An Overview of Smart Card Accessibility

crumcasteAI and Robotics

Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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An Overview of Smart Card Accessibility

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Table of Contents


Introduction

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Objectives

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Scope

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Audience

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Document Structure

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An Introduction to Smart Cards

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What is a Smart Card

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Smart Card Uses

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Cardholder Authentication

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Smart Cards Types

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Smart Cards in Mobile Phones

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Smart Card Benefits

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Making Smart Card Services Accessible

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Card Application

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Locating and accessing the terminal

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External features, labels and instructions

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Card Use

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Cardholder Authentication

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Interacting with Terminals

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Retrieving output

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Typefaces and legibility

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Lost and stolen cards

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Alternative Service

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Smart Card Applications Case Studies

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French Health Card

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Tampere (Finland) City Card

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Introduction

Objectives

This document contains
a discussion of
the National Disability Authority’s (NDA) accessibility
guidelines for
the procurement and deployment of public sector smart card programmes.
The document is a high
-
level overview of the considerations for accessibility when creating
smart card services and complements
a
more
in depth

document that contains the detailed
s
mar
t card accessibility guidelines
.


The objective of the two

documents is to
enable
organisations to build the capability for accessibility into their systems.

This document
provides an overview of the major concepts to be considered.

Scope

This document pr
ovides
an introduction to

accessibility
issues
for managers, designers and
implementers of smart card deployments.
The document
provide
s

an
overview of the
advantages and disadvantages of approaches
to service development.


Audience

The target audience fo
r the accessibility guidelines is those public sector organisations
deploying smart card solutions over the next five years.

Document Structure

The document is organised into the follow sections:



Introduction to Smart Card
s


a brief description of the de
velopment of smart cards and
some typical uses within the public sector.



Making Smart Card Services Accessible


an introduction to accessibility issues for smart
card services.



Case Studies



examples of how smart cards are used by public sector organisat
ions
.

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An Introduction to Smart Cards

What is a Smart Card

A smart card is a personal device that contains a secure computer chip. The device belongs
to an individual and acts as a carrier for the chip. The chip contains a secure data
processing applicati
on. Often the smart card device is in the form of a traditional plastic
card, as shown in the diagram below.


Different form factors (for example, a key fob) and new carrier devices (for example, a chip
embedded in a mobile phone) are starting to emerge
. These devices aim to improve ease of
use and increase convenience for the user. Carrier devices with embedded smart cards are
sometimes referred to as smart media as they can contain additional elements such as
keypads, screens and speakers.

Data is re
trieved from a smart card chip using a reader that is part of a terminal. Examples
of terminals include point of sale terminals, self
-
service cash dispenser machines and
access control gates. The interface between the reader and the smart card chip can b
e
achieved in two ways, either by:



Direct contact between the reader and the chip contacts (referred to as a contact smart
card) or



Wirelessly without contact (referred to as a contactless smart card).

Up to a few years ago, advanced security functions co
uld only be provided using contact
smart cards. However, with the latest generations of smart card chips both contact and
contactless smart cards can deliver the same highly secure applications.

Currently, therefore, the choice of smart card type is bas
ed on how the device is to be used
rather than its interface. For instance, as there is no physical connection, the interface to
contactless cards is more robust and reliable than for contact cards and typically offers faster
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transaction times. Contact c
ards tend to be more suitable for uses where the card must be
present at all times. For example, security for mobile telephone calls is provided by the
subscriber identity module (SIM) smart card that is always in the mobile phone handset.

Smart Card Uses

The smart card chip contains one or more data processing applications that address
business needs. Typically, the needs are for smart card applications are to provide:



Digital identity functions (such as the SIM for mobile phones or the viewing card for
conditional access in subscription TV)



Digital value functions (such as a fare payment application for public transport)



Secure data storage functions (such as an emergency information for healthcare).

Over the last decade or so, large
-
scale smart card app
lication deployments have progressed
from payment cards for public telephones through SIMs for mobiles and conditional access
cards for TV, to include credit/debit cards for retail payments, contactless cards for public
transport and smart cards for nation
al identity projects. In some countries, payment cards
are starting to move to contactless smart cards to take advantage of increased transaction
speed and user convenience.

Contactless smart cards are also starting to be embedded in passports.
The Inter
national
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards for machine readable travel documents cover
the use of smart cards for visas and passports. These standards include the use of a
digitised passport photo of the holder stored in the application on the
smart card chip. The
digitised photo can not be interpreted by a computer terminal but is displayed on the terminal
to allow a human operator to compare it with the individual holding the passport. As this use
is not computerised, the digitised photo is
not considered a machine
-
readable biometric (a
biometric is a digitised representation of a physical feature of a person). To complement
this, some countries are choosing to add machine
-
readable biometrics (such as fingerprints)
to the information stored
on the card.

