Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

cribabsurdElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID)

Features and Functionality of RFID

Including application specific ISO specifications

Presented by:


Chris Lavin


Sarah Clark


Spencer Prows

What is RFID?


RFID is a technology, whose origins are found in
the WWII era, that incorporates electromagnetic
or electrostatic coupling in the RF portion of the
EM spectrum to uniquely identify an object,
animal or person. It is also gaining increasing use
in industry as an alternative to the bar code.


Requires a transceiver, antenna, and transponder


Can operate in Passive or Active Modes


Source: http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/gDefinition/0,294236,sid40_gci805987,00.html

What is RFID?


RF signals transmitted by the transceiver activates
the transponder, which transmits data back to the
transceiver.


Transponder is powered by EM waves emitted by the
transceiver


Various frequencies are used depending on the
application


Requires no line
-
of
-
sight (like bar
-
codes)

Source: http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/gDefinition/0,294236,sid40_gci805987,00.html

RFID Applications


Tracking Books in Libraries


Inventory Tracking


Walmart required it of their top 100 vendors


Authorized building access (Prox Cards)


Passports (US passports recently)


AmEx Blue credit card


Prison inmates (embedded)

RFID Applications


For toll booths (or any “pay for entry” system)


Airport Baggage ID


Car keys, wireless entry and ignition


Animals


Hospital Patients


Instant history tracking

RFID Shortfalls


Cost


Transceiver ~ $1000


RFID Tags $0.20 each


Not competitive with cost of barcode


UHF signals problematic near metal and water


Reader Collisions


Can be overcome using TDMA


Tag Collisions


Required some engineering of tag transmit timing


Security Concerns

RFID

Standards and Specifications

Application specific ISO standards

RFID Standards


Tracking Animals


ISO 11784


Specifies the structure of the ID code


ISO 11785


Specifies how transponder is activated


ISO 14223/1


Specifies RF code for advanced transponders


Credit Cards


ISO 15693


Specifies modulation and coding schemes


Passports and proximity cards


ISO 14443


Specifies modulation and coding schemes


General Frequency bands


ISO 18000 series

Standard RFID Operating Frequencies


ISO 18000
-
2


<
135 KHz


ISO 18000
-
3


13.56 MHZ


ISO 18000
-
4


2.45 GHz


ISO 18000
-
6


860
-
960 MHz


ISO 18000
-
7


433 MHZ (active
)


ISO 18000
-
2 ~ 135 kHz

ISO 18000
-
3 ~ 13.56 MHz

ISO 18000
-
6 ~ 800
-
960 MHz

ISO 18000
-
4 ~ 2.45 GHz

ISO 18000
-
7 ~ 433 MHz

Standard RFID Operating Frequencies

ISO 18000
-
2


Operates at >135 KHz


Inductive


Unaffected by presence of water


Short range (a few centimeters)


Fairly costly because of coil in transponder


ISO 18000
-
3


Operates at 13.56 MHz


Inductive


Lower cost ~ 35 cents


Thin flexible form factor ( smart label )


Read / write capable


Unaffected by water (but has to be tuned to item)


Mid range, 70


125 cms


Two flavors:


Mode 1 Standard ISO 15693 data rate (26 kb/s)


Mode 2 High speed interface (848 kb/s)


ISO 18000
-
4


Operates at 2.45 GHz


Propagating


Dual Mode


Passive Backscatter


Passive tag currently out of fashion


Active High data rate


Long range in active version (100 m+)


Affected by water (signal absorbed…microwave)


Read / write capable


Moderate cost


Small antenna


ISO 18000
-
6 A/B


Operates between 860


960 MHz


Propagating


Long range 2
-
5 meters


Low cost


High data rates


“Frequency agile”


Read / write capable


Relatively large antenna


The future for mass application RFID


ISO 18000
-
7


Operates at 433 MHz


Active


Long range
-

many meters


High cost


High data rates


Read / write capable


Manifest tags
-

DoD