EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: RFID

cribabsurdElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: RFID

By:Stacy Godfrey, Amy Ladenberger,

Santiago Beltran, Kelly Nelson and Pimsuda
Prathankiat

2

Objectives


Obtain general knowledge of RFID


Recognize types and components of RFID


Understand various applications


Discuss companies use of RFID in case studies


Determine why RFID is important to
managers and the future


Realize the benefits and limitations of RFID
technologies


3

What is RFID??


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

describes
technologies that use radio waves to
automatically identify people or objects.



RFID tags can be applied to or incorporated into
a product, animal, or person, for the purpose of
identification using radio waves.


RFID Journal.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/faq/16/49

Viewed March 30, 2008


4

Parts to the RFID System


There are three parts to a RFID system:


1. Antenna


Provides a means of communication and energy to communicate with
RFID tag


RFID tag passes through field of the antenna and the RFID tag detects
the activation signal from the antenna causing the RFID tag to
transmit the information on the microchip to the transceiver.


Permanently affixed to a surface or handheld




2. Transceiver


Has a decoder to interpret the data


3. RFID Tag (Transporter)


Programmed with information


“How RFID Works,”
http://www.technology.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?ArtNum=2

Viewed March 31, 2008



5

RFID vs. Bar Codes


How is RFID different from Bar Codes?


Tag does not need to be on the surface of the object because they do
not need a direct line of sight, tags can be embedded or hidden.


Tags are applicable in harsh environments, such as outdoors, around
chemicals, moisture and high temperatures.


RFID tags can be read at a rate of forty or more tags per second; Bar
Codes usually take half a second or more per bar code.


RFID tags can be read at distances up to 300 feet; Bar Codes no more
than 15 feet.


RFID Tags can be re
-
programmed; Bar Codes do not have the
read/write capability


“Advantages of RFID Versus Barcodes,”
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?ArtNum=60

Viewed March 31, 2008

Hont, Susy d. “The Cutting Edge of RFID Technology and Applications for Manufacturing and Distribution,”
www.ti.com/
rfid
/docs/manuals/whtPapers/manuf_dist.pdf

Viewed March 15, 2008


6

RFID vs. Bar Codes

Manual Process

Bar Code

RFID

Data Accuracy

Least Accurate

Most Accurate

More Accurate

Data Collection Time/Labor

Most Time/Labor

Some Time/Labor

Least Time/Labor

Data Input Time/Labor

Most Time/Labor

Some Time/Labor

Least Time/Labor

Equipment Costs (tags,
readers/scanners)

N/A

Some

More

Ability to Track Assets Out of
Line of Sight

No

No

Yes

Amount of Data Storage on
Tag

N/A

Less

More

Ability to Exchange
Information Two Ways

No

No

Yes

Ability to Reprogram Tags

N/A

No

Yes



How RFID Technology Can Enhance your Asset Management Program”
www.infor.com
-
80
-
content
-
whitepapers
-
rfideam.pdf
-
?ok=yes.pdf
, viewed March 13, 2008.



7

How RFID Works

“How RFID Works,”
http://www.aeanet.org/GovernmentAffairs/gais_HowRFID_Works.asp



8

History


1940
-
1950


First work exploring RFID by Harry Stockman


Followed advances in radio & radar


1950
-
1960


Era of exploration, laboratory experiments


1960
-
1970


First and most widespread commercial use


Electronic article surveillance, Sensormatic


1970
-
1980


Explosion of RFID development work


Animal and vehicle tracking, factory automation

Landt, Jeremy. “Shrouds of Time: The History of RFID”
The Association for Automatic Identification and Data Capture
Technologies.
Ver 1, 2001, pp1
-
11.

9

History


1980
-
1990


Commercial implementation enters mainstream


Transportation, personnel access, & animals


1990
-
2000


Emergence of Standards



Becomes part of everyday life


Electronic highway tolling system


2000
-


Exciting times await in the advancement of RFID


Landt, Jeremy. “Shrouds of Time: The History of RFID”
The Association for Automatic Identification and Data
Capture Technologies.
Ver 1, 2001, pp1
-
11.