Other widespread public sector applications for smart cards include national identity cards,
healthcare cards, public service (welfare) cards and local authority citizen cards. Many
European countries have or are starting national programs.

For example:



Austria has a national rollout of health insurance cards underway,

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Belgium is assessing extending their national identity smart cards to include a health
application,



France (which started a health smart card in 1998) is expected to rollout

an updated
version of their health card in 2006 at the same time as a new national identity card is
rolled out,



Italy is expected to replace their current paper national identity card with a smart card
over the next five years which is to include health
and passport functions, and



Spain is starting to roll
-
out a new national identity smart card which will also include
passport functions but is not expected to include health.

Cardholder Authentication

For many applications it is important that the user of

the card can be verified as being the
legitimate card user. This is called cardholder authentication and, most often, is achieved by
a personal identification number (PIN). In some applications, and government ones in
particular (see the passport exampl
e above), cardholder authentication methods are moving
from PINs to biometrics. For example, it is expected that the new French identity card will
include a fingerprints as well as a digitised photo, and that the Italian card which will conform
to ICAO st
andards with the addition of fingerprints.

Using biometrics for verification can make services easier to use as users do not have to
remember PINs or complicated authentication mechanisms.

However, biometrics systems
are not perfect and require that the b
alance between the accuracy of the system and its
usability to be built into the system. For a population
-
scale service using biometric that is
even 99.9% accurate will lead to thousands of people being prevented from carrying out
legitimate transactions.

One way of addressing this is by combining multiple biometrics (for
example, a fingerprint with voiceprint).

It is worth noting that some applications, notably public transport, do not require cardholder
authentication. For public transport applicatio
ns transaction speed is most important and
possession of the card is enough for its use. As a contactless card offers significant speed
and reliability advantages over traditional tickets, many cities worldwide have smart card
ticketing systems. Smart ca
rd roll
-
outs for public transport appear to be happening on a city
basis rather than countrywide, the exception being The Netherlands where a co
-
ordinated
nationwide approach is being undertaken.

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Smart
Cards
Types

As introduced above, contact smart cards
(as defined in ISO 7816) are plastic cards usually
of a size known as ID
-
1 (the traditional credit card size as defined in ISO 7810) that store the
information on an electronic chip. This can be a memory
-
only chip (often used for public
telephony applicat
ions) or it can incorporate a microprocessor which gives the capability of
adding additional data security features (typically used for financial and identity applications).
These cards are read by inserting the card in a reader, where contacts in the rea
der touch
contacts on the card to read information from the card’s electronic chip.

B
y incorporating a
n

aerial
with
in the

plastic sheets of a

card, the card can be read at a
distance of up to 10 cm. These are contactless cards (as defined in ISO 14443) an
d are
common in public transport applications where speed of throughput is the p
rimary
consideration.
Visa, MasterCard and American Express are starting to offer contactless
cards for payment applications and it is likely that the technology will be intro
duced for
payments in Western Europe in the next few years.

This technology is similar to a passive RFID tag but it operates at a different radio frequency
with different protocols. Typically, passive RFID tags are used for retail tagging, animal
chipping

and other identity applications.

Vicinity cards (as defined in ISO 15693) operate at a distance of between 10 cm and 1
metre. These cards are not yet in widespread use, and their market penetration will largely
depend on the perceived economic benefits t
o the service providers. For users with a
disability they could offer a range of new facilities (e.g. for a blind user, giving an audible
announcement of the destination of the bus before entering the bus).

Cards which operate at a range greater than one
metre are for applications such as tolls on
roads. These cards, often referred to as active tags, have to be used in a device which
incorporates a power supply such as a battery.

Smart Cards in Mobile Phones

Even though the conventional format is a card,
smart card can be in many other forms such
as key fobs. There has been a recent trend to embedded contactless cards into personal
devices, such as in a wrist watch, which are often referred to as smart media. The most
promising of these initiatives, whic
h is likely to result in mass deployment, is the embedding
wireless proximity technologies in mobile phones. This technology is referred to as near field
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communication (NFC). The aim of NFC is to enable seamless wireless communication
between two consume
r devices that are simply tapped together.

NFC enables devices to operate in either active or passive contactless modes, allowing, for
example, an NFC mobile phone handset to act as a reader of other contactless devices or
act as a passive contactless smar
t card in its own right.

The features of NFC can be used to improve service usability. For example, if a sign at a
bus stop contained a passive tag, simply tapping the sign with an NFC phone could
automatically call an information line or allow travel i
nformation to read
-
out using the phone
speaker. In a more traditional way, a transport ticketing application could be loaded into a
customer’s the NFC phone and tapped on a ticket barrier to provide the same functionality
as a conventional contactless sma
rt card

Although a relatively recent technology, NFC is expected to roll
-
out quickly. This is because
mobile handset replacement cycles are relatively short since new features are continuously
being introduced by both the handset manufacturers and mobile
phone operators. A recent
Philips Semiconductor press release predicts that over 50 percent of all mobile phone
handsets will incorporate NFC by 2010.

