Dr. Ken Jones

Dr. Vivan Stad

Acquired by
Prometic
Biosciences
Inc

Holometrica

Dr. Roger Millington

Abcam

Jonathan Miller

AdproTech

Prof. Peter Lachmann

Biotica Technology

Prof. Peter Leadlay

Prof. Jim Staunton

Kudos
Pharmaceuticals

Prof. Stephen Jackson

Hexagen

Mark Bodmer

Mark Bodmer

Lorantis

Acquired by Incyte

Sense
Proteomics

Dr. Jonathan Blackburn

De Novo

Dr. Philip Dean

Paradigm
Therapeutics

Dr. Mark Carlton

Metris
Therapeutics

Prof. Stephen Smith

Dr. Steve Charnock
-
Jones

Biotech spin
-
outs/ Start
-
ups


CCL


1960


Until 1985


1986
-
1990


1991
-
1995


1996
-
2000


2001
-
2002


PA

1970



Dr.
Gordon

Edge

Dr. Collin
Smithers

Plextek

Scientific
Generics


Dr.
Gordon
Edge

Pivotal
Resources


Absolute
Sensors


Sensopad
Technologies


Imerge


Sphere Medical


Intrasonics


3D Molecular
Sciences


Ionica

QuantumBEAM


Adaptive
Screening


Flying Null


Diomed


Sentec

Ubinetics


Andrew Dame

Andrew Dame

Acquired by
Synaptics

Smartbead
Technologies

Polatis

Holotag

Caroline
Garey

Andrew Dame

Prelude

Dr. Robert Hook

Xaar

David Paton

Mike Willis

Aphamosaic

Cambridge Silicon
Radio

Cyan
Technology

Pelikon

Roundpoint

INCA Digital
Printers

ELMJET

Domino

DCS

Cambridge

Mass
Spectrometry

Bill Baxter

Will Eve

Paul Anson

Mike Payne

Graham Martin

Colin Gray

Will Eve


Acquired by
Videojet
Technologies

Graeme Minto

David Paton

Xennia
Technologies

Alan Hudd

Transversal

David Yip

David McKay

Barrie Griffiths

Steve Mullock

Kore
Technology

Yuno Ltd

Steve Barlow

Robert Swann

Phil O’ Donovan

James Collier

Glenn Collinson

Dr. Chris
Davies

Acquired by Elumin
founded by Dr.
Hans Wagner

David Bending

Symbionics

Ali Pourtaheri

Dennis
Fielder

Acquired by
Cadence

Tality

Fen
Technology

TTP

Gerald
Avison

Adrian Lucas

Mark Howard

Richard Doyle

Dr. Stuart Hendry

Dr. Gavin Troughton


Dr. Elizabeth Hill

Dr. Mark Tracy


Nigel Playford

Wavedriver

Acquired by
PowerGen

TTP
Ventures

TTP
LabTech

Creativity
Partnership

Acumen
Bioscience

ip.access

Myraid

Acquired by
Mettler
-
Toledo

Automation
Partnership

Demerged from
TTP Group

Automation
Partnership

CCL’s spin
-
outs/ Start
-
ups

Chris Fryer

Chris Barnardo

Mike Stroey

Cambridge Physical
Sciences

Roger
Millar

Signal
Process Ltd

Dr. Robin

Smith
-
Saville

Vivid

Stephen Eason

Acquired by
Vetura

RICHARDS
PADFI ELD
JONES
MOSES
BUNTING
GOODMAN
BERRIMAN
J. ABELL
DOCHERTY
FODEN
C.ABELL
CARTHY
FELLNER
KLENERMAN
JENNI NGS
RICH
MUNRO
CHISWELL
GONZALEZ
WINTER
LAMBERT
LONG
KIRK
RINK
ROACH
Abingworth
Merlin Bioscience
Avlar
KEY
1 LINK
2 LINKS
Currently linked through VC firm
Through current board
membership
RICHARDS
PADFI ELD
JONES
MOSES
BUNTING
GOODMAN
BERRIMAN
J. ABELL
DOCHERTY
FODEN
C.ABELL
CARTHY
FELLNER
KLENERMAN
JENNI NGS
RICH
MUNRO
CHISWELL
GONZALEZ
WINTER
LAMBERT
LONG
KIRK
RINK
ROACH
Abingworth
Merlin Bioscience
Avlar
KEY
1 LINK
2 LINKS
Currently linked through VC firm
Through current board
membership
Investor networks in Cambridge

