The Evolution of Internet of Things

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Feb 16, 2014 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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74

2004

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Linee Guida Intranet

Settembre 2005

Linee guida per le intranet del
Dipartimento Amministrazione centrale
del personale e dei servizi del Ministero

del Tesoro


The Evolution of
Internet of T
hings

February 2011

|
Casaleggio Associati



Focus


Internet of Things


February 2011







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2

Table of contents





Introd
uction






The evolution of the
Internet



The evolution of the
Internet

of things


The world is the Index

Take the world on line

Take control of the world

Let things talk to each other

Let things become intelligent



Energy and connectivity



Where it works



Casaleggio Associati





Intranet

Documento di intranet Assessment

La moda on line in Italia.

Tendenze, strategie,

numeri e opportunità del
settore della moda on line in Italia.

2004

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2004

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2004

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Focus


Internet of Things


February 2011







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3

Introduction






Internet

of Things, is a new revolution of the
Internet
. Objects make themselves
recognizable

and they get intelligence thanks to the fact that they can communicate
information about themselves and they can access information that has been
aggregated by other things. Alarm clocks go off early if there’s traffic; plants
communicate to the sprinkler

system when it’s time for them to be watered;
running shoes communicate time, speed and distance so that their wearers can
compete in real time with people on the other side of the world; medicine
containers tell your family members if you forget to take

the medicine. All objects
can get an active role thanks to their connection to the
Internet
.


The design of objects connected to the
Internet

is by now across the board in all
sectors, and especially in the media. Estimates suggest that in 5 to 10 years t
here
will be 100 billion devi
ces connected to the
Internet
.
1

Two orders of magnitude
greater than the 1.5 billion PCs and the billion mobile phones that can be connected
to the
Internet

that are today present in the world.

All the same, it’ll be the
simplest objects that will dominate the scene. By the end
of 2012, for example, physical sensors will generate 20
% of non
-
video
Internet

traffic
.
2
















1

Source
: Michael Nelson,

IBM
IT

director

2

Source: Gartner Group, 2010


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4


From
Internet

of people to
Internet

of t
hings




Communication between computers started with the EDI (Electronic Data
Interchange) that made possible direct dialogue between two PCs. With the
Internet
,
all the computers connected to the
Internet

can talk to each other and with the
connection of mobile p
hones, the connection has become mobile.

The evolution that we have been witnessing in the last few months is an extension of
this
Internet

to all the things that surround us.

Up until now the
Internet

has been the first place for uniting people by means
of
different types of social media (Email, Blog, Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, …), now it is
being transformed into the tool that will allow all objects to interact and in certain
cases to gain access to the collective knowledge that they will generate.

With

social media, we have improved our possibilities for relating to each other
beyond the limits of direct physical relations, so for example, we can go beyond the
anthropological limit of 150 people
3

with who
m we can keep in direct contact
.

The
Internet

of Things will make it possible for objects to get information about
their position in the world, to interact with other objects and to have access to
comparative information for data gathered in their vicinity.










3

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunbar's_number

F
onte: Casaleggio Associati, 2011

The evolution from Int
ernet of P
eopl
e to Internet of Things


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5

The Evolution of The
Internet

of Things



The
Internet

of Things is a gradual revolution that will lead to all the objects
surrounding us being connected to the
Internet

in
some way. On the other hand it’ll happen that all
content starting with music
going right up to film
will

migrate towards digital media.
For this reason,
the physical devices holding content will have less
and less significance. Music will be listened

to in
MP3 format, books will be listened to as audio
-
books
or read on devices for e
-
books, and newspapers will
be read from PCs or tablets. But even the objects
that access content are multiplying. For example,
PlingPlong
4

PlingPlong is a cushion that reads books
that are brought close to it.
Nabaztag
5
,
is a
‘rabbit’
connected to
the
Internet

and it reads newspapers, emails,
weather forecasts, messages and even audio
-
books downloaded from the
Internet
. The
rabbit has
recen
tly also
had an
evolution with
Tux Droid
6

that in the ‘penguin’
version makes it possible to be programmed directly
with open software
.



Digital content will be ever more accessible with
the evolution of
Internet

readers that make it
possible to exploit content in all occasions of use
for which today we use physical data storage
devices. For example
Chumby
7
,

a viewer connected
via wifi, and the
iPad
8

let you quickly get access to
online content without needing to
turn on your PC.

The evolution that is partially happening right now is
in the transformation to digital of the
information needed to reproduce objects with
3D
9

printers, or ‘making machines’ that make it
possible to reproduce physical objects in your
own home.


