POLST 362.3 IPE of Biotechnology

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Dec 6, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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POLST 362.3

IPE of Biotechnology

Lecture 02

Introduction to Biotechnology

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Outline


What is Biotechnology?

Scientific: Opportunities and Limits

Social: Opportunities and Limits


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech



Scientific: Opportunities and Limits

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Biotechnology


to engineer living organisms

Biotechnology is not a Product!

Package of techniques and procedures where
genetic modification (GM) is only one procedure

Scientific Basis:

Molecular Biology

Cellular Biology

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Basic Concepts:

Four Nucleotides: Adenine (A); Thymine (T);
Cytosine (C); Guanine (G)

Specific Ordered Sequences = Specific Amino
Acids

Specific Segments of Amino Acids = Genes

Specific Genes = Specific Proteins

e.g. insulin, hormones, digestive enzymes

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Entire set of Genes = DNA

DNA is found in Every Chromosome

Chromosomes in Every Cell of an Organism

Chromosomes impose sexual compatibility
limitation on reproduction/genetic transfer

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Structure and Function

Gene akin to a recipe

Promoter

Coding Region

Terminator

Cells Specialize

Gene Regulation is Environment Specific

Biotechnology: Techniques to alter genes to
perform certain functions

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech




Applying Biotechnology to
Agricultural Crops

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Biotech + Traditional Breeding: Different or
same?


Conventional varieties are not natural

Goal of traditional plant breeding:

to enhance performance

Natural process


environment remains the
same

Controlling sexual reproduction

Hybridization of corn (is this natural?)

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Biotechnology in Plant Breeding

Goal


to enhance performance

Circumventing ‘natural’ limitations

Four broad techniques

Gene
-
Mapping and Tracking: Genomics

Tissue Culture Techniques Genetic Modification

Transgenic Modification


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Gene
-
Mapping/Tracking

Antibiotic resistant markers

PCR Techniques


Tissue Culture

Tissue Culture Techniques

Bio
-
Processes to Speed Cell/Seed
Development

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Genetic Modification


Endogenous Alteration: no gene
transfer

Anti
-
sense Modifications

FlavrSavr Tomato

Mutagenesis

is it traditional or biotech?

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Transgenic Modification

Exogenous Alteration: genetic transfer

between sexually compatible organisms

between sexually incompatible organisms

Isolate DNA/Gene

‘Cut’ using restriction enzymes

‘Paste’

Vector Method (Bacteria or Virus) or vectorless
(Gene Gun, electrophoresis)

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

GM Crop Examples


Production
-
trait

Output
-
trait

Bio
-
Engineered products

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Production
-
Trait:

HT Canola

Transgenic Modification of soil bacteria that
metabolizes/digests Glufosinate or Bromonyxil Herbicide

Bt Cotton

Transgenic Modification of soil micro
-
organism toxic to
certain insects


No new agronomic practices

No differences in distribution


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Output
-
Trait:

Targeting crop value for specific end
-
users:

Livestock feeders

Food processors

Industrial users

No new agronomic practices

New distribution system (to capture value)


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Bio
-
Engineered Products:

‘Pharming’:

Drugs

Edible vaccines: Cholera B potatoes;
Vitamin A rice; Anti
-
oxidant enhanced

Industrial Use: plant
-
based polymers

New agronomic practices

New distribution system


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Animal applications:

More than 90 vaccines (mostly for pets)

Food based animals:

Brucillus
-
resistant cow

Industrial animals:

Nexeria goat

Health applications

Transgenic pigs


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech



Applying biotechnology to non
-
agricultural uses

Human therapeutics

Genomics

Patented drugs

Gene therapy

Xenotransplantation

Cloning


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Scientific Opportunities
:

Greater control, precision

Quicker results


Scientific Limits
:

Mostly single
-
trait/simple diseases

Viability


not super
-
performance


still
main concern

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech




Social: Opportunities and Limits

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Science yields social policy debates


What are GM crops/foods:

GM or TGM? or Novel (PNTs)?

GM crops = GM foods?

GM = Organic?

What can or should we do with human
interventions?

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Yet, beyond clarifying the appropriate
consideration of science, important
social issues remain …


Why?

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Transformative Technology


Horizontal Applications


New Risks/Costs
: requiring new
approaches to maximizing risks via
technological precaution

New Benefits
: requiring new approaches to
maximizing opportunities via technological
progress


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Applying a Social Filter…

Risks/Costs

Technology
-
Inherent

Technology
-
Transcendent

Benefits

Technology
-
Inherent

Technology
-
Transcendent

Basis for a cost
-
benefit analysis


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Technology
-
Inherent Risks/Costs


Premature Science: Pleiotropic Effects
(unpredicted side effects), Positional Effects,
Human safety (Toxic, Allergenic), Biodiversity
Safety

Technology
-
Transcendent Risks/Costs

Critics of the
Application, Management and
Distribution

of the technology


Global Welfare Peril


Tool of Corporatization


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Technology
-
Inherent Benefits

Not that novel; improvements to traditional
methods

Stability does exist

Applications are tested for human and
environmental safety

Technology
-
Transcendent Benefits

Supporters of the
Application, Management and
Distribution

of the technology


Global Welfare Promise


National Competitiveness Promise (Horizontal benefits)

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Given this array of costs/risks and
benefits, why does government
promote biotechnology?


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Biotechnology Industry

Biotechnology is an enabling technology with
applications across: Agriculture, Food (e.g.
fisheries), Medicine, Pharmaceuticals,
Industrial, Forestry, Horticultural,
Environmental Science

Pharmaceutical: Total $440 Billion 2004,
where biotechnology is an increasing
component


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Agricultural Biotechnology

Agriculture and Food (market for GM crops):
1995


$84 Million, 1999


$3.1 Billion

Commercialization:

1996: 1.7 M hectares (4.3 M acres)

2002: 52 M hectares (130 M acres)

US (70%); Argentina (6.7); Canada (4.0)

HT most dominant trait, then Bt, then HT/Bt,
then virus resistance

GM crops: HT Soya, Bt Maize, HT Canola,
Bt/HT Maize, HT Cotton, HT Maize, Bt Cotton,
Bt/HT Cotton


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Agricultural Biotechnology

“Life Sciences” firms:

NA firms: Monsanto, DuPont

EU firms: Syngenta (Novartis and Astra
-
Zeneca),
Aventis (Rhone
-
Poulence and Hoechst/AgrEvo)…

Significant consolidation

1996
-
99: 25 major alliances and acquisitions
valued at over $17 B

Agro
-
Chemical firms have moved upstream.


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Agricultural Biotechnology

Key Issue is Capacity

Private firms willing and able to take
the lead

Therefore, rationale for government
promotion: Scientific, private
-
led
solutions to

pressing public policy
problems

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Let private sector address the public policy
problems of agriculture:



Variance in Quantity and Quality

Permits:



Decrease farm support spending



Decrease public R&D spending

National Competitiveness Objective:



To Build Biotechnology Capacity


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

All developed countries (OECD)

Canada:



Canadian Biotechnology Strategy



Capacity building initiatives

US:



Knowledge
-
based industries


EU:



Several initiatives at the EU and Member

State level


POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Policy Objectives

Rationale: Scientific Solutions to
Pressing Public Policy Problems

National Competitiveness Objective: to
Build Capacity

Technological Progress

POLST 362: Intro to Biotech

Social Opportunities
:

Scientific solutions to public policy problems

National competitiveness


Social Limits
:

Risks and Uncertainty

Domestic information gap

International capacity gap


insurmountable?