Apart from a few pilot services in payments, public transport applications are seeing the first
impleme
ntations of contactless smart card services embedded in mobile phone handsets,
with the Felica deployment in Japan being the leading scheme. As the mobile phone is
ubiquitous, many commentators suggest that there is a natural convergence for smart card
ap
plications to be present on mobile devices.

Smart Card Benefits

Since a smart card belongs to an individual user information can be stored which has the
potential to tailor services to the user.
Smart cards can carry very specific

information about
a pers
on, such as health

records. Smart cards can also be used to

help people control
devices. For example an

electronic medicine dispenser could be

designed to release specific
tablets to a

person, which could help avoid the

difficulties some people have in

rem
embering
what tablets to take or at

what intervals.

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For
older users or those with disabilities
, a smart card

can carry information that tells a
terminal to:



Allow the user more time



Simplify
choices
,

such as issuing a preset

amount of money



Use l
arger char
acters for people with low

vision



Provide a
udio output of information
, through an earphone for confidential information
.

There are many occasion when audio output would be convenient and a smart card can
inform a terminal when. For example, a smart credit
/debit card inserted into a device would
trigger the device to
speak the transaction logs on card allowing the user to check their most
recent transactions.

Many
cards
use a four digit personal

identification number (PIN)

to verify the cardholder
.


People

with

dyslexia often have problems in

remembering a four digit PIN in the correct

order, so are likely to prefer alternative

biometric systems for authentication.

The selection
verification method can be made to match the cardholder and extend a service t
o more
users.

The use of appropriate technologies can make a system usable by the widest possible
community of users. A smart card can be a key technology in this and can provide an
intelligent, tailored link between the user and the system, allowing the
system to give the
user with the best interface for their needs. This approach can reduce dependency on
manual support and help to reduce overall service costs.


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Making
Smart Card Services

Accessible

Perhaps it goes without saying that services accessed u
sing a smart card should be as easy
to use as possible for all groups of users, but it is important that every eff
ort is made to
achieve this

goal.

When designing for accessibility smart card based services, it is useful to
consider how a user interacts w
ith all card services to ensure that all aspects have been
considered. This covers the services lifecycle from applying for and activating a card, using
the card in normal operation and understanding what to do if problems occur, to closing an
account or
ending any interaction with the service.

When a user interacts with a service, the following are typical events and functions that are
performed:



Card
application



A user’s first interaction with a card service is the process to receive
a card. This i
s called card issuance and covers activities such as how a user applies to
access the service, how a suitable card is distributed and how it is activated for use.
Naturally, a central consideration for a smart card service is the card itself (or smart
med
ia device). It is important, therefore, that the physical characteristics and design of
available card types cater for the whole user population.



Locating and accessing terminals



A smart card is used in or at a terminal. Before a
user can use a card th
e terminals in which the card can be used must be located and be
physically accessible.



External features, labels and instructions



After finding access points and terminals it
must be clear what to do next. Simple external features can change the signif
icantly
change the accessibility of services.



Card use



The next step is to use the card. The normal day
-
to
-
day services must be
able easy to use and its not always obvious how the card services are operated.



Cardholder authentication methods



Some serv
ices will require user authentication.
Authentication is the process to verify the user of the card is the card owner.
Authentication methods have lifecycles of their own that are linked but can be separate to
the card itself. Typical authentication metho
ds include: signature, PIN and biometrics.

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Interacting with terminals



Self
-
service terminals invariably use display screens for
interaction with the user. The goal of a good terminal design is to enable all users to be
able to use the screens

and contro
ls

provided.




Retrieving output



Self
-
service terminals often provide tickets, receipts and other
material. As well as being clear where and when any physical output from terminals is
provided, allowance should be of made for the ability of all users to
retrieve it.



Typefaces and legibility



Significant work has been undertaken over many years to
provide legible typefaces. Service providers should take advantage of this.



Lost & stolen

cards



Dealing with lost and stolen cards is troublesome for all use
rs and
particularly so for users relying on services related to the card. These users can often
the most disadvantaged and so careful consideration of the processes and subsequent
replacement and re
-
issue of cards is required.



Alternative service



If a c
ard service or a part of it is unavailable for whatever reason, it
may be the most important aspect to a particular user group. Users need to be aware of
what
alternative

arrangements are available
.

T
he
activities
given above are considered in appropriate

sections below
. A more
in depth
analysis for each topic is undertaken in the detailed guidelines document.

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Card Application

To obtain a card for a specific application, the user may need to complete an application
form on paper or on a computer terminal
. For people with a visual impairment, this can
problematic unless the form is available in a range of alternative formats and the online form
has been designed for accessibility (according to the WAI guidelines). People with
intellectual impairments oft
en experience difficulties in understanding what information they
are required to input.