ABCAM
ACAMBIS
BIOWISDOM
KUDOS PHARMACEUTICALS
IONIX
AKUBIO
PARADIGM THERAPEUTICS
SMARTBEAD
LORANTIS
AMEDIS PHARMACEUTICALS
PROCOGNIA
ADPROTECH
PHICO
CAT
SOLEXA
AMURA
DANIOLABS
IMMUNOBIOLOGY LTD
SYNGENIX
ARAKIS
PROTEOM
DOMANTIS
CENES
ASTEX TECHNOLOGY
CAMBRIDGE BIOTECHNOLOGY
BIOTICA
DE NOVO PHARMACEUTICALS
RIBOTARGETS
ISOGENICA
DISCERNA
1 LINK
2 LINKS
3 LINKS
4 LINKS
KEY
ABCAM
ACAMBIS
BIOWISDOM
KUDOS PHARMACEUTICALS
IONIX
AKUBIO
PARADIGM THERAPEUTICS
SMARTBEAD
LORANTIS
AMEDIS PHARMACEUTICALS
PROCOGNIA
ADPROTECH
PHICO
CAT
SOLEXA
AMURA
DANIOLABS
IMMUNOBIOLOGY LTD
SYNGENIX
ARAKIS
PROTEOM
DOMANTIS
CENES
ASTEX TECHNOLOGY
CAMBRIDGE BIOTECHNOLOGY
BIOTICA
DE NOVO PHARMACEUTICALS
RIBOTARGETS
ISOGENICA
DISCERNA
ABCAM
ACAMBIS
BIOWISDOM
KUDOS PHARMACEUTICALS
IONIX
AKUBIO
PARADIGM THERAPEUTICS
SMARTBEAD
LORANTIS
AMEDIS PHARMACEUTICALS
PROCOGNIA
ADPROTECH
PHICO
CAT
SOLEXA
AMURA
DANIOLABS
IMMUNOBIOLOGY LTD
SYNGENIX
ARAKIS
PROTEOM
DOMANTIS
CENES
ASTEX TECHNOLOGY
CAMBRIDGE BIOTECHNOLOGY
BIOTICA
DE NOVO PHARMACEUTICALS
RIBOTARGETS
ISOGENICA
DISCERNA
1 LINK
2 LINKS
3 LINKS
4 LINKS
KEY
1 LINK
2 LINKS
3 LINKS
4 LINKS
1 LINK
2 LINKS
3 LINKS
4 LINKS
KEY
Cambridge Companies linked by multiple Directorships

Hermann Hauser


Acorn
-

1978

Acquired by
Olivetti, Italy


IQ (Bio)


Harlequin

IXI Ltd

Cambridge
Network

(1998)


Entertainment On
-
Line

EO Incorporated

Vocalis

Advanced
Displays
Limited

Virata (Advanced
Telecommunications Modules
Limited


ATML) 1993

Amadeus

Capital
Partners
-
1997


NetChannel
Ltd

NetProducts
Ltd

Acquired
by NTL

-

Active Navigations ltd

-

ART

-

Cambridge Broadband

-

Cambridge Silicon Radio

-

Ciphergen Biosystems

-

Clearswift

-

Commtag ltd

-

Element 14

-

Entropic Research
Laboratories

-

Plastic Logic, etc


NetStation Ltd

Orbis




Andy Hopper


Computer laboratory,
University of
Cambridge

Orbis 1978

Cambridge
Processor
Unit Ltd

Acquired by
AT&T in 1999

Olivetti Research
Laboratory


IPV
(Telemedia
Systems Ltd)
1995


Adaptive
Broadband Ltd
1986


Cambridge
Broadband
Ltd 1999


Examples of the tech sector

ARM


LIDCO

Chiroscience

1992

CORE
Group


Salix

Pharmaceutical

Peptide
Therapeutics



Oxford

Biomedica

CeNes

(Daniel Roach)

Amura

Trebor

Ciba
-
Geigy

AGC

Enzymatix ltd(1987)

Onyvax

-

Amura

-

De Novo

-

Intercytex

-

Gendaq, so
on





Alan Goodman






Chris Evans


Allellix

Genzyme

-

Cyclacel

-

ReNeuron

-

Microscience

-

Eurogene

-

Vectura

-

Bio Vex

-

Pan Therix,
etc


Merlin Ventures

Toad,1994


Enviros


1995


Cerebrus ltd


Celsis


1992


Salix

Pharmaceutical


Salix

Pharmaceutical


ATM 1991

Medeva
1989

Celltech Group


Avlar BioVentures


1998

Examples of biotech sector

CAMBRIDGE

ENTREPRENEURS

COMPANY
FOUNDERS

ACADEMICS

FINANCERS

RESEARCH
ORGANISATIONS

OTHER HI
-
TECH
START
-
UPS

BUSINESS
SERVICES

Create a network of networks, exchanging knowledge, expertise

and components of each other

Multiple roles of entrepreneurs

So, why are there no giants?


Do they move on too early?


Investor bias


stage funding causing paralysis?


Ambition?


Assumptions about managerial ability?


Culture of small and big businesses?


Last thing you want is a bunch of entrepreneurial employees


need outputs


Questions?


Are the shareholders and CEOs actually stifling
the very spirit that drove them to start their
businesses?


How do you recognise and sustain the spirit of
enterprise in your organisation?


Here are some questions for table discussions….

Discussion topics


releasing or

stifling the entrepreneurial and innovative spirit.


What is your business planning process like (assuming you have
one)?


How do new ideas travel through the organisation?


What is the quality of your contacts?


What formal or informal processes do you have to engage in
innovation?


What are the barriers and enablers for innovation and enterprise
in your business?


Are there any hotspots of innovation and enterprise in your
organisation? Where are they and what are you doing about
nurturing them?


Transitions

Model for increasing e
-
Intensity

LEADERSHIP

PERCEPTIONS

EDUCATION

ACCESS TO
INFORMATION

FINANCE

INFRASTRUCTURE


ENABLED BY APPROPRIATE FUNDING AND SUPPORT BY WAVENEY
DISTRICT COUNCIL AND OTHERS

CONNECTED BY PROCESSES

LEADING TO NEW
OUTCOMES

Question &

Answer

shai@transitions.co.uk