As regards software services, we are seeing the
evolution of platforms for accessing content
directly online. For example, TV series in the
United States can be viewed directly on the

Hulu
10

site that has free online broadcasting of
TV serials with breaks for advertising. Films can



4

http://welovetechnology.wordpress.com/2009/03/26/540/

5

http://www.nabaztag.com/it/index.html

6

http://wiki.tuxisalive.com/index.php/Main_Page

7

http://www.chumby.com/pages/learn_overview

8

http://www.apple.com/it/ipad/

9
http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/top_10_youtube_videos_about_printing_3d_objects.php?utm_source=feedburner&
utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+readwriteweb+(ReadWriteWeb)

10

http://www.hulu.com


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6

be viewed on
su
Netflix
11
,
a site where you can view if you take out a monthly
subscription and online versions of radio can be

listened to all over the world
o
r

cre
ate
d

on demand
with services like

Jango
12
.






11

http://www.netflix.com

12

http://www.jango.com



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7



The world is the index
13




The world is the index that we will use to classify and identify the things that
surround us. For example, the photos that we
take have ever more frequently the location of
the photographer and the photos can be
organised according to location using
Google

Earth
14
.

Wikitude
15

provides information on
monuments, commercial activities and other
objects that are in our surroundings at a
particular time.


The indicator of time connected to that of
location can be used to classify all so
rts of
material and any
object. For this reason, all our actions will always be connected to
these characteristics and they will connect objects to each other simply because
they are or were in the same place at a certain moment in time.


The most interesting sphere that emerges
from this way of thinking is future time.
It’s not by chance that the Smartphone applications that are used the most are those
connected to forecasting the future in a certain place, like weather forecasts, traffic
news and the location of traffic cameras,

etc.







13

Ringrazio Kevin Kelly (kk.org) per questa intuizione e definizione.

14

http://earth.google.com


15

http://www.wikitude.org/


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8



Take the world on line


The things that are surrounding us can have an information shadow on the
Internet
.
Monuments, museums and works of art already have a lot of information available
about them online. And this is even more so for objects
produced in series like books
and in a future that is not so far off, this will also be true for people.


The
RFID
16

tags
,
devices that contain chips that can
be read by nearby sensors, are becoming ever
more popular and are also being used for the
chronometry of athletes
in almost all the most
popular running races.
The RFID tags can also be
purchased for private use,
for exa
mple the
Championchip
17

can be
worn when running in
different parks around
the
world
18

(
for example Regent's Park in London) so as to be
timed with a chronometer and to see your own time
shown on the big screens
or online. Domestic
animals can wear
RFID
19

co
llars that
are recognised by doors that can open to let them
enter.


Furthermore, it’s possible to have codes applied to
objects that are all around us so that they can be
recognised automatically. For example,
Stickybits
20

can issue bar codes to be stuck on objects and you
can be warned if they are scanned. An evolution of
this system is
Mir:row
21
,
an RFID reader connected to
your PC that carries out
actions according to the
tags that are brought close to it, connected for
ex
ample to your child’s house keys so when they are
recognised, a message is sent to the parents to say that
the child has arrived home. If a book is brought close,
then this can start a process to read the book in audio
reading.



The RFID tags are also us
ed to
identify people. For
example, electronic
passports contain
one and at passport control they can be read even
from a distance. ‘It’s alive inside’ is a project by
Guinness to follow a rugby game by the use of RFID
tags inserted into the ball and on th
e players
22
.
All
the movements on the field are followed in a
detailed way by a computer that can check the
speed of the sprinting, the details of the ball passing



16

it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Frequency_IDentification

17

www.championchip.it/pubblico/timePoint.do

18

www.mychampionchip.com/sportsareas.jsf

19

http://www.dogdoors.com/productView.php?id=28

20

stickybits.com/

21

www.violet.net/_mirror
-
give
-
powers
-
to
-
your
-
objects.html

22

www.youtube.com/watch?v=9NNL0aHF
-
Y8


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9

and all the information that is difficult to see just with your eyes.

The technology to track objects has evolved even further with mobile phones that
can
pick up information and can be picked up from a short
distance. For example, the
Nokia 6212
,
has a system
called Near Field Communication (NFC) that can be used
to make payments
(rather than using
a credit card). It
can be used to
gain access to a
trade fair or as a
substitute for a
ticket that can
be sent to a
telephone that transmits the code to

the sensors nearby
23
.
An add
-
on called
iCarte
24
,

has been created for the iPhone and it enables the phone to use NFC functions. The
RFID readers in the shops and in the trade fairs make a unique online identification
of the mobile phone and the owner can
associate it with a credit card or an entrance
ticket.