Many people find it difficult to understand complicated written text. Overall, 25% of the Irish
population are "functionally illiterate", meaning that, while they can
read to some degree,
they would have difficulty reading a newspaper, filling in a form or following the instructions
on a medicine bottle. Similarly, people whose first language is not English, such as first
generation immigrants or foreign visitors, may h
ave some reading ability but it may be low.

The initial configuration and personalisation of the card is then done by the service provider
before issuing the card to the individual. This can include incorporating any requested
preferences for the user int
erface (such as large characters or speech output). To simplify
card issuance, it is possible to have a number of ‘standard profiles’ for various groups of
disabled users
. These should be available as part of the application process.

The following are ke
y accessibility considerations here:



Information literature
and application forms
about the service
should be
available in a
range of alternative formats



Information and forms should be
in clear simple language

and easy to understand



Text should be a
t leas
t 16 point type size

and offer
good contrast on a plain background


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Locating and accessing the terminal

In places such as shopping centres, car parks, railway and bus stations, locating an
information terminal or cash machine can be difficult
-

particular
ly for people who are blind or
have low vision.

There are many things that can be designed around a terminal to make it more accessible to
disabled and elderly users. For example, a space beneath the facia of the terminal will allow
for the footrest of a
wheelchair. A notch adjacent to the facia would be useful for those
needing to prop their walking sticks while using the terminal. It is also important to ensure
that the pathways around a terminal are clear and uncluttered.

Where queuing is likely, consid
eration should be given to some non
-
obstructive method of
queue control such as variation in colour of flooring or pavement. The system should
maintain privacy and security for the user.


Provide clear access and an illuminated
area.


For low vision users, signs showing where a terminal is should be large and high contrast
(preferably white or yellow characters on a dark background) and illuminated (preferably
internally i
lluminated).

Where possible, there should be a continuous clear accessible path of travel for a wheelchair
from car parking places to the terminal.

The floor surface should be level in the direction
parallel to the facia of the terminal. The gradient of
any crossfall should not exceed 1 in 20.
There should be a clear area of 1.5 metres radius directly in front of the terminal, which
should not be obstructed by litter bins or other street furniture.

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The following are key accessibility considerations here
:



Location signs
should be
easy to read

and there should be a
dequate lighting levels



Clear path for wheelchairs

to the terminal and a level surface around it



Location system
to help

blind users

locate the terminal


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External features, labels and instructio
ns

When a person has located a terminal they need to know what type of machine it is, what it
will do and how they can interact with it. The initial instructions are usually in the form of
labels and signs applied to the surface of the terminal casing or a
s messages on the screen.

Labels should be placed where they can be easily read. If labels are positioned near the
keyboard it is important that the labels are not scuffed or worn away. If this is likely then the
labels should be replaced periodically.

On

outdoor terminals, Braille has limited value in cold weather since tactual sensitivity is
dramatically reduced with decreasing temperature. The estimated number of Braille readers
in Europe is less than 2% of the visually impaired population; so although
useful for some
blind users, Braille is not a total solution for visually impaired users.

Any instructions applied to the surface of the terminal should be written in simple and clear
language. Type sizes as small as 10 point are not legible for many peopl
e. It is
recommended that type size of at least 16 point (4 mm cap height) be used for labels.

It is useful to number instructions and then associate the physical parts of the interface with
the numbers. The numbers can also be shown on the visual display.

The following are key accessibility considerations here:



Labels
are
positioned for easy reading

and l
egible for users with low vision



Numbered instructions

of available and s
imple
,

meaningful icons

used


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Card
Use

For contact cards, it will be beneficial
for users with a visual impairment to incorporate a
tactual notch (according to the European standard EN 1332
-
2) so that the user knows in
which orientation to insert the card in the reader. However such a notch could be useful to
all users (e.g. hotel gu
ests trying to insert their key cards in a dim corridor), so it would be
preferable to make all cards with this notch.


CEN 1332 compliant card layout. The notch
on the trailing edge helps users to orientate
the card.


For blind persons, there is the pro
blem of selecting the right card from their wallet. It is
recommended that cards incorporate embossed symbols according to EN 1332
-
5.

For disabled and elderly people, as well as the primary application and its data, a smart card
can carry information about

the user’s preferred user interface. The coding of this
information is specified in the European standard EN 1332
-
4. The coding allows for
specifying preferences for aspects such as colours to avoid, character size and font, sound
amplification and freq
uency preference, interface complexity level and time
-
outs, biometric
characteristics, and many other user
-
definable interface choices.

For the naïve user, it is often far from obvious where to insert or present the smart card. For
contact smart cards, a
flashing light around the card entry slot has been found beneficial. For
those with hand tremor, it is useful if the entrance to the card reader acts as a funnel to guide
the card in correctly.

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Card reader with funnel for contact smart
cards.


