( RFID )

cribabsurdElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Radio Frequency

IDentification

( RFID )

2



We

propose

the

integration

of

wireless

technology

and

RFID

technology

for

improving

efficiency

and

security

through

the

active

tracking

of

visitors

and

employees,

by

using

RFID

tags

to

aid

in

the

detection

and

identification

of

possible

intruder

threats

etc




Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )


Radio

frequency

identification

(RFID)

technology

uses

radio

waves



to

automatically

identify

physical

objects

(either

living

beings

or



inanimate

items)
.



RFID

is

an

automatic

identification

method,

relying

on

storing

and



remotely

retrieving

data

using

devices

called

RFID

tags

or



transponders
.



An

RFID

tag

is

an

object

that

can

be

attached

or

incorporated

into

a



product

for

the

purpose

of

identification

using

radio

waves
.

Chip
-


based

RFID

tags

contain

silicon

chips

and

antennas
.



Tags

contain

a

unique

identification

number

called

an

Electronic



Product

Code

(EPC),

and

potentially

additional

information

of



interest

to

manufacturers,

healthcare

organizations,

military



organizations,

logistics

providers,

and

retailers,

or

others

that

need



to

track

the

physical

location

of

goods

or

equipment

3

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )


All

information

stored

on

RFID

tags

accompanies

items

as

they

travel



through

a

supply

chain

or

other

business

process
.

All

information

on



RFID

tags,

such

as

product

attributes,

physical

dimensions,

prices



can

be

scanned

wirelessly

by

a

reader

at

high

speed

and

from

a



distance

of

several

meters
.



Readers

identify

the

EPC

numbers

at

a

distance,

without

line
-
of
-
sight



scanning

or

involving

physical

contact
.

Middleware

can

perform



initial

filtering

on

data

from

the

readers
.

4

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

5



An RFID system is an integrated collection of components that


implement an RFID solution.




An RFID system consists of the following components from an end
-

to


end perspective



Tag
-

This is a mandatory component of any RFID system.



Reader
-

This is a mandatory component.



Reader antenna
-

This is another mandatory component.(today with


antennas)



Controller
-

This is a mandatory component.



Sensor, actuator, and annunciator
-

These optional components are


needed for external input and output of the system.




Host

and

software

system

-

Theoretically,

an

RFID

system

can

function

independently

without

this

component
.

Practically,

an

RFID

system

is



close

to

worthless

without

this

component
.

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

RFID System block diagram


6

Backend computer

Control unit

Transceiver

TAG

Data

Timing

Power

Coupling element (Coil, Antenna)

Reader

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

7

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

Tags

8



This is a mandatory component of any RFID system.



An RFID tag is a device that can store and transmit data to a reader


in a contactless manner using radio waves



RFID tags can be classified in two different ways.



Passive Tags



Active Tags

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )




Passive

Tags




This

type

of

RFID

tag

does

not

have

an

on
-
board

power

source

(for



example,

a

battery),

and

instead

uses

the

power

emitted

from

the



reader

to

energize

itself

and

transmit

its

stored

data

to

the

reader
.




A

passive

tag

is

simple

in

its

construction

and

has

no

moving

parts
.



A

passive

tag

is

typically

smaller

than

an

active
.



A

contactless

smart

card

is

a

special

type

of

passive

RFID

tag

that



is

widely

used

today

in

various

areas

(for

example,

as

ID

badges

in



security

and

loyalty

cards

in

retail)
.

The

data

on

this

card

is

read



when

it

is

in

close

proximity

to

a

reader
.

The

card

does

not

need

to



be

physically

in

contact

with

the

reader

for

reading
.



A

passive

tag

consists

of

the

following

main

components
:



Microchip



Antenna


Tags (Conti..)

9




Active Tags




Active RFID tags have an on
-
board power source (for example,


a battery; other sources of power, such as solar, are also


possible) and electronics for performing specialized tasks.


An active tag uses its on
-
board power supply to transmit its data


to a reader. It does not need the reader's emitted power for data


transmission. The on
-
board electronics can contain


microprocessors, sensors, and input/output ports powered by


the on
-
board power source.



