ME country comparision student version

crunchkingofprussiaBiotechnology

Dec 6, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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How does the Government
distribute power?



How do the citizens participate in
government?


Unitary
-

a form of government in which power is held by
one central authority.



Confederation
-
voluntary associations of independent
states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to
certain limitations on their freedom of action and
establish some joint machinery of consultation or
deliberation.



Federal
-
a form of government in which power is divided
between one central and several regional authorities.


Autocratic
-
government in which one person possesses
unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in
the government.



Oligarchic
-
Government by the few, sometimes a
government in which a small group exercises control
especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen
has very limited role.



Democratic
-
Government in which the supreme power is
vested in the people and exercised by them directly or
indirectly.


Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the
ruling monarchy was overthrown and the shah was forced into exile.
Conservative clerical forces established a theocratic system of government with
ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to
commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is
accountable only to the Assembly of Experts.


Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast


Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains;
small, discontinuous plains along both coasts


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore,
lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur



Land use:
arable land:

9.78%
permanent crops:

1.29%
other:

88.93% (2005)


Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms;
earthquakes


Environment
-

current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from
vehicle emissions, refinery operations, deforestation; overgrazing;
desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought;
soil degradation (
salination
); inadequate supplies of potable water; water
pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization



Life expectancy at birth: 70.06 years


Ethnic groups: Persian 51%, Azeri 24%,
Gilaki

and
Mazandarani

8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%,
Lur

2%,
Baloch

2%,
Turkmen 2%, other 1%


Religions: Muslim




Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and
Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%,
Luri

2%,
Balochi

1%,
Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%


Literacy: 77%



Country name: Islamic Republic of Iran


Government type:



Capital:
name:




Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal


Supreme Leader of Iran is a religious leader and has
final say on all matters


An elected president is head of government, but can
be removed at any time by the Supreme Leader


Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative
Assembly (290 seats; members elected by popular vote
to serve four
-
year terms)


GDP





Labor force
-

by occupation:
agriculture:

30%
industry:

25%
services:

45%
(2001
est.)


Unemployment rate: 15% according to the Iranian government (2007 est.)


Agriculture


products: wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts,
cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar


Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, fertilizers, caustic soda, textiles, cement
and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining
and vegetable oil production), ferrous and non
-
ferrous metal fabrication,
armaments


Exports

petroleum 80%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and
nuts, carpets


Exports


partners: Japan 14.1%, China 12.9%, Turkey 7.3%, Italy 6.3%, South
Korea 5.7%, Netherlands 4.6%, Taiwan 4% (2006)


Imports

industrial raw materials and intermediate goods, capital goods,
foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services, military supplies


Imports


partners: Germany 12.1%, China 10.6%, UAE 9.4%, South Korea 6.2%,
France 5.6%, Italy 5.4%, Russia 4.5% (2006)


Unitary
-






Confederation
-
voluntary associations of independent
states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to
certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish
some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation.


Federal
-
a form of government in which power is divided
between one central and several regional authorities.



Autocratic
-
government in which one person possesses
unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in
the government.


Oligarchic
-
Government by a few, a government in which
a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and
selfish purposes. The citizen has very limited role.


Democratic
-
Government in which the supreme power is
vested in the people and exercised by them directly or
indirectly.




Parliamentary
-
system of government







Presidential
-
a system of government in which the
president is constitutionally independent of the
legislature.


Middle East Country
Comparisons

Name of Country

Type of Government

GDP


Iran

Unitary,
Oligarchic,

Theocratic
Republic



$10,600 (2010 est.)

Religions

Ethnic Groups

Literacy Rate


Muslim 98%
(Shi'a 89%,
Sunni 9%)

Persian 51%

77%



Much of Iran’s population lives in the western
mountainous part of the country. Northern (rain
forest) and eastern (desert) parts are not very
populous.


Iran has a growing tourism industry


Iran has an oil
-
reliant economy

with many jobs in this
sector


Biotechnology and the pharmaceuticals industries
have been growing in Iran


Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of
Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states,
an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis
defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions
between the two sides.


Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas



Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains;
Jordan Rift Valley


Natural resources: timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate
rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand


Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer;
droughts; periodic earthquakes


Environment
-

current issues: limited arable land and natural fresh
water resources;
desertification
;
air pollution
from industrial and vehicle
emissions;
groundwater pollution
from industrial and domestic waste,
chemical fertilizers, and pesticides



Life expectancy at birth: 80.96 years


Ethnic groups: Jewish 76.4% (of which Israel
-
born 67.1%,
Europe/America
-
born 22.6%, Africa
-
born 5.9%, Asia
-
born
4.2%), non
-
Jewish 23.6% (mostly Arab) (2004)


Religions:




Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for
Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign
language


Literacy: 97.1%


Government type:



Capital:
name:

Jerusalem


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal


Chief of State


A president is elected as a ceremonial type leader


Head of Government







Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed by Judicial
Selection Committee
-

made up of all three branches of the
government; mandatory retirement age is 70)


Politics of Israel:

parliamentary representative
democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of
Israel is the head of government, and of a multi
-
party
system.



The economy of Israel

is a diversified mixed economy
with substantial state ownership and a rapidly developing
high
-
tech sector.
Poor in natural resources, Israel depends
on imports of petroleum, coal, food, uncut diamonds,
other production inputs, and military equipment
.


The country's GDP per capita has been $29,800 (2010 est.).


The major industrial sectors include metal products,
electronic and biomedical equipment, processed foods,
chemicals, and transport equipment. Israel possesses a
substantial service sector and the Israel diamond industry
is one of the world's centers for diamond cutting and
polishing. It is also a world leader in software development
and is a major tourist destination.


Unemployment rate: 6.7% (2010
est
)


Agriculture


products: citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products


Industries: high
-
technology projects (including aviation, communications,
computer
-
aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics),
wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and
tobacco, caustic soda, cement, construction, metals products, chemical
products, plastics, diamond cutting, textiles, footwear


Exports






Exports


partners: US 38.4%, Belgium 6.5%, Hong Kong 5.9% (2006)


Imports: $47.8 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)


Imports


commodities: raw materials, military equipment, investment goods,
rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods


Imports


partners: US 12.4%, Belgium 8.2%, Germany 6.7%, Switzerland 5.9%,
UK 5.1%, China 5.1% (2006)

Middle East Country
Comparisons

Name of Country

Type of Government

GDP


Israel


Unitary,
Parliamentary
Democracy


$29,800
(2010 est.)


Religions

Ethnic Groups

Literacy Rate

Jewish 76.4%,
Muslim 16%, Arab
Christians 1.7%

Jewish 76.4%


97.1%



Over 70% of Israel’s population lives along the western
Mediterranean coast





Israel has a heavy tourism industry especially in the
religion category


Many multi
-
tech,
multi
-
national corporations are
located within Israel providing high paying jobs for
much of its population



Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and home to Islam's two
holiest shrines in Mecca and Medina. The king's official title is
the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The modern Saudi state
was founded in 1932 by ABD AL
-
AZIZ bin
Abd

al
-
Rahman

AL
SAUD after a 30
-
year campaign to unify most of the Arabian
Peninsula


Climate: harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes


Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper


Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms


Environment
-

current issues:
desertification
; depletion of
underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or
permanent water bodies has prompted the development of
extensive seawater desalination facilities;
coastal pollution
from
oil spills


Life expectancy at birth: 75 years


Ethnic groups:




Religions: Muslim 100%


Languages: Arabic


Literacy:
total population: 78.8%


male: 84.7%


female
: 70.8% (2003 est.)





Country name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Government type:




Capital:
name:

Riyadh


Suffrage: 21 years of age; male


Executive branch:
chief of state:

King and Prime Minister
ABDALLAH bin
Abd

al
-
Aziz Al Saud (since 1 August 2005)

elections:

none; the monarch is hereditary


Legislative branch: Consultative Council (150 members and
a chairman appointed by the monarch for four
-
year terms).


The
politics of Saudi Arabia










The Qur'an is the constitution of the country, which is
governed on the basis of Islamic law
(
Shari'a
).



Saudi Arabia has an oil
-
based economy with strong
government control over major economic activities.
Saudi Arabia possesses 25% of the world's proven
petroleum reserves, ranks as the largest exporter of
petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC
.


Saudi Arabia's economy is a centrally planned
economy. However, there are some private companies
in Saudi Arabia. They are strictly controlled and
regulated by the Saudi Arabian government, though.



GDP
-

per capita (PPP): $24,200 (2010 est.)


Labor force
-

by occupation:
agriculture:

12%
industry:

25%
services:

63%
(1999 est.)


Unemployment rate: 13% among Saudi males only (local bank estimate;
some estimates range as high as 25%) (2004 est.)


Agriculture


products: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus;
mutton, chickens, eggs, milk


Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic
petrochemicals; ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic
soda), cement, fertilizer, plastics; metals, commercial ship repair,
commercial aircraft repair, construction


Exports



commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 90%


Exports


partners: Japan 17.6%, US 15.8%, South Korea 9.6%, China
7.2%, Singapore 4.4%, Taiwan 4.4% (2006)


Imports


commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs,
chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles



Imports


partners: US 12.2%, Germany 8.5%, China 7.9%, Japan 7.2%,
UK 4.8%, Italy 4.8% (2006)


In many extended areas (especially the Rub’ al
-
Khali and
Arabian Desert) there is almost
no

population






Saudi Arabia draws a large portion of their labor force from
other nations


Many low
-
skilled workers are employed in the oil industry


Skilled experts in baking and other services are also very
common in Saudi Arabia

Middle East Country
Comparisons

Name of Country

Type of Government

GDP


Saudi
Arabia

Unitary,
Autocratic,
Absolute

Monarchy



$24,200
(2010)

Command/Mixed


Religions

Ethnic Groups

Literacy Rate

Islam


: Arab 90%,
Afro
-
Asian
10%



78.8


Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated
Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later
honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks.”


Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher
in interior


Natural resources: coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony,
mercury, gold, barite, borate,
celestite

(strontium), emery, feldspar,
limestone,
magnesite
, marble,
perlite
, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay,
arable land, hydropower


Natural hazards: severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey,
along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Environment


current issues:
water pollution

from dumping of chemicals and
detergents;
air pollution
, particularly in urban areas;
deforestation
;
concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic


Population:


78,785,548 (July 2011 est.)


Life expectancy at birth:
total population:

72.5 years

Turkish Ethnic groups:






Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish,
Dimli

(or
Zaza
), Azeri,
Kabardian


Literacy:
definition:

87.4%


Country name: Republic of Turkey


Government type:




Capital:
name:

Ankara


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal


Executive branch:
chief of state:

President Abdullah GUL (since
28 August 2007)

head of government:

Prime Minister
Recep

Tayyip

ERDOGAN
(since 14 March 2003)


Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly of
Turkey or
Turkiye

Buyuk

Millet
Meclisi

(550 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve five
-
year terms)



Turkey's economy

is a complex mix of traditional craftsmanship and modern
industries, increasingly dominated by the latter.











In recent years, an aggressive privatization program has reduced state
involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, and an
emerging cadre of middle
-
class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the
economy.



Turkey is a secular parliamentary
representative democratic republic, whereby
the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of
government, and of a multi
-
party system.



GDP
-

per capita (PPP): $12,300 (2010 est.)


Labor force
-

by occupation:
agriculture:

9.6%
industry:

26.6%
services:

63.8%


Unemployment rate: 12% (2010)


Population below poverty line: 17.11% (2008)


Agriculture


products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives,
sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock


Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, electronics,
mining (coal,
chromite
, copper, boron), steel,
petroleum, construction, lumber, paper








The Asian portion of Turkey is rather mountainous


Turkey’s jobs are focused in the service sector


Middle East Country Comparisons

Name of Country

Type of Government

GDP

Turkey

Unitary,
Parliamentary
Democracy


$12,300


Religions

Ethnic Groups

Literacy Rate


Muslim 99.8%
(mostly Sunni)

Turkish 70
-
75%,
Kurdish 18%


87.4



3
-
2
-
1



List three countries that have Parliamentary
Governments


List the two highest GDP countries


Which country is led by king.


Draw an Economic Continuum line on the
Left Side

of
your Notebook with Market on one side and
Command on the other:



Market






Command



For each of the following questions, name the type of
Economy and place the name of the Country on your
Economic Continuum


1. Israel has a mixed economy that is also
technologically advanced.


The Israeli government and
private Israeli companies own and control the
economy equally…



2. Saudi Arabia also has a mixed economy.


The
government largely controls the main export oil.


Oil
accounts for well over half of the country’s economy.



3. Since the late 1980s, Turkey has gradually moved
from a government directed economy to more private
enterprise.


Economic Continuum line



Market






Command






Israel Turkey Saudi Arabia

/
Iran

1.
Israel=Mixed/Market (closer to mixed)

2.
Saudi Arabia/Iran=Mixed/Command

3.
Turkey=Mixed/Market (closer to mixed)


Choose one of the following
to draw:



An example of how Israel’s citizen participate in
government.


How people work in this area: Saudi Arabia
-
Types of
Industry? Cities?


Type of economy for Turkey: Mixed? Market?
Command?