Contactle
ss cards are usually easier to use as they only need to be placed on a reader. The
exact orientation is not important except that the card must be placed almost flat relative to
the face of the reader. The actual reading zone on a contactless terminal sh
ould be clearly
marked in high contrast to its surroundings and ideally along with some a physical indication
(i.e. raised or lowered).

The following are key accessibility considerations here:



Include user preferences on
the
card (EN 1332
-
4)



Incorporate or
ientation notch (EN 1332
-
2)

and provide t
actual differentiation (EN 1332
-
5)



Provide an i
lluminated
and funnelled contact
card reader entry

slot



Provide a c
lear indication of
the location of
contactless card reader


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Cardholder Authentication

Cardholder aut
hentication is the process of verifying that the user of the card is the owner or
authorised user of that card. Not all applications require the cardholder to be verified. For
example, the presentation of a transport smart card containing a valid ticket o
r concession is
usually enough to allow travel on public transport. Where it is important to know who the
user is (such as for financial or identity uses), cardholder verification is normally required.

The conventional method for cardholder authentication

is for the recipient to compare the
signature on the payment slip with the signature on the back of the card. With self
-
service
terminals the conventional method is for the customer to key in a 4 digit personal
identification number (PIN). Customers often

have difficulty in remembering too many PINs
(particularly if they are used infrequently), so are prone to writing them down which lessens
the security of the system. People with dyslexia can have problems in remembering the
digits in the correct order.

N
umerous biometric systems have been developed to improve the security of cardholder
authentication; these include fingerprints, corneal patterns, and facial recognition. For people
with disabilities it would be desirable for the customer to be able to choo
se to use an
alternative method of customer verification; for instance a customer with damaged fingers
might want to use a PIN instead of finger print recognition.

Biometric Authentication

A biometric is a physical or behavioural feature or attribute that
can be measured. It can be
used as a means of proving that you are who you claim to be, or as a means of proving
without revealing your identity that you have a certain right.

Biometrics commonly used to confirm identity include:



Fingerprint recognition



I
ris recognition



Face recognition



Hand geometry recognition



Vein recognition

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Voice recognition



Dynamic signature recognition

A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system that operates by acquiring
biometric data from an individual, e
xtracting a feature set from the acquired data, and
comparing this feature set against the template set in the database.

Some physiological and medical factors can affect the usabili
ty and efficiency of biometrics.

Examples, include for hearing impaired p
eople speech may be affected due to loss of
hearing resulting in difficulty in using voice recognition systems and for visually impaired
people iris recognition is difficult for people who have received laser iridotomy (used to
correct angle
-
closure caused

by glaucoma).

Advantages of Biometrics

The obvious advantage of biometric systems is that the user no longer has to remember
PINs (personal identification numbers) and keep this number secret. People with a cognitive
impairment will find most biometric
systems much easier to use and provide a greater level
of security.

People who have limited or no use at all of arms or hands will find using face and iris
recognition systems an advantage as they will not have to swipe a card or type in a name or
PIN numb
er.

Issuance for Authentication Methods

Personal identification numbers (PINs) are normally issued by post separately from the card.
Blind people have obvious problems in ascertaining their PIN by this method; in practice they
have to ask a friend or neig
hbour to read it to them.

To register a biometric for public use (e.g. for a passport), the subject will usually have to go
to a centre where specialist staff take the biometric and check other relevant documentation.
Ideally these staff should be trained
to work with people with disabilities. The registration
equipment may not be easy to use. For instance an iris scan may require the user to look at
a target; if the user has macular degeneration resulting in loss of central vision they may not
be able to

see the target.

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Biometric Terminal Environment

The environment of the biometric authentication terminal needs to meet the general
accessibility for public access terminals. These may be fully supervised, partially supervised
or un
-
supervised; this is like
ly to be significant for occasional users and for some people with
disabilities. In general, a consistent user interface will benefit all users and may be of
particular importance for some people with disabilities. With un
-
supervised terminals it would
be
beneficial for there to be a standardised set of icons, symbols and pictograms for the
operation of the terminal.

It is essential that the authentication terminal is comfortable to use. For instance, enrolment
of fingerprints will normally be done with the

subject sitting down. However the authentication
may be done with subject standing. It is important that the height and angle of the fingerprint
reader is comfortable for both a tall person and someone in a wheelchair. If it is not viable to
make the read
er variable height (or on a flexile lead), it might be helpful if it was
able to tilt

to
allow a comfortable angle for the wrist. A wrist rest might be beneficial for a subject with
hand tremor.

Like all input devices on public terminals, it is important t
hat the device gives both auditory
and visual feedback of the current status (e
.
g
.

still processing, accepted, rejected). It is also
important that error messages are helpful and give guidance on what the subject should do
differently.

An ISO standard is u
nder development that will highlight the needs of the disabled and
suggest practical

ways of addressing their needs.