An active tag consists of the following main components:



Microchip



Antenna



On
-
board power supply



On
-
board electronics.

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

10


Passive

Active

Passive (no battery) Smaller,


Lighter


Shorter range (<3m
)


Smaller data
storage


Lower cost


Active (with battery) Larger,


Heavier


Longer range (up to 100m)


Larger data storage


Higher cost


Tags (Conti..)

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

11

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

Wireless

Sensor

Networks



A

wireless

sensor

network

is

a

system

which

is

capable

of

self
-

configuring,



self
-
networking,

self

diagnosing

and

self
-
healing,

which

have



made

sensor

networks

a

very

attractive

solution

for

a

wide

range

of



environment



Sensor

networks

consist

of

tiny

low
-
powered

computing

network

nodes

with



extremely

restricted

computational,

communication

and

battery

capabilities
.



The

typical

hardware

platform

of

a

wireless

sensor

node

will

consist

of

sensor,



microcontroller,

and

radio

frequency

transceiver

and

power

source
.



The

microcontroller

manages

the

procedures

that

make

the

sensor

node



collaborate

with

the

other

nodes
.

When

choosing

a

microcontroller



power

consumption,

required

chip

size,

computational

power

and

on
-


chip

memory

are

very

important
.



A transceiver unit connects the node to the network. Choosing a low
-


power
-
consumption transceiver is crucial for a low
-
consumption system


because current consumption of a transceiver takes up most of the data


processing.

12

WSNs

RFID

System

Purpose

Sense interested parameters in
environments and attached object

Detect presence and location
of tagged objects

Component

Sensor nodes, relay nodes, sinks

Tags, readers

Protocols

Zigbee, Wi
-
Fi, WiMax

RFID standard

Communication

Multi
-
hop

Single hop

Mobility

Sensor nodes are usually static

Tags move with attached
Objects

Programmability

Programmable

Usually closed systems

Price

Sensor node


medium

Reader
-
expensive

Tag
-
cheap

Deployment

Random or fixed

Fixed

Difference

between

RFID

and

WSNs

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

13

These

difference

give

us

to

motivate

integration

of

WSN

and

RFID

system

to

achieve

more

powerful

performance
.

(1)
Integrating

tags

with

sensors
.

(2)
Integrating

tags

with

wireless

sensor

nodes



and

wireless

devices
.

(
3
)Integrating

readers

with

wireless

sensor



nodes

and

wireless

devices

and

(
4
)Mix

of

RFID

and

wireless

sensor

networks
.

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

14

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

I.
Integrating

tags

with

sensors
.

Integration of this class is used to equip RFID tags with sensors which
provide sensing capabilities for RFID tags. The RFID tags with sensors
(sensor
-
tags) use the same RFID protocols and mechanisms for reading
tag IDs as well as for collecting sensed data.

System

architecture

15

Passive

tags

with

integrated

sensors

Active

tags

with

integrated

sensors



Integrated

sensors

are

usually

powered

by

additional

batteries,



most

tags

with

integrated

sensors

are

semi
-
passive

or

active

tags



which

are

battery

powered
.

However,

there

exist

some

passive



tags

with

integrated

sensors

which

operate

without

a

battery

and



instead

gather

power

from

the

RF

signal

of

readers
.




Active

tags

with

integrated

sensors

are

used

in

the

following



applications
:

temperature

sensing

and

monitoring,

vibration



detection,

blood

pressure

and

heartbeat

rate

monitoring,

etc
.


Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

16


II.
Integrating RFID Tags with Wireless Sensor Nodes

In

high
-
end

applications,

it

is

possible

to

integrate

RFID

tags

with

wireless

sensor

nodes

and

wireless

devices,

such

that

the

integrated

tags

are

able

to

communicate

with

many

wireless

devices

which

are

not

limited

to

readers
.


The

main

difference

between

the

tags

of

this

class

and

the

tags

is

that

the

tags

with

integrated

sensors

are

traditional

RFID

tags

which

communicate

only

with

readers,

while

the

tags

in

this

class

are

able

to

communicate

with

other

wireless

devices,

including

tags

themselves
.