10

Passive Tags


Cost

Less Expensive
--
Few
Cent to a Few Dollars

Size

Smaller

Power

Reader

Maintenance

None

Read Distance

A few feet

Life

Up to 20 years

Memory

Around 16K

Have no internal power supply,

Power supplied by the reader


How RFID Technology Can Enhance your Asset Management Program”
www.infor.com
-
80
-
content
-
whitepapers
-
rfideam.pdf
-
?ok=yes.pdf
,
viewed March 13, 2008.

11

Active Tags

Cost

More expensive
--
often
$20 or more

Size

Larger

Power

Provided by Battery

Maintenance

Replacement Required

Read Distance

Up to 100s of feet

Life

Depends on battery life

Memory

As high as 512K

Have their own internal power source,

Can have a replaceable battery

?

How RFID Technology Can Enhance your Asset Management Program”
www.infor.com
-
80
-
content
-
whitepapers
-
rfideam.pdf
-
?ok=yes.pdf
,
viewed March 13, 2008.

12

Frequencies


Low Frequency (LF)


125 KHz or 134KHz


Shorter read
-
range and read
-
rate


Less sensitive to interference


High Frequency (HF)


13.56 MHz


Greater read
-
range & higher
read
-
speed than LF





Ultra
-
High Frequency
(UHF)


860 to 930 MHz


Same cost as HF


Faster Data Transfer


Limited read ability


Microwave


2.45GHz or 5.8GHz


Highest data read speed


Most expensive


Limited read range (3ft)


ScanSource. “RFID Frequencies.”
?
www.scansource.com/Europe/upload/RFID_Frequencies.pdf, viewed March 13, 2008.

13

Tag Attachments


Embedded


Usually aimed for permanent or long
-
term
implantation, such as animal traceability


Attached


Designed to be attached on the surface of identified
objects with permanent, semi
-
permanent or
temporary attachment means


Injected


Designed to have little contact or no contact with
identified objects and can be easily removed


Digested


Eastman Kodak has filed two patent applications for monitoring
ingestion of medicine

http://www.rfid
-
asia.info/2006/12/rfid
-
tag
-
attachments.htm
, viewed March 13, 2008.


14

Types of Readers


Agile


An agile reader is one that can read tags operating at
different frequencies or using different methods of
communication between the tags and readers.


Intelligent


has the ability not just to run different protocols, but
also to filter data and even run applications


Dumb


a simple device that might read only one type of tag
using one frequency and one protocol

RFID Journal.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/faq/19/75
, views March 13, 2008.

RFID Journal.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/faq/19/76
, viewed March 13, 2008.

15

Access control and
identification


Cards for access to secure areas.
Not only verifies identity but
checks if certain requirements
to enter have been met.


Wristbands to provide access to
unattended buildings.


Wristbands at hotels and resorts
acting as a key and as coupons
to access services

Shepard, Steven,
Radio Frequency Identification,
McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.

http://industrial
-
ebooks.com/EBOOK/RFIDCaseStudyBookBin95.pdf
, viewed March 25, 2008

16

Tracking people and objects


Children in theme parks


Protection of expensive objects


Cemeteries and morgues.


Personnel activities inside a facility


Inmates identification and tracking





Srivastava, Lara, “Radio Frequency Identification: ubiquity for humanity”,
Info: The Journal of policy, regulation and strategy
for .Telecommunications, information, and media,
Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp 4
-
14

17

Ticketing


Trains, subways, buses,
concerts, amusement
parks, fitness facilities, ski
resorts.


Reduces counterfeit


RFID tickets used in the
Soccer World Cup in
Germany in 2006. 4.8
millions Tickets sold with
no counterfeiting
problems.


The Beijing Olympics in
2008 will have RFID tickets.

Shepard, Steven,
Radio Frequency Identification,
McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.

http://industrial
-
ebooks.com/EBOOK/RFIDCaseStudyBookBin95.pdf
, viewed March 25, 2008

18

Sports and Health


Racecar tracking


“ChampionChip” for time tracking


Ski Lifts hands free access


Golf balls

Srivastava, Lara, “Radio Frequency Identification: ubiquity for humanity”,
Info: The Journal of policy, regulation and strategy for .

Telecommunications, information, and media,
Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp 4
-
14

19

Libraries


From barcodes to RFID
tags.


Faster and automatic
checkout and return.