Key considerations

The following are key accessibility considerations here:



Alternative to PIN

is provided for those users where it is no
t appropriate



The a
bility to change
the
PIN

is available



There is a process
for issuing PINs to blind customers



There is a c
hoice of biometric verification

and a
ppropriate arrangements
available
for
the
registration process


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Interacting

with Terminals

Sc
reens

On most terminals the visual instructions on the screen are the main guide for the user.
There are a large number of factors that determine whether reading the screen will be
difficult or easy for disabled or elderly persons.


Provider common
reach
zones. Ensure
that users of all
heights can reach all
operable parts.


People who wear bifocals find it difficult to read the screen of most public access terminals,
since the screen may not be at a suitable distance for the near or far segments of thei
r
spectacles. In addition many people leave their spectacles in the car or do not wear them in
public. So the number of people who have problems in reading the screen is much more
than the 1.5% of the population considered to be blind or to have low vision
.

The most common forms of colour blindness are inherited and are associated with the
inability to discriminate red and green wavelengths. Because these defects are inherited as
recessive traits, the incidences are much higher in males (c. 8.0%), who poss
ess a single X
-
chromosome, than in females (c. 0.5%), who possess two. Total colour blindness is rare (c.
0.0025%).

Sunlight can degrade the
ability to view

a
display for all users. The screen should be
shielded from direct or reflected sunlight or other b
right light sources. The display should be
viewable from the eye level of a person sitting in a wheelchair. People with low vision should
not be prevented from getting their faces close to the screen.

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Shield screens from direct or
reflected light.


The

conflicting requirements of tall pedestrian users and short wheelchair users can lead to
a significant group of users having parallax problems when lining up the function keys with
the displayed option. Lines on the user
-
interface leading from the key to
the surface of the
display can alleviate this problem.

Wireless Interfaces

Developments in wireless interfaces
make it feasible for a disabled user to have a hand
control unit with a remote link to the terminal. This would require all terminals to use the
same interface protocol, and care would be needed to ensure confidentiality of sensitive
information.

With the deployment of near
-
field communication (NFC) technology in mobile phones, the
opportunity for a wireless link between the terminal and a user’s h
andset is fast becoming a
cost
-
effective option.
NFC enables a user to exchange all kinds of information simply by
bringing two devices close together.

Keypads and Controls

Controls should say what they do and do what they say. This is reinforced if they a
re intuitive
to use and easy to remember. There needs to be consistency both within and across
applications. Additionally controls should be compatible with how people expect them to
move e.g. up is up and left is left. Any display associated with the cont
rols should be aligned
appropriately. Using concepts that are familiar to the users will enable people to accurately
guess at how a function will operate. This should correspond to their expectations e.g. the
direction of reading is a powerful transferable

stereotype.

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A standard layout for keypads is essential for blind people. There are currently two common
layouts for numeric keys; the telephone layout and the calculator layout. It is recommended
that the telephone layout be used exclusively on public ac
cess terminals.


Use telephone layout for keypads.


Enlarged raised keys enable persons with poor dexterity to press the correct key; a concave
shape to the keys will also help fingers to stay in place. However some disabled people
prefer convex keys si
nce they can be activated by the hand for those unable to use their
fingers. The spacing between the keys is as important as the size of the keys. When a
person has difficulty making precise finger movements, large keys that are recessed or
guarded can hel
p ensure that the wrong key is not pressed. For many disabled people it is
important to be able to connect an external keyboard to suit their specific needs.

The standards in various countries differ over the embossed symbols to be u
sed on the
function key
s. A typical example is shown in the picture below.


E
xample of the embossed symbols
used on function keys.

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Ideally keys should be internally illuminated when the terminal is waiting for input from that
keypad.

Auditory feedback in the form of sounds
such as a 'beep' or 'click' when a key is
pressed is helpful to many people and enhances feedback and subsequently performance.

Providing Time

Many elderly people and those with a cognitive impairment do not like to be rushed or to
think that they are lik
ely to be 'timed out' by the machine, so it is necessary to allow for such
people to use the terminal at their own pace; this requirement could be stored on the user's
smart
card.

Maintaining Privacy

As k
eypads are often used in
a secure context,

they ofte
n need to be hidden from the view of
others. This can be achieved by the addition of a privacy shield. Since the principle purpose
of a privacy shield is to block the keys from view, this can pose serious problems with
respect to accessibility, both visual
ly and physically.

In general, it is recommended that the user ensures maximum privacy by positioning his/her
hands and body so that they shield the keypad and/or screen. However the required actions
cannot always be achieved with ease. Poor manual dexter
ity, for example, can limit the
number of simultaneous actions that can be carried out using both hands. Likewise the
ability of a customer to shield the keypad and screen with his/her body will depend on the
height at which the keypad and screen are locat
ed. A person of small stature or a person in
a wheelchair may not be sufficiently high to block the keypad and screen from the view of
other people. Although privacy shields should serve to alleviate these problems, there have
been difficulties in implemen
ting privacy shields without reducing accessibility.