The evolution of object recognition is already
happening and it means that it is not necessary
to depend on codes or labels, but simply the
direct identification of the objects around us.
For example
, with
Google Shopper
25
,

a book can
be identified directly by its cover and not just by
its bar code. With programs like
SoundHound
26

and

Shazam
27

it’s possible to recognise music
while it is being broadcast. With
Picasa
28

è
, it is
possible to recognise
people’s faces, in the
future and in real time. It’s probable that
technologies will evolve to be able to recognise all the unique
objects existing on the earth, to identify those products that are
part of a series by their position if that’s fixed (like a

lamp post)
or from a code that can be picked up at a distance if the objects
can be moved.

Some objects are already tracked continually around our cities.
In certain cases this sort of information is indirectly available
to the end user, like the distance

of the nearest available taxi
if we call a taxi hotline. In other cases, the information can be
freely used, as in the case of tracking public transport. For
the city of Boston, an
iPhone

app called

Catchthebusapp
29
,
lets you know the location of the publ
ic transport vehicles around
the city and the exact time that they will come by your stop. Trenitalia offers a
service that tells you if the train is late.

In certain cases, even animals are tracked using RFID, like for example in Japan and
Australia
30
,
where the cows are tagged at birth to guarantee their provenance.




23

Altri telefoni compatibili: Nokia 6131 NFC, BenQ T80, Motorola L7 (SLVR) NFC, Samsung SGH
-
D500E NFC, Samsung SGH
-
X700n (brick) NFC, Sagem
-
Orga my700X
NFC, Nokia 3220 + NFC Shell e dei modelli Kyocera.
Ci si aspetta che i modelli aumentaranno dato che l’ass
ociazione GSMA degli operatori mobile hanno finalizzato lo
standard.

24

http://www.icarte.ca/docs/SW09
-
00XX
-
DS%20
-
%20iCarte.pdf

25

www.g
oogle.com/mobile/shopper/

26

www.soundhound.com/

27

www.shazam.com/

28

http://picasa.google.com/

29

http://catchthebusapp.com/

30
http://www.idtechex.com/research/articles/rfid_tagging_of_cattle_by_law_in_australia_00000201.asp

“A year from now, basically every new phone
sold will have [near field communication].
It's a two
-
way, bi
-
directional RFID
communication link that makes this device
work as a tag or reader.”


Håkan Djuphamma, Ericsson's vice
-
president
of systems architecture,
06/2009



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10



Take control of the world





The world around us can talk to us and tell us its
needs.
This is why the objects that have already been
monitored at a local level are now communicating
information via
Internet

so as to optimise use, as for
example the electricity or gas meters or closed circuit
TV cameras.
Homecamera
31

makes it possible to
remo
tely manage webcams connected to a computer.
Google lets you use a remote printer via the service
called

Cloud Print
32

and

very probably this is just the
first of this type of service to be made available via
its browser/operating
system called
Chrome.



At the same time, even objects that were not
monitored at one time can today supply data
that can be monitored and compare
d over
time.

Withings
33

is a wifi weighing machine
that keeps track of your weight each time you
use it.



To monitor
any object
connected to the
Internet

there’s a platform called

Pachube
34

that
makes it possible for sensors connected to the
Internet

to send data about themselves and make
them viewable in different ways that can be over
time and according to place, but above all to trigger
actions when certain values are reached (for
example, to
open a window when a certain
temperature is reached
).




31

http://www.homecamera.com

32

http://www.google.com/support/cloudprint/?hl=en

33

http://www.withings.com/it/index/?taranim=1

34

http://www.pachube.com



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11




Let the things talk to each other



Objects can interact with each other to exchange
and integrate data, to trigger actions and to
integrate how they work together. On the basis of
this concept, different intercommunication

languages have been developed.
These are often
referred to as
M2M
35
,
anguages. Anyway, the most
efficient language is still XML that is used to
exchange data directly via the
Internet
.

Goodnightlamp
36

s a set of lamps (still not yet on the
market) with an on/off switch that works via the
Internet
. The bulbs switch on and off together with
their ‘twins’ around the world, and the people that
know each other who live apart, can see when the other one goes

on (for

example
our relative has come home) or when they turn
off
.


Even plants can signal their needs. In fact,
with
Botanicalls
37
,
plants can communicate on
Twitter when they need watering and the
communication can go to a sprinkler system
connected to the
Internet
.
The concept of
getting all the objects in a house
38

to talk to
each other is by now the goal of many
companies and in par
ticular IBM.