Faster inventory
process.


Reduces workplace
injuries.


No more security strips
for books.


Singh, J., Brar N., and Fong C., “The state of RFID Applications in libraries”,
Information technology and libraries,
Vol. 25, Iss. 1, pp 24
-
33

20

Production Line Control and
Monitoring


Car Body Production:
Flow of information
along the assembly line
for process verification.


Identify vehicles through
assembly line prior to the
execution of a given
assembly task.



Shepard, Steven,
Radio Frequency Identification,
McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.

http://industrial
-
ebooks.com/EBOOK/RFIDCaseStudyBookBin95.pdf
, viewed March 25, 2008

Smith, Alan, “Exploring Radio Frequency identification technology and its impacts on business systems”,
Information management &

Computer security,
Vol. 13, Iss. 1, 2005, pp. 16
-
25


Production Line Control and
Monitoring


Parts replenishment in
work stations.



Real time progress of
production process.


Shepard, Steven,
Radio Frequency Identification,
McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.

http://industrial
-
ebooks.com/EBOOK/RFIDCaseStudyBookBin95.pdf
, viewed March 25, 2008

Smith, Alan, “Exploring Radio Frequency identification technology and its impacts on business systems”,
Information management &

Computer security,
Vol. 13, Iss. 1, 2005, pp. 16
-
25


22

Distribution and
transportation


Receiving and check
-
in


Put away and replenishment


Order Filling


Shipping


Product and asset tracking


Angeles, Rebecca, “RFID technologies: Supply
-
Chain applications and implementation issues”,
Information Systems Management,

Vol.22, Iss. 1, 2005, pp 51
-
66

23

Vehicle Identification


Fleet management


Access to parking lots


Railway industry


Electronic toll collection


Lift truck and guided
vehicle identification


Gasoline dispensing


Smith, Alan, “Exploring Radio Frequency identification technology and its impacts on business systems”,
Information management &

Computer security,
Vol. 13, Iss. 1, 2005, pp. 16
-
25




24

Ports


Container security


Container
identification and
location


Activity tracking


Yard Management


www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/resources/PortTech.pdf, viewed April 6, 2008

www.speakingeye.com/index.php?lay=show&ac=article&Id=401359&Ntype=2
, viewed April 6,
2008.

25

Baggage handling


Replace bar code stick labels
with RFID inlay stick labels.


Many tags can be read at
one time.


Read
-
write capability is used
to record information along
the way as the bag makes its
way through the handling
system.



Shepard, Steven,
Radio Frequency Identification,
McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.

http://industrial
-
ebooks.com/EBOOK/RFIDCaseStudyBookBin95.pdf
, viewed March 25, 2008

26

Health Care and pharmaceutical
industry



Surgical equipment


Drug Pedigree


Blood banks


Patient tracking

Li S., Visich J., Khumawala B., and Zhang C., “RFID technology: applications, technical challenges and strategies”,
Sensor Review,

Vol.26, Iss. 3, 2006, pp 193
-
205

http://industrial
-
ebooks.com/EBOOK/RFIDCaseStudyBookBin95.pdf
, viewed March 25, 2008


27

Animal Identification


Livestock tracking


Data critical for the
safety of food supply


Can also be used on
pets.


Ear tags, injectable
tags, RFID tattoos

Shepard, Steven,
Radio Frequency Identification,
McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.

http://industrial
-
ebooks.com/EBOOK/RFIDCaseStudyBookBin95.pdf
, viewed March 25, 2008

28

Animal Identification


Somark Innovations


ID system based on ink tattoos with chipless
RFID functionality.


Each tattoo has a different pattern that
translates into a number when scanned.


3 patents and 14 pending patents


More than a hundred potential clients in several
countries.

www.somarkinnovations.com, viewed March 24, 2008

29

Other Applications


Shopping


Contactless payment


Contactless checkout


Museums and art
galleries




Wyld, David, “RFID 101: The next thing for management”,
Management Research News,
Vol. 29, Iss. 4, pp 154

Srivastava, Lara, “Radio Frequency Identification: ubiquity for humanity”,
Info: The Journal of policy, regulation and strategy for .