The sides of the privacy shield can be angled inwards to give more room around the keypad,
but this increases the total area taken up by the keypad.

A possible alternative is to have a
removable (e.g.
hinged) privacy shield for people who have problems in using the keypad
when the shield is in place. However this may be difficult to make vandal resistant, and it
may be difficult to discourage users from removing the shield.

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Touchscreens

Touchscreens
ar
e
considered
useful in situations where inputs are
limited and well defined.
However, on a single

screen controls can be reconfigured. This can render them difficult to
use for visually impaired people who are not given a chance to learn where the controls

lie
and their association. It is important to ensure that labels are not made to look like controls.
Problems with parallax can also limit the effectiveness of touchscreens.

Whilst being used, the finger and hand
can
obscure what is on the screen. Smudge
s left by
fingers on the screen can decrease legibility. Touchscreens can be very difficult for blind
people to use because it is difficult to locate the control / active area and know whether this
has been activated. However
,

it is possible to design the
system so that there is spoken
output when the finger is over an item on the screen, but activation is only when the finger is
withdrawn over an active area. With this arrangement there should be only a small number
of well spaced active areas.

It can be t
iring to hold your arm up for a long time and pointing is not very accurate, people
tend to hit below the target. Accuracy is best for targets nearer the bottom of the screen this
is thought to be due to the position of the arm and parallax problems. The v
ertical size of the
target affected the error rates. To decrease the errors made by activating the wrong button,
large touch sensitive areas or soft buttons with a minimum of 20 mm height and width are
recommended.

It is possible to increase the size of t
he characters on the screen for individual customers
who require this facility. This can be done by selecting this option from a menu or, preferably,
by storing this information on the customer's
smart
card.
For example
, it could be arranged
that holding o
ne's finger in the bottom right corner for at least two seconds indicates that one
would like larger characters on the screen.

Key considerations

The following are key accessibility considerations here:



All c
ontrols

and touchscreens

reachable from a wheel
chair



Screen
should be
shield
ed

from sunlight



Allow
ance should be made

for red/green and blue/yellow colour blindness



An
Inductive loop facility

and jack socket should be provided

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Provide a easy to use interface with the ability
to increase character size
,

text
accompanied by graphics and optional speech output



There should be t
actual differentiation of keys
, with appropriate colour coding



The
telephone layout for numeric keys
, with a r
aised dot on number 5
, should be used



Extra time
should be
allowed for
i
mportant

input



If possible provide a k
eyboard alternative to the touch screen



On touchscreens ensure a
ctive areas well separated


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Retrieving output

Retrieving items from a terminal can be very difficult for people with poor manual dexterity
and persons wi
th low vision. Often more time is needed, retrieval points need to be clearly
indicated and within reach for wheelchair users.

Cash, receipt, or any other document issued from the terminal for withdrawal by the user
should prot
rude at least 3

cm beyond th
e slot surround.

Plastics cards are usually easier to
retrieve and so should protrude by at least 2cm.


Ensure that cards protrude at least
2cm from the surrounding slot.

Flexible output (such as tickets)
should protrude by at least 3cm.


Persons with p
oor manual dexterity often find taking a card from a terminal and then taking
the money difficult to do in the allowed time. Increasing the time for everybody, increases the
security risk. However it would be possible to let users decide if they want more
time than
the norm and store this requirement on their card.

Many people with arthritis have difficulty in gripping and pulling the card from the reader,
particularly when the arm is extended above the horizontal. The card should protrude at least
2 cm fro
m the slot surround. It is recommended that the force necessary for the user to
retrieve the card from the terminal should be not any greater than that needed to stop the
card from falling out of the reader.

The following are key accessibility considerati
ons here:



Ensure d
ocuments protrude
by
at least 3 cm

and cards by at least 2cm



Ensure m
inimum force
is
needed to withdraw
documents and
card
s

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Typefaces and legibility

The choice of font can affect the legibility of text both printed and on a screen. The c
haracter
shape, text format and layout can enhance or detract from the intended meaning. In general
legibility is higher with simple 'open' typefaces.


Use a typeface which clearly differentiates
numerals and letters.


The contrast and colour of text an
d background also affect legibility; this can be a severe
problem for people who are colour blind.

At larger print sizes, most visually impaired users benefit from having white or yellow print on
a dark matt background. However, at small print sizes it is
better to use black print on a white
background.

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Lost and stolen cards

For many older users, there is real concern about the possibility of losing their card. They
need to know the limit of their liability, and what to do to obtain a replacement.

A repla
cement for a lost or stolen card is likely to require several days to produce. The
replacement card is a cost to the service provider and may be passed on to the user. It is
important that customer facing operators or customer care representatives are trai
ned to
help users understand the implications of a lost card.

