RFID IN THE LIBRARY

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Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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RFID IN THE LIBRARY
CONTEXT: INTEGRATION,
INTEROPERABILITY, AND
BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

Marshall Breeding

Director for Innovative Technology and Research

Vanderbilt University Library

Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides

http://www.librarytechnology.org/

http://twitter.com/mbreeding


17 Aug 2011

77th IFLA General Conference and Assembly


Summary


Many aspects of technology supporting the automation of libraries
are changing rapidly. Service
-
oriented architecture, Web
-
based
computing, increased integration of social networking concepts, as
well as cloud computing such as software
-
as
-
a
-
service characterize
this emerging landscape. Products and services making use of RFID
technology have to exist in an automation ecosystem increasingly
reshaped by these technologies. Breeding will present a view of how
RFID and related technologies fit into this evolving environment,
some of the challenges involved such as the need for more modern
protocols for interoperability, and some of the opportunities enabled
for new efficiencies and innovations. He will also review some of the
changes in the global RFID business landscape and comment on its
implications for libraries that depend on their products and services.

Library Technology Guides


Library Technology Guides


Includes lib
-
web
-
cats directory

of libraries


Tracks library

automation products used by
libraries: LMS, Discovery, Link resolvers, etc.


Recently added section on RFID and related
products


Interest in collecting data on how these products
have been implemented globally

Lib
-
web
-
cats Technology

Profile


Koha Libraries Worldwide


Lib
-
web
-
cats extended

for RFID
Products


Lib
-
web
-
cats tech profile


Annual Industry report published in
Library Journal:


2010: The

New Frontier


2009: Investing in the Future


2008
: Opportunity out of turmoil


2007: An industry redefined


2006: Reshuffling the deck


2005: Gradual evolution


2004: Migration down, innovation up


2003: The competition heats up


2002: Capturing the migrating customer

LJ Automation
Marketplace

The New Frontier…



new phase of competition following a period of
research and development that aimed to provide
alternatives to libraries, both in back
-
end
automation
and end user discovery. A variety of
new solutions have emerged, often representing
quite different conceptual models. In a continued
trend, librarians seek solutions that immediately
improve the experiences of their users, especially
via discovery
products.

Phase

of realignment in LMS platforms


Strong

need to realign library automation with
current library realities


Legacy library systems reinforce workflows no
longer in step with library priorities.


Need systems that allow libraries to allocate
personnel in proper proportion to collection


Separate automation platforms for print and
electronic have not proven successful

Key Context: Technologies in transition


XML

/ Web services / Service
-
oriented Architecture


Local computing shifting to cloud platforms


SaaS / private cloud / public cloud


Beyond

Web 2.0:


Integration

of social computing into core
infrastructure


Full spectrum of devices


full
-
scale / net book / tablet / mobile

Revised library

automation priorities


Fundamental assumption: Print +
Digital

+ Social


Print
-
focused

models
not adequate for
modern libraries


Libraries currently moving toward surrounding core ILS with
additional modules to handle electronic
content, social

engagement, resource sharing, and self
-
service


New discovery layer interfaces replacing or supplementing ILS
OPACS


Working toward a new model of library automation


Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by fabric of SOA applications


Comprehensive Resource Management

“It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007

Working toward more Open

Systems


Achieving

openness has risen as the key driver
behind library technology strategies


Open source


Open API’s


Demand for Interoperability


Libraries need to do more with their data


Ability to improve customer experience

The Shrinking LMS


The Library Management System no longer stands as
the single library automation

product that provides
comprehensive support for all aspects of library
operations.


Many libraries putting much less emphasis on LMS


Manages

workflows related to
physical
materials


Investments in electronic content increasing


Management of e
-
content handled outside of the
ILS

Legacy
LMS Model

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:

Interfaces

Business

Logic

Data

Stores

Breaking

out of the mold


Academic and Research libraries especially
struggle with how

to deal with managing increasing
proportions of licensed electronic content


Public Libraries seeking technologies that facilitate
engagement with their users: social, interactive,
dynamic


LMS geared toward print materials


New generation of products emerging to address
new and emerging library realities

Interoperability Protocols relevant to
RFID


Standard Protocols

for access to item and patron data


SIP


NCIP


Standard

Protocols for access to bibliographic data


OAI
-
PMH


ILS
-
DI (Integrated Library System


Discovery Interface)


Standard Protocols for access to other

data and
functionality


API’s specific to automation platform


Generalized set of API’s

SIP: System
Interchange Protocol


Initially

created by 3M, used widely throughout
industry for self
-
service and other tasks needing access
to patron and item data and status in library
automation systems.