Telecommunications, information, and media,
Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp 4
-
14




30

Case Studies



Wal
-
Mart


Healthcare Service Industry in Taiwan


RFID
-
based Sushi Management


Kaufhof Department Stores and Gerry Weber
International


Florida State University Filing System

31

Wal
-
Mart


1,900,000 employees, $344.0 billion in revenue


1,000 Discount Stores, 2,300 Supercenters nationwide


RFID Compliance Mandate (2003) has economic strategic
implications


600 Suppliers are currently RFID
-
enabled


Goal: Drive sales of suppliers by keeping product on shelf for
consumers to buy


RFID Trial shows cut product stock
-
outs by 30%


RFID Trial shows 62% increase in efficiency

Songini, Marc L., “Procter & Gamble: Wal
-
Mart RFID Effort Effective” Computerworld, Feb 26, 2007, p 14.

NYJobSource.com, viewed 03/31/08

32

Wal
-
Mart Case Study

8 Test Stores

8 Control Stores

May
-
October 2007

May
-
October 2007

Chosen from 1000 RFID
-
enabled
stores

No RFID capabilities


98% of items tagged (At Case level)

No tags

Auto PI system
(Perpetual Inventory
-
goods on
-
hand, count is usually
inaccurate due to over or
underestimates)

No PI system
(Manual count)

Outcome

PI inaccuracy decline by 13%

Decrease in manual adjustments form
3.4 to 2.0 per week

Decrease cost and increase efficiency

Average 65% wrong in inventory
accuracy

xfgd

Hardgrave, B. “Does RFID Improve Inventory Accuracy? A Preliminary Analysis” University of Arkansas, Information

Technology Research Institute, March 2008.

33

Healthcare in Taiwan


5 Hospitals, all early adopters


Reasons for Adoption


Track paths of infection


Improve treatment quality and pt satisfaction


Track patients and workers and hospital waste


Redesign of hospital SOP to increase patient safety


Outcomes


Drastic changes in business processes and organization personnel


Assessment of applications from both strategic and operational
viewpoints
-
strategic systems improve customer service, operational system
improve efficiency of process


Best Practices


C
onsider stakeholders outside organization boundaries


Refine operational processes


Integrate new technology into existing business systems


Extend business boundaries and scope


Tzeng, S., Chen, W., and Pai, F. “Evaluating the business value of RFID: Evidence from five case studies” Int. J. Production

Economics, June 2007, pp 601
-
613.

34

Commonalities of RFID Applications

Taipei
Medical
University
Hospital

Taipei
Municipal
Wan Fang
Hospital

En Chu King
Hospital

Show
Chawn
Memorial
Hospital

Koo
Foundation
Sun Yat
-
Sen
Cancer Center

Hospital Size

$500 million
budget to
increase
efficiency

740 sick beds
total

Regional
Teaching
Hospital with
501 beds

Regional
Hospital with
717 beds

352 beds,
ambulatory, in
-
patient, and day
-
care units

Project

Location
-
based
service

RFID system for
ER patients
observation/

Passive tags

RFID intelligent
healthcare
platform/

Active and
passive tags

Intelligent
digital health
network/

Active tags

Specialized
healthcare system

Reasons for
Adoption

Track paths of
infection
sources

Improve
treatment
quality and
patient
satisfaction

Help hospital
redesign SOP
to provide
protection for
patients

Monitor
patient T,
access
control of
workers,
waste

Track spread of
infection and
prevent outbreaks

Date of
Adoption

10/2003

01/2004

01/2004

10/2003

10/2003

Implementation

Corporate with
NTU

In House

Corporate with
HP

Outsource

Outsource

Outcome

Success

Some success:
Low usage in
ER

Some success:
no wireless use
in surgery room

Success

Success

Tzeng et al. “Evaluating the business value of RFID: Evidence from five case studies” Int. J. Production Economics, June 2007
, p

605.



35

RFID
-
Based Sushi Management


Blue C Sushi
:

small chain of restaurants in Seattle deliver


food to customers along conveyor belt; $1,750,000 annual revenue


Reason for Adoption



Concerns for the quality and safety of food


Understand consumer buying habits


Implementation:

Microsoft Server technology combined with RFID
tags and scanners to monitor time and contents of plates while
tracking consumer purchases


Outcome


Improved customer service


Immediate replenishment of food


Simplified billing procedure and improved efficiency

Ngai, E., Suk, F., Lo, S. “Development of an RFID
-
based sushi management system: The case of a
conveyor
-
belt sushi restaurant” Int. J. Production Economics, February 2006, pp 630
-
645.

