Chapter 4 – Computer Software - WordPress.com

crookpatedspongySoftware and s/w Development

Dec 2, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Introduction


Program:

Set of sequence instruction that tell the computer what to
do.



Software:

A collection of programs, data, and information.



Programmer:

The person who makes the program.

(
Computer Software
)

(
System Software
)

(
Application Software
)

Computer Software

System Software


It is the software which is used by the computer or
operates a computer system.



Built inside the computer or in a CD must be bought.


(
System
Software
)

(
Programming
language
)

(
Compiler And
Interpreters
)

(
Operating
Systems
)


Programming language


Programs are developed by the programming languages.



It is a set of words, rules, syntax.



There are many programming languages each to solve
specific kinds of problems.



Ex. ( C, Java, Pascal, …etc).


Generations of Programming Languages:

1.
Machine Language.

2.
Assembly Language.

3.
High Level Language.

4.
Application Generation.

5.
Object Oriented Languages.

Programming language


Programming language

Generations of Programming
Languages:

1
.Machine Language:


It is written in
1
,
0
(Binary system).


Difficult language.


Need long time.


Depends on the computer
architecture.


Programming language

Generations of Programming
Languages:

2
.Assembly Language:


Depends on using some of the mnemonic
symbols, like: ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV.


Easier than the machine language.


Use other accounting systems.


Depends on the computer architecture.


A translator is needed and it is called
(Assembler).

Generations of Programming Languages:

3
.High

Level

Language:


Use statements that user

can understand
.


It

needs translators.


It can be used very easily to solve complex
problems.


They

are undependable of the computer’s
architecture.


Ex. Python , C , Java


Programming language

Generations of Programming Languages:

4
.Application Generations:


Database

language used to create files, forms,
queries and reports without the writing of any
programs.


Ex. Oracle, Access.



Programming language

Generations of Programming Languages:

5
.Object Oriented Languages:


Consist of a collection of objects.


Every object contains its variables, data,
methods.


Encapsulation:

which means that the data and
its operations are collected in the same place.
You can't access any data without using the
operations.



Programming language

(
System
Software
)

(
Programming
language
)

(
Compiler And
Interpreters
)

(
Operating
Systems
)

System Software

Compiler
And
Interpreters

Compilers and Interpreters
:
Program that translate
the source code into object code.


Compilers:

translate a whole program once and
execute it.


Interpreters:

translate and execute one instruction at
a time.
I
ts slower and use more space than the
compiler.


Operating Systems


The most important software.



It holds all the instructions that make the computer
work.



No computer can work if it dose not contain a O.S.



Consist of group of program (work like a team) the main
control program is the
Supervisor
:


Known as the Monitor or Executive.


Guides the activates to all the O.S. parts.



Ex. DOS, Windows, Mac O.S, … etc.

MS Windows
1
.x

15

MS Windows
98

16

Windows XP

Windows Vista

Windows
7

Windows
8

System
1
,
2
,
3
,
4

MAC OS
8

MAC OS X

Mac OS X
10.0
“Cheetah” & MAC OS X
10.1
“Puma”


Cheetah


“Puma”

Mac OS
X
10.2
“Jaguar”
&
MAC OS X
10.3
“Panther”


Jaguar



Panther


Mac OS
X
10.4
“Tiger”
& MAC
OS X
10.5
“Leopard”


Tiger



Leopard


Mac OS
X
10.6
“Snow Leopard”
& MAC OS X
10.7
“Lion”&
Mac OS
X
10.8
“Mountain Lion”


Lion



Snow Leopard



Mountain Lion


Linux

28

Ubuntu

Operating System
Functions


1.
Booting up.

2.
User Interface.

3.
Task and resources management.

4.
Monitoring.

5.
File Management.

6.
System security.


Operating System Type

1)
Multitasking OS
: execute more than one task at the same time.


2)
Multiprocessing OS
: uses more than one CPU.


3)
Timesharing OS
: time is shared between multi
-
user to execute their
task.


4)
Network OS


5)
Real Time OS:
Input and output operations are happing at the same time
(medical devices).

(
Computer Software
)

(
System Software
)

(
Application Software
)

Computer Software


Application Software


Application software
is
a software used by user


Two categories


Basic applications


general
-
purpose



Specialized applications


For specific, advanced tasks


Basic Application


Focus on

basic and general
-
purpose
tasks


Specialized Applications



Focus on specific disciplines and occupations


Make it possible to perform advanced tasks at
home


Examples:


Graphics Programs


Audio and Video Editing Software


Multimedia Creation Programs


Web Designing Programs


Examples

Computer
Parts

O.S

Application Software

User

Interfaces



Interface:
It’s the way that the user use to deal (communicate) with the computer.



Type:

1.
Command
Line
Interface:

1.
Commands must be typed on the keyboard.

2.
It’s slow process.

3.
Require a high degree of computer knowledge.


1.
Graphical User Interface
:

1.
Use pictures, windows, menus, icons to represent object
and operation.

2.
User can select any object by pointing the mouse at it an
click on it.

3.
Ease, enjoyable.

System Development

System Development:
refers to replacing a manual system
into a Computerized system.



Steps of the System Development (System Life Cycle):

1.
Preliminary Analysis
:
What is the system requirements,
organization objective. So gather data and write report.

2.
Assess Feasibility
:
Determine if the solution is by
computerizing the system?, Is the budget covers?

3.
Design
:
Draw the plan on how its this can be
implemented
.

4.
Implementation(Programming)
:
Write the program. (in
this step the system is physically designed).

System Development



Steps of the System Development (System Life
Cycle):

5.
Testing

6.
Training

7.
Hand over to client

8.
Monitoring and maintaining the system
.

Multimedia


Using text, audio, picture, video, …etc in the program.


Used in education, games, commercial.



Multimedia Computer

specifications:

1.
High specifications in terms of equipment: speed, memory, hard drive.

2.
Peripherals: CD drive, sound card, microphone, …etc.

3.
Large monitor: screen (graphical) card.

4.
DVD drivers.