Service providers should be aware that it is possible older users may have misplaced their
card rather than it being lost and that it can be useful to allow a short space of time before
existin
g cards are fully blocked and replacements issued.

The
following are key accessibility considerations here:



Provide d
irect phone access

to call centre

staff
who are trained appropriately



Allow

suitable length of
time to find misplaced card


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Alternative S
ervice

If the terminal meets all the previous priority guidelines and there are still people who cannot
use it, it is important to ensure that the services it provides are available through an
alternative channel. Accessing the alternative channel should i
nvolve a minimal amount of
inconvenience to the user and should be provided at no extra cost.

Having met all the previous priority guidelines, there may still be a small group of people who
cannot use the terminal. If this is the case, they are likely to b
e users who either have
extreme difficulties in one particular area or who have multiple difficulties so that no
combination of the accessibility features meets their needs. For example, users who are deaf
and blind cannot see displayed information or hear

the spoken equivalent. They rely on
tactile representations such as output via a refreshable Braille display. These users may still
need to use the service to which the terminal provides access.

Providing an alternative channel through a human customer se
rvice agent has particular
benefits, even for customers who can physically use the terminal but have some difficulty
with the service. The human representative is able to interpret customers' requirements,
answer their questions and give spontaneous inform
ation that the machine is not capable of.
They also provide a 'face' to the organisation, which some users are far happier with.

The
following are key accessibility considerations here:



Provide appropriately t
rained customer service agents


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Smart Card Appl
ications Case Studies

French Health Card

The French health card, the SESAM
-
Vitale system, is one of the most highly regarded smart
card based system in the European healthcare sector. The system has converted a paper
-
based claims mechanism into an electro
nic version that has reportedly improved the time for
payment reimbursement from several weeks to several days. The Vitale smart card and
associated PIN authenticates all user groups to the system and has allowed the relationship
between healthcare profes
sionals, patients and health insurance organisations to be
computerised. All claims are submitted by a healthcare professional using the card to identify
the individual and assure that the electronic claim is genuine.

A patient’s Vitale smart card is used
to identify entitlement and does not include medical data
or payment functions. The system makes it easier for users to receive the benefits they are
entitled to, rather than proving entitlement on each occasion. The following types of data are
stored on

the card for patients:



Name and identity of the holder



Health insurance details



Rights to health insurance services



Exemptions from contributions (if appropriate)



Additional insurance cover (if appropriate)

The system is now very mature, being first deplo
yed in 1998, and is available across French
health service locations and retail pharmacy outlets. The SESAM
-
Vitale web site reports
there are:



Over 48 million Vitale smart cards issued to all insured persons and beneficiaries aged
16 and over, and more th
an 210,000 to healthcare professionals;



23,000 terminals for updating details on cards and over 210,000 card readers;



More than 900 million claim reimbursement forms processed per year.

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2006 will see the introduction of a new smart card and more online ser
vices for users.
Further information is available on the SESAM
-
Vitale web gateway at
www.sesam
-
vitale.fr
.
Information regarding the healthcare professional card is available at
www.gip
-
cps.fr
.

Tampere (Finland) City Card

A city
-
wide smart card based scheme is being created in Tampere, Finland. The Tampere
City Card is a citizen card that allows access to local services. Tampere initiated the e
-
Tampere programme with the a
im to make Tampere a leader in information society
development through the implementation of an electronic services infrastructure for local
citizens and businesses. An integral part of this project is the Tampere City Card which
entered a pilot in 2003/4

and has added additional functionality for 2006.

Since 1997, Tampere has had a travel card scheme (The Tampere Travel Card) for its
regional bus services. The majority of the city’s 200,000 population have one of these cards.
The travel card can also be
used for access to leisure centres. Travel card transactions are
around 100,000 per day on the buses and 20% of all leisure centre access.

The Tampere City Card builds on the travel card scheme adding payment functions for
students to existing bus travel
and leisure service access. The bus travel, leisure pass, and
student payments operate via a contactless interface. The chip has a single electronic purse
application which can be loaded with multiples of Euro20 and is deducted appropriately on
the bus, a
t the leisure centres or in cafeterias.

Interestingly, one of the key lessons of the project has been a service that wasn’t successful.
In addition to the above applications, a public key infrastructure (PKI) was created for access
to online transactional

services, such as applying for rental housing. This proved too difficult
to use and administer and has been dropped from the programme.

The immediate future of the Tampere City Card is to include the integration of library
functions with the card. There

are plans to adopt a dual
-
interface smart card (i.e. a card with
both contact and contactless interfaces) and provide a range of new services for their e
-
equipped citizens. Payments, car parking and loyalty schemes are said to be on the
agenda, as well a
s smart media such as mobile phones and PDA’s.

Further information is available at
www.tampere.fi
.