“Sushi Restaurant Enhances Quality Control, Customer Service with RFID” Microsoft BizTalk Server
Customer Solution Case Study.

36

RFID in Fashion Industry


5
-
month joint project Jul
-
Nov/2003 between retailer (Kaufhof
Department Stores
-
134 stores,

3.8 billion in sales
) and supplier (Gerry Weber
International
-

1,700

employees,

400 million in sales
)


Reason for Adoption:



Styles, price, packaging, shelf life (fashion)


Multi
-
tiered supply chain (Manufacturer, Distributors, Retailers)


Anti
-
theft systems


Outcome:

beneficial for both retailer and supplier exceeding RFID costs


Savings in time and labor costs (
10 times faster in quality control, 4 times faster management of
inventory)


Allowed for partners to try new services with supply chain partners and consumers


As of 2006, 70% use at palette
-
level


Increased data quality


New possibilities in service offerings


Lessons learned


RFID is extremely reliable and accurate, but may need to be altered at times


Recognizing Management and IT challenges determine success


Competitive advantage gained when RFID data is used


Loebbecke, Claudia, and Palmer, Jonathan W. ”RFID in the Fashion Industry: Kaufhof Department Stores AG and Gerry Weber

International AG, Fashion Manufacturer” MIS Quarterly Executive June 2006 pp 69
-
79.

37

Florida State University
Filing System


41,000 students, $193 million in external grants


(2007)


First educational institution to adopt 3M’s RFID


2
-
Part Tracking system


Reason for Adoption:


Missing files disrupted work


Approximately 3500 project files and $182,000 in


research grants


Compliance guidelines existed for federal state grants



System up and running in two days, one for

installation, one for training of staff


Recovered $25,000 investment in less than


1year


Cost approximately $233,000 in looking for files


before system was implemented and now is


around $145,000
-
62% improvement

O’Connor, Mary Catherine. “RFID Brings Order to Chaotic Office” RFID Journal June 12, 2006.
www.fsu.edu/about
, viewed 03/31/08

38

Other Examples


Major Industries


Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals


Asset Tracking


Manufacturing and Logistics


Postal and Courier Services


Retail


Military


Air and Passenger Transportation


Agriculture


Inventory Systems (Boeing 787
Dreamliner
)


Textile Industry (
Griva
)


Film materials


Chemical Products Industry (Dow Chemical Company)


Credit Cards and Identification Cards (Visa,
Mastercard



PayPass
, US Passports)


Lost Pets


Burial/Identification of the dead


Cattle Tracking and Identification (
Somark’s

RFID Ink,


Canadian Cattle Identification Agency)


www.PFFC
-
ONLINE.com
.

Bevan, James M. “Paper, Film and Foil Converter” RFID Labels. Vol 82, Issue 8. pp 33
-
35.,

39

Why general managers should
care about RFID


Improved productivity and Cost Avoidance


Checkout becomes a faster process as stacks of books can be checked out
with one scan of a reader without opening or handling the books.


Decrease cycle time and Taking costs out.


Unlike traditional barcode scanning, RFID is not a serial process, so the
business can perform identical tasks more quickly.






RFID Business Benefit.
http://www.rfidc.com/docs/introductiontorfid_business.htm
, view 03/20/08

40

Why general managers should care
about RFID


Reduce Rework


As RFID scanning has a greater first time pass
accuracy this reduces the number of errors that are
generated and retries needed.


Reduce business risk and
control of assets


RFID tagging enables better audit and asset control.
The ability to track and trace items better means
assets can be located more easily. Regulatory
compliance can be achieved more effectively. RFID
Business Benefit



RFID Business Benefit.

http://www.rfidc.com/docs/introductiontorfid_business.htm
, last viewed 03/20/08.



41

Why general managers should care about
RFID


Improved utilization of
resource


Information obtained by RFID
scanning can be used to improve
planning. Processes can be improved,
time can be saved, assets can be
utilized better.






RFID Business Benefit

http://www.rfidc.com/docs/introductiontorfid_business.html, viewed 03/20/08.