Objects can communicate with each other even at a local level
and then they can send the information gathered online. For example
,
Nike+
39

inserts accelerometers inside shoes so as to give information about the rhythm of the
running with the distance travelled and the time taken. Still at a local level,
Poken
40

can communicate. They are digital business cards that can swap data and then
downlo
ad the data to your computer.







35

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_to_Machine

36

http://www.goodnightlamp.com/

37

http://www.botanicalls.com/

38

http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/technology/2009/06/things_that_tweet.html

39

http://inside.nike.com/blogs/nikerunning_news
-
it_IT/2009/08/07/nike
-
sul
-
nuovo
-
iphone
-
3gs

http://nikerunning.nike.com/nikeos/p/nikeplus/it_IT/plus/#//dashboard/

40

http://www.poken.com/


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12



Let things become intelligent



Objects that interact with the
Internet

can create value that interlinks them. Object
Generated Content (OGC), that is the creation of knowledge and aggregated value
by individual objects, will be of certain orders of

magnitude greater than any value
that can be created directly by people. The

intelligence of

OGC

and its value are
sited in its planning. Up until now, the systems for having information shared are
limited to the use of sensors (for example: responding to temperature or pollution)
or to counters that can identify the best moments or the places for
ge
tting energy.



Furthermore there are some examples of
interaction of objects that we have in the
home with information that is already on the
Internet
. For example,
WineM
41

is a storage
system that allows you to put away bottles of
wine, to know where the
y are and to identify
them by illuminating the bottle that is being
searched for. The system is connected to the
Internet

and can thus illuminate those bottles
recommended by a certain chef, to experience
with a particular dish, or those with a certain market value (reckoned in real time
via
W
inebid
42
).




The aggregation of information in real time can also
be shared with a
ll those supplying information.
Nike
has created
Nike Human Race
43

u

a worldwide race that
everyone can take part in by making use of a Nike+
sensor in your shoes no matter where in the world you
are.
The only constant for all participants is the
distance.


The intelligence of
things can be
developed by a
number of objects in
the same location. For

example,
GlowCap
44

provides
intelligence to medicine bottles. They use light or sound
signals or a telephone call to remind you when they have
to be taken and
they send your doctor or your family a
monthly report on what medicine has been taken.


The evolution of
OGC

will be in the direction of sharing
and the automatic use of the information that they can
provide. ‘Nike Human Race’ is an example but ‘GlowCap’ and ‘WineM’ could also in
the future give aggregated information on the time slots that are the most difficu
lt
to remember to take pills or which wines are normally kept together in the same
wine cellar.





41

http://thingm.com/sketches/winem.html

42

http://www.winebid.com/

43

http://www.runtex.com/web/2
-
2089.asp

44

http://www.vitality.net/glowcaps.html


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13

E
nergy versus

Conne
ctivity




Two factors are needed for objects to be connected together: energy and
connectivity. The more energy and connectivity that is
needed to co
nnect things,
the fewer the object
s that can be connected on the
Internet
. The technologies and
examples can thus be classed according to their potential for being widely
distributed.




ENERG
Y


CONNE
CTIVITY

A
bsent

On place or recharchable

Always plugged in


Internet


(2 way)




Intelligent
meters


Remote access to the
Net

Internet


(1 way)



RFID
Internet

Tags


RFID
with sensors


e
-
book

readers

Adjacent
connectivity


RFID



NFC


Without
connection


Codes on objects










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14

Applications




Possible applications are likely to be in those places where there is connectivity and
energy such as in the off
ice and at home
.

Today, applications are developing mostly in relation to the mobile phone thanks to
its

widespread use and its
capacity to maintain energy and connectivity wherever it
is.













Energy

vs. Connectivity. Where internet things

will be.



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15

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-
mail

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Casaleggio Associati



Consultancy on
Internet

strategy and research on the digital
economy.

For every organisation, the
Internet

makes it necessa
ry to have a long term strategy

with the definition of priorities, feasibility, realisation and evaluation of the return
on investment. An
Internet

strategy is based on a whole vision in which models of
business, communication and web marketing are evaluated all together.

For the development of companies on the
Internet
, you need a detailed knowledge
of the evolution that is happening, at both nation
al and international levels, in
different environments.

Casaleggio Associati

(
www.casaleggio.it
)
develops strategic
Internet

consultancy
for companies by means of specific competencies of business owners, affiliates
and partners and it prepares reports on
the digital economy.


Areas of activity

An online strategy covers the evaluation of different factors such as
,

for example
,

the perceived identity on the
Internet

, the business model to be implemented and
the evaluation of the areas of the ROI.

Below
you’ll find the main areas of analysis
carr
ied out by Casaleggio Associati
.





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Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I
-

è vietata la riproduzione


74

2004

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