Therefore,

the

tags

in

this

class

are

able

to

communicate

with

each

other

and

form

a

multiple

hop

network
.

These

new

tags

may

be

compliant

with

existing

RFID

standards

or

they

can

have

proprietary

protocols
.

Component

of

integrated

sensor

nodes

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

17

III.
Integrating Readers with Wireless Sensor




Nodes and Wireless Devices

Another

type

of

integration

of

RFID

and

sensors

is

the

combination

of

RFID

readers

with

wireless

sensor

nodes

and

wireless

devices
.

The

integration

enables

new

functionalities

and

opens

the

door

to

a

number

of

new

applications
.

The

integrated

readers

are

able

to

sense

environmental

conditions,

communicate

with

each

other

in

wireless

fashion,

read

identification

numbers

from

tagged

objects

and

effectively

transmit

this

information

to

the

host
.


Structure

of

Integrated

reader

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

18

IV
.

Mix

of

RFID

and

Sensors

Different

from

previous

cases,

RFID

tags/readers

and

sensors

in

this

class

are

physically

separated
.

An

RFID

system

and

a

wireless

sensor

network

both

exist

in

the

application

and

they

work

independently
.

However,

there

is

an

integration

of

RFID

and

WSN

at

the

software

layer

when

data

from

both

RFID

tags

and

sensor

nodes

are

forwarded

to

the

common

control

center
.

System architecture of the implementation

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

19

Methodology

Integration

scenarios

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

20



The

primary

difference

between

the

two

main

categories

in

Figure

is

that



in

case

of

hardware

integration


sensor

data

is

communicated

through



the

air

interface

of

an

RFID

tag
”,

while

in

the

case

of

virtual

integration




sensor

data

is

associated

with

the

identity

of

the

sensed

object



independently

of

the

RFID

tag’s

data

communication”
.



These

two

categories

are

fundamental

because

they

require

a

different



infrastructure

and

technology
.

Virtual

integration

assumes

the



application

of

networked

RFID

(assuming

a

back
-
end

database)
.
The



virtual

integration

of

‘adjacent’

sensors

is

considered

a

relatively

trivial



task

whereas

‘ambient’

sensors

may

not

be

in

the

immediate

vicinity

of



the

observed

object
;

hence

using

their

data

is

not

a

trivial

task

and



involves

more

than

just

the

consideration

of

data

accuracy
.

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

21



RFID

Standards



ANSI Standards (By US Organization)



AIAG Standard


AIAG's primary goals are to reduce cost and complexity within the automotive


supply chain and to improve speed to market, product quality, employee health


and safety, and the environment.




EAN*UCC Standard


EAN*UCC

System

is

co
-
managed

by

the

Uniform

Code

Council,

Inc
.
,

and

GS
1


(formerly

EAN

International)
.

The

EAN*UCC

System

standardizes

identification


numbers,

EDI

transaction

sets,

XML

schemas,

and

other

supply
-
chain


solutions

that

enable

more

efficient

business

processes
.







Electronic

Product

Code

(EPC)


The

Electronic

Product

Code

(EPC)

is

a

license
-
plate

type

identifier

that

can

uniquely

identify

any

item

in

a

supply

chain
.

It

is

a

simple

and

compact

scheme

that

can

generate

extremely

large

quantities

of

unique

identifiers
.

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

22

Five

main

technology

components

make

up

the

EPCGlobal

Network,

as

follows
:


1.
Electronic

Product

Code

(EPC)
.

2.
Data
-
collection

hardware

consisting

of

EPC

tags

and

readers
.

This

is

also

collectively

known

as

ID

System
.

3.
EPCGlobal

middleware
.

4.
Discovery

Services

(DS)

composed

of,

for

example,

Object

Naming

Service

(ONS)
.

5.
EPC

Information

Services

(EPCIS)
.