Increase revenues


By eliminating uncertainty
companies will suffer less “out
of stock” situations and obtain
greater item availability,
reducing lost sales and
increasing choice leading to
more sales.



42

Why general managers should care
about RFID


Exception management


The contribution information captured by RFID offers
to IT applications will allow managers in companies
to be alerted when compensatory business decisions
need to be taken.





RFID Business Benefit
http://www.rfidc.com/docs/introductiontorfid_business.htm
,

Viewed 03/20/08.


43

Problems with RFID


Technical problem with RFID


Problem with RFID standard.



RFID has been used in different ways by different
manufacturers. The frequencies used for RFID in the USA are
currently incompatible with those of Europe or Japan. This can cause
problems for companies.



Moreover, consumer have problems with RFID standard. For
example, Exxon Mobil’s SpeedPass system is a proprietary RFID
system; if another company wanted to use the convenient
SpeedPass, they have to pay to access it. If every company had their
own SpeedPass system, a consumer would need to carry many
different devices with them.


Problems with RFID.
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?ArtNum=20
, viewed 3/26/2008.



44

Problems with RFID


RFID systems can be easily disrupted



Since RFID systems make use of the electromagnetic
spectrum, they are relatively easy to jam using energy at
the right frequency. This problem could be disastrous in
business where RFID is increasingly used, like hospitals or
in the military in the field.




Problems with RFID.

http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?ArtNum=20
, viewed 3/26/2008.


45

Problems with RFID


RFID reader collision



Reader collision occurs when the signals from two or
more reader overlap. The tag is unable to respond to
simultaneous queries.



RFID tag collision



tag collision occurs when many tags are present in a
small area; but since the read time is very fast, it is easier
for vendors to develop systems that ensure that tags
respond one at a time.


Problems with RFID.
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?ArtNum=20
, viewed 3/26/2008.


46

Problems with RFID


Cancer risk


Veterinary and toxicology studies spanning the last ten years
surfaced indicating that RFID chips induced malignant
tumors in laboratory animals. However, there are some
controversies. VeriChip Corp. maintains that the chips are
completely safe and that they were unaware of the studies.





Radio
-
frequency identification.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID
, viewed 3/26/2008.








Logo of the anti
-
RFID campaign by






German privacy group FoeBuD

47

Problems with RFID

Security and privacy

problems with RFID




Loss of privacy


How would you like it if, one day your realized your underwear was reporting
on your whereabouts?


Tag can be read at a distance, it become possible to gather sensitive data
about individual without consent. For example, an RFID tag can be read
after the item leaves the supply chain, this allows anyone to see the
contents of your purse as pocket as you walk down the street.



Problems with RFID.
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?ArtNum=20
, viewed 3/26/2008.

48

Security and privacy
problems with RFID




RFID tags with unique serial numbers could be
linked to an individual credit card number.



At present, each individual item has its own number. When the
item is scanned for purchase and is paid for, the RFID tag number
for a particular item can be associated with a credit card number.






Problems with RFID.
http://www
technovelgy
.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?Atrium=20
, viewed 3/26/2008.





49

Future of RFID


RFID will replace
barcode.


RFID is a great tool for the
supply chain and companies
wishing to better track their
products and inventory. As a
result, it will definitely become
a requirement for all suppliers
to use RFID tags when the tag
become affordable.


RFID gets smaller and edible….and bigger.

http://future.fifth.org/rfid/index.html
, viewed 03/26/08.



RFID’s price will
reduces


With mass production, their
price eventually reduces to
perhaps a cent.









50

Future of RFID


RFID chips are no bigger than grains of sand.







Future of RFID
. http://future.fifth.org/rfid/index.html
, viewed 03/26/08.

51

Future of RFID



Every item in house
will eventually come
from the store with a
tiny, almost invisible
RFID tag attached.





http://www.rfid
-
weblog.com
, viewed 03/31/08.





Example.











Medical alert bracelet
: It's a Medical
Alert Bracelet which keeps the person
wearing it informed about their online
medical history and gets in touch with
assistance in case of any emergency.




52

Future of RFID



Every item in
house will
eventually come
from the store
with a tiny, almost
invisible RFID tag
attached.



http://www.rfid
-
weblog.com
, viewed 03/31/08.



Example.





Lady Bag

: it uses RFID tags to keep a track on items

inside it and icons pertaining to missing items appear

on the LED screen on the outside of the bag. It even

gives a hint of our emotional side with emoticons

displaying whether you are happy, sad, angry or

nervous.


53

Future of RFID


Most of the retailers and
restaurants will use RFID to
track condition of goods.


Ex. Retailers install sensors with RFID tags in
order to monitor food temperature during
foods’ shipment to prevent spoilage or The
store can identify individual foods that are
going to spoil.











RFID: Radio Frequency identification a look into the future

http://www.ils.unc.edu/~cbarthol/inls187/Future%20Forecast/futureforecast.htm

viewed 03/26/08.











Pintokona which is a restaurant in Japan is
putting RFID technology to use in order to
ensure that only the most fresh fish is served
to its esteemed customers.


North America is expected to have a market share of $2.7 billion, compared to $2.0 billion for EMEA and a
combined share of $1.4 billion from Asia Pacific and the rest of the world making up the remainder of the
total RFID market in 2010.


North America to lead RFID market :
http://www.rfid
-
weblog.com/archives/north_america_to_lead_rfid_market.html
, viewed April 10 , 2008

54

The RFID software, hardware and services
market
size in 2010 ( Worldwide)

$26 Billion RFID Industry by 2015:http://
www.rfid
-
weblog.com
/50226711/26_billion_rfid_industry_by_2015.php, viewed April 10
2008

RFID market to reach $7.26Bn in 2008
New RFID Market Analysis:
http://www.idtechex.com/products/en/articles/00000169.asp ,
view April 10,2008

American barcode and RFID
q&A
:
http://www.abrfid.com/rfid/articles/questions
-
answers.aspx
, viewed April 10,2008


55

History of RFID spending and expectation

56

Future of RFID




Public perception
Of RFID


RFID would probably seem less
alien and intrusive since RFID Tags
were tailored to different
functions and industries.







RFID gets smaller and edible….and bigger

http://future.fifth.org/rfid/index.html
, viewed 03/26/08.


Two data
-
points suggest that RFID
may undergo from Renaissance to
contemporary biological
metaphors in the next few years.


I.
Hitachi has announced development of
what it's calling "
RFID powder
," RFID tags
"measuring 0.05 x 0.05 mm" and 5 microns
thick, "which they aim to begin marketing in
2 to 3 years


II.
The second data
-
point is a patent filing by
Kodak for an edible
--

and more important,
digestible
--

RFID tag. (The patent describes
it as a "System to monitor the ingestion of
medicines")

57

Questions???

58

References


Angeles, Rebecca, “RFID technologies: Supply
-
Chain applications and implementation issues”,
Information
Systems Management,
Vol.22, Iss. 1, 2005, pp 51
-
66


Bevan, James M. “Paper, Film and Foil Converter” RFID Labels. Vol 82, Issue 8. pp 33
-
35.


Hardgrave, B. “Does RFID Improve Inventory Accuracy? A Preliminary Analysis” University of Arkansas,
Information Technology Research Institute, March 2008.



How RFID Technology Can Enhance your Asset Management Program”
www.infor.com
-
80
-
content
-
whitepapers
-
rfideam.pdf
-
?ok=yes.pdf
, viewed March 13, 2008.


http://industrial
-
ebooks.com/EBOOK/RFIDCaseStudyBookBin95.pdf
, viewed March 25, 2008


Landt, Jeremy. “Shrouds of Time: The History of RFID”
The Association for Automatic Identification and Data
Capture Technologies.
Ver 1, 2001, pp1
-
11.


Li S., Visich J., Khumawala B., and Zhang C., “RFID technology: applications, technical challenges and strategies”,
Sensor Review,
Vol.26, Iss. 3, 2006, pp 193
-
205


Loebbecke, Claudia, and Palmer, Jonathan W. ”RFID in the Fashion Industry: Kaufhof Department Stores AG and
Gerry Weber International AG, Fashion Manufacturer” MIS Quarterly Executive June 2006 pp 69
-
79.


Ngai, E., Suk, F., Lo, S. “Development of an RFID
-
based sushi management system: The case of a conveyor
-
belt
sushi restaurant” Int. J. Production Economics, February 2006, pp 630
-
645.


O’Connor, Mary Catherine. “RFID Brings Order to Chaotic Office” RFID Journal June 12, 2006.


RFID Journal.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/faq/19/75
, views March 13, 2008.


RFID Journal.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/faq/19/76
, viewed March 13, 2008.


ScanSource. “RFID Frequencies.” www.scansource.com/Europe/upload/RFID_Frequencies.pdf, viewed March 13,
2008.














References


Shepard, Steven,
Radio Frequency Identification,
McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.


Singh, J., Brar N., and Fong C., “The state of RFID Applications in libraries”,
Information technology and libraries,
Vol. 25, Iss. 1, pp 24
-
33


Smith, Alan, “Exploring Radio Frequency identification technology and its impacts on business systems”,
Information management & Computer security,
Vol. 13, Iss. 1, 2005, pp. 16
-
25


Songini, Marc L., “Procter & Gamble: Wal
-
Mart RFID Effort Effective” Computerworld, Feb 26, 2007, p 14.


Srivastava, Lara, “Radio Frequency Identification: ubiquity for humanity”,
Info: The Journal of policy, regulation and
strategy for .Telecommunications, information, and media,
Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp 4
-
14


“Sushi Restaurant Enhances Quality Control, Customer Service with RFID” Microsoft BizTalk Server Customer
Solution Case Study


Tzeng, S., Chen, W., and Pai, F. “Evaluating the business value of RFID: Evidence from five case studies” Int. J.
Production Economics, June 2007, pp 601
-
613.


www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/resources/PortTech.pdf, viewed April 6, 2008.


www.fsu.edu/about
, viewed 03/31/08.


www.NYJobSource.com, viewed 03/31/08.


www.PFFC
-
ONLINE.com
, viewed 03/31/08.


www.rfid
-
asia.info/2006/12/rfid
-
tag
-
attachments.htm
, viewed March 13, 2008.


www.somarkinnovations.com, viewed March 24, 2008


Wyld, David, “RFID 101: The next thing for management”,
Management Research News,
Vol. 29, Iss. 4, pp 154


RFID Business Benefit.
http://www.rfidc.com/docs/introductiontorfid_business.htm
, view March 26,2008


Problems with RFID.
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?ArtNum=20
, viewed March 26,2008


Radio
-
frequency identification.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID
, viewed March 26,2008


http://www.rfid
-
weblog.com
, viewed March 31,2008




59

References



Future of RFID
.
http://future.fifth.org/rfid/index.html.
,viewed March 26,2008


RFID: Radio Frequency identification a look into the future
http://www.ils.unc.edu/~cbarthol/inls187/Future%20Forecast/futureforecast.htm viewed 03/26/08
. viewed
March 26,2008


RFID gets smaller and edible….and bigger
http://future.fifth.org/rfid/index.html.
viewed March 26,2008


$26 Billion RFID Industry by 2015:http://www.rfid
-
weblog.com/50226711/26_billion_rfid_industry_by_2015.php,
viewed April 10 2008


RFID market to reach $7.26Bn in 2008 New RFID Market Analysis:
http://www.idtechex.com/products/en/articles/00000169.asp , view April 10,2008


American barcode and RFID q&A:
http://www.abrfid.com/rfid/articles/questions
-
answers.aspx
, viewed April
10,2008


North America to lead RFID market :
http://www.rfid
-
weblog.com/archives/north_america_to_lead_rfid_market.html
, viewed April 10 , 2008


RFID Journal.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/faq/16/49

Viewed March 30, 2008


“How RFID Works,”
http://www.technology.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?ArtNum=2

Viewed March 31, 2008


“Advantages of RFID Versus Barcodes,”
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology
-
Article.asp?ArtNum=60

Viewed March
31, 2008.


Hont, Susy d. “The Cutting Edge of RFID Technology and Applications for Manufacturing and Distribution,”
www.ti.com/
rfid
/docs/manuals/whtPapers/manuf_dist.pdf

Viewed March 15, 2008.


“How RFID Works,”
http://www.aeanet.org/GovernmentAffairs/gais_HowRFID_Works.asp

Viewed March 20, 2008.








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