3M: “Permission is hereby granted to utilize this
protocol in hardware and software products but no
permission is granted to create derivative works or
otherwise modify the protocol” (from
ver

2.0
document)


Version 1: 1993


Version 2: 2006


Version 3: Draft currently under review

NISO Circulation Interchange Protocol


Official

Standard designed to operate in the same
space as SIP


Z39.83


Part 1 approved October 2002; Part 2 Approved Nov
2008


Not widely adopted for self
-
service


More widely used in resource sharing: interlibrary loan
and direct consortial borrowing


Open source NCIP Toolkit developed and released

by
the
eXtensible

Catalog project


http://code.google.com/p/xcncip2toolkit/

Application

Programming Interfaces


Automation products cannot

exist in isolated silos


APIs provide

a set of tools used by programmers to:


Extend Functionality


Connect external systems


Extract or

synchronize data


Proprietary API’s common in LMS space


Moving toward open API’s and Web Services

Benefits of APIs

to Libraries


Extensibility


Interoperability


Allows

the LMS to connect with other automation
components


Create a matrix of interconnected systems rather
than isolated silos with redundant data and
functionality


LMS maturity means similar levels of functionality


LMS products increasingly differentiated by extent
and quality of APIs and interoperability support

`

Legacy
ILS Model / API

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:

Interfaces

Business

Logic

Data

Stores


Application Programming Interfaces


Legacy
ILS Model / protocol

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:


Application Programming Interfaces


Protocols:
SIP2 NCIP

Z39.50

OAI
-
PMH

Self
-
Check

Interlibrary

Loan

System

Legacy
ILS Model / External API

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:


Application Programming Interfaces / Web Services


Protocols:
SIP2 NCIP

Z39.50

OAI
-
PMH

External

Systems &

Services

Flexible

Interoperability

LMS

as Middleware


LMS provides

strategic core of automation


Less involved with end
-
user contact


Discovery for Web
-
based collection discovery and user
services


Self
-
service stations for loans and returns


Smart
-
card and payment systems

Consolidated index

Search


Engine


Discovery Service


Search:

Digital
Coll

ProQuest

EBSCO



JSTOR

Other
Resources

Library Services Platform model

`

API Layer

Library Management
System

Learning

Management

Enterprise
Resource

Planning

Stock

Management

Self
-
Check /

Automated
Return

Authentication

Service

Smart Cad /

Payment
systems

RFID Business Environment

Major RFID Companies


2CQR (UK)


3M Library Systems


(also supports Checkpoint)


Bibliotheca / Intellident /
Bibliotheca ITG


Book
-
Tech (Taiwan)


Convergent Software (RFID
support software,
Validation)


D
-
Tech (United Kingdom)


EnvisionWare (diverse
product line including RFID)


Libramation

(Canada)


Lib~Chip

RFID system



Lyngsoe

Systems (Sorting
systems RFID/Barcode)


mK

Sorting
Systms

(RFID /
sorting, self
-
check,
etc
)


PV
Supa

(Finland,
Scandinavia)


Shenzen

Seaever

Inteligent

Technology (China


RFID
systems)


Swisslog

Telelift

GmbH
(book transportation
systems)


Tech Logic (Owned by TLC)


VTLS


Fastrack

VTLS
division


Consolidation


Transition

from a fragmented industry of many small
players into one where dominated by large global
companies


Many companies continue to prosper that operate
within a region or country


Bibliotheca


Intellident


ITG


Three former competitors

joint to form new global
company


Integrated Technology Group


United States


Spun off of Vernon Library Supplies


Intellident


Based

in the United Kingdom


Ident

SAS (French subsidiary)


Bibliotheca RFID Systems


Based

in Switzerland

New Global Company


Operates regionally

under existing brands


Bibliotheca ITG / Intellident / Bibliotheca


Global company: Library Solutions BV


Majority ownership: One Equity Partners


Shai Robkin

Diversification


Companies

involved in RFID tend to offer diversified
products, often to different vertical markets


Diverse technologies: RFID, Electromagnetic,
software, hardware, manufacturing


Different dependencies on suppliers of RFID chips,
etc.

3M Library

Systems


Largest player in RFID and self
-
service



Electromagnetic + RFIC products


Major launch into the e
-
book arena


3M Cloud Library


Intends

to compete with Overdrive


E
-
book content


licensed through major publishers


Integration layer


leveraging SIP and other
mechanisms developed in support of self
-
check


E
-
book reader


developed for institutional lending


In
-
library kiosk for discovery and download

Intellectual Property Issues


Patent dispute between 3M and EnvisionWare


3M filed patent infringement suit against

EnvisionWare
June 23, 2009


United States Patents involved in the suite include:
6,486,780, 6,232,870, and 6,857,568


USPTO ruled

6,486,780 patent awarded to 3M
dealing as invalid


USPTO review of
6,857,568 still in process


Announcement of confidential private settlement on
August 12,
2011

RFID

Technology Issues

Privacy Issues


How much information

to encode on tags


Identifier only?


Additional functionality available with more content


Essential to avoid matching materials information
with user


User

data can be read from non
-
library materials


No public search of identifiers stored in tag

RFID Data Encoding Standards


ISO Standards published in March 2011


ISO 28560
-
1:2011


ISO 28560
-
2:2011


ISO 28560
-
3:2011


NISO: Proposed

that US libraries adopt Section 1
and 2 and develop a national profile

RFID & LMS


Can

RFID deliver value beyond self
-
check and
AMH?


Need enhanced interoperability models


Leverage existing standards and API’s in the same
way that the ILS
-
DI protocols provided needed
support to connect LMS and Discovery products


Provide comprehensive automation model that helps
libraries improve service and increase value to their
communities

General Observations


Industry maturing

with larger and more stable
companies


Increased development of Standards


Helpful to the extend adopted


Risks of investing in RFID diminishing


RFID currently focused on increased efficiency


RFID technologies increasingly positioned to support
more innovative services

Questions

and discussion