Thus,

the

EPCglobal

Network

"equation"

can

be

summarized

as

follows
:



EPCglobal

Network

=

ID

System

+

EPC

+

Middleware

+

DS

+

EPCIS

(
1
.
1
)



EPCglobal

Network

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

23



Object Naming Service (ONS)


The ONS is a public service that can be used to find related EPCIS
servers from where data about a product can be extracted. It provides a
mapping mechanism between an EPC and the set of EPCIS instances
that contain information about this EPC. (Thus, in essence, ONS is very
similar to the DNS service that is used to look up the associated hosts
for a particular Internet address.)


Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

24

An EPCglobal Network schematic

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

25

RFID
-
based sensor integration possibilities


Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

26

Virtual Integration




Virtual

integration

of

RFID

and

sensors

is

the

association

of

sensor



data

and

RFID
-
based

identity

independent

of

the

wireless

interface

of



the

tag
.



It

means

that

sensor

data

is

collected

independently

of

the

RFID

tag,

so



the

integration

process

involves

reading

the

RFID

tag

and

accessing



another

data

source
.

Virtual

integration

mostly

assumes

the

application



of

Networked

RFID

(often

referred

to

as

NRFID)
.




For

example,

an

Electronic

Product

Code/EPC)

stored

on

a

tag

and

a



back
-
end

database

storing

complementary

data

related

to

physical



objects
.

Practically

it

means

that

the

tag

is

at

least

sometimes

‘online’,



that

is,

connected

to

a

computer

network
.

Data

is

transmitted

to

and



from

the

tag

and

additional

data

is

stored

at

the

back
-
end
.



Networked

RFID

is

not

the

same

as

virtual

integration

as

hardware



integrated

tags

can

also

be

networked

and

synchronized
.


Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

27


(EPCIS)


EPCGlobal


Information


Services

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

28

Risks and Threats

Although

RFID

systems

may

emerge

as

one

of

the

most

pervasive

computing

technologies

in

history,

there

are

still

a

vast

number

of

problems

that

need

to

be

solved

before

their

massive

deployment
.




Physical

Attacks



Denial

of

Service

(DoS)



Counterfeiting



Spoofing



Eavesdropping



Traffic

analysis


Proposed Solution




Kill

Command



The

Active

Jamming

Approach



The

Faraday

Cage

Approach



Blocker

Tag



Bill

of

Rights

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

29

Benefits from RFID and Wireless Integration




No line of Sight required to read



Multiple items can be read



Large data storing capacity



Read/Write/Rewrite capability of tags




RFID tags can withstand harsh environments


Conclusion :

RFID

offers

several

benefits,

a

good

many

of

which

you

can

realize

today

to

a

substantial

degree

with

the

existing

products
.

Other

benefits

are

also

somewhat

realizable,

and

it

is

expected

that

improvements

in

the

technology

will

steadily

bring

these

benefits

to

a

mature

level
.

Undeniably,

however,

such

a

collection

of

unique

RFID

benefits

makes

is

already

a

potential

enabler

of

a

wide

variety

of

applications
.

Some

of

the

benefits

have

privacy

rights

infringement

implications

that

might

present

issues

regarding

RFID

use

in

some

situations
.



Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )

30



Even

with

these

issues,

however,

RFID

will

likely

be

the

preferred



technology

in

other

areas
.

RFID

technology

is

currently

undergoing



rapid

changes

that

are

expected

to

provide

continuously

improving



products,

steadily

bringing

the

true

potential

of

the

technology

to

the



user
.



An

RFID

strategy,

for

a

large

business,

provides

an

enterprise
-
level

plan



that

aligns

with

overall

business

goals

and

strategies
.

When

formulated



at

this

level,

an

RFID

strategy

offers

benefits

to

the

widest

range

of



interested

parties

and

facilitates

buy
-
in

from

senior

management
.

It

is



strongly

recommended

that

you

have

an

RFID

strategy

in

place

before



attempting

any

effort

to

deploy

the

technology
.

You

can

use

an

RFID



strategy

to

drive

action

plans

for

an

enterprise's

RFID

policy,



implementation,

and

technology

rollout
.

Conclusion
(Conti..)

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )