563.9.1

cribabsurdElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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563.9.1

RFIDs in Health Care

Ayesha Yasmeen

University of Illinois

2

Outline


RFID


What is it?


Why can it be of help?


Where can it help?


Can it help in the medical sector?


How can it help?


Is it a feasible solution?


What problems can arise if RFID is used?

3

R
adio
F
requency
Id
entification


Three main parts to an RFID implementation:


Tag


a chip with memory


so data can be stored and retrieved


an antenna


can respond to queries


Reader


Database & software

RFID
-

wikipedia

LAN
Pocket PC
Fixed RFID Reader
RFID Tag
Application
Server
4

Why RFID?


Tag holds unique
identification data


a unique serial number and


other attributes of the item


Reader does not require
line of sight or contact


Reader can scan tags in
motion


Reader can scan in
milliseconds


Reader can
simultaneously scan
multiple items

5

RFID uses


Retail & Distribution


Health care


Contact less Payment


Keyless Entry


Livestock Tagging


Pharmaceuticals


Logistics Assets (containers, trailers)


Pet Identification


6

RFID in Healthcare

7

Motivation


An average of 195,000 people died in US
hospitals in each of the years of 2000, 2001, 2002
as a result of potentially preventable, in
-
hospital
medical errors.


Patient went through wrong operation


Patient received unsuitable medication, blood


Equipment got lost


These point to errors in


Patient identification


Medication management


Equipment tracking

Fuhrer 07

8


RFID wristbands for patients developed by
Brenmoor

has


13.56 MHz technology


total memory of 1024 bits and


user memory 768 bits.

Currently available RFID wristband
and readers

9

How RFID can be used in hospitals

Operating room

Give correct amount of medication

Take reading

Patient arrives
at hospital &

gets RFID tag

10

Medication application


All admitted patients are given an RFID
-
based wristband
containing


patient’s ID


blood type, allergy etc.


Nurses have PDA/hand held devices


scans patient’s wristband


scans the medication to be given


The timestamp, patient ID, medication information (and
possibly nurse’s ID) is then transmitted via wireless to the
central database and verified


Server either sends an alert about wrong
medication/wrong time to administer medication or
records the administration of the dose at that time

11

Use in operating rooms


Once a patient arrives at an OR verify that it is
the right patient


scan patient’s ID and automatically display info about
the patient scheduled for operation


Before starting the operation ensure all required
equipment is present


Once the operation starts can keep scanning
drugs, accessories being used


After the operation ends bulk scan all equipment
to ensure everything is in correct place

12

Current example


Chang
-
Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH), part
of a seven
-
facility, 8,800 bed health system in
Taiwan

RFID
-
based Hospital Real
-
time Patient

Management System


The integration of RFID using


PDC Smart Band® RFID wristbands,


HP RFID PDA readers,


handheld readers

13

RFID based ID in OR in CMGH

14

Medical Billing


Even today, a lot of data has to be entered
manually to generate the bill once a
patient is ready to leave the hospital


RFID based system will keep records of
each billable element/procedure used for
the patient


Billing will be more accurate and easier

15

RFID based Asset Tracking


Requirement/procedure:


each equipment gets a RFID tag embedded


the tag should be embedded at production point or


hospitals should be able to attach a tag to equipment in
a manner so that the tag is tough to remove

radio signal

Wifi network

intranet

asset locator
web interface

16

Advantages and Issues


If each medical equipment has an RFID tag it
will allow



locating dynamically



stopping theft



reducing time to find assets



increased utilization


Issues:


RFID readers have to be placed all around the
hospital


shielding of RFID tags can make it impossible to detect
an equipment being stolen

17

RFID synergy at a Netherlands
Hospital

Patient with

RFID wristband

RFID readers

Blood bag with

RFID tag

Clinician ID with

RFID tag

RFID Journal, Aug 07

18

Challenges for deployment in
patient identification


Usability


High frequency devices might drown out the RFID tags
: MRI devices


Impact of environment on tags



washing with water, boiling for sterilization


Reliability


Medical sector is a safety critical system


False positives/False Negatives can lead to severe
consequences


Safety


RF electromagnetic radiation vs Pacemakers


Cost, DOS attacks

Nahas 07

19

Security and privacy concerns


Security concerns:


Eavesdropping can lead to tracking of patients


Patient’s medical data can be recorded without
knowledge or permission


Privacy concerns:


Doctors, nurses and all other medical personnel will
need smart badges containing RFID tags


How the clinicians will feel towards being tracked all the time
is unclear.

20

RFID security mechanisms


Lots of suggestions


They are costly computation wise


CGMH uses password based mechanism


Pseudonym:


Each tag has a set of pseudonyms


Choose a different pseudonym from the set every time


Prevent an eavesdropper from being able to associate a tag ID
with an object


Not really computation heavy


No password needs to be memorized


Cryptography


Key management can be a problem

Juels 06

21

Summary


RFID based identification and locator systems
can


reduce time and labor needed to input and manage
data manually,


improve operations and data accuracy


improve patient safety (identification and medication
administration),


aid in business flow management, and


improve asset/equipment management


However clear laws and recommendations are
needed about security and privacy issues in
tracking of human beings

22

References


General


Wikipedia entry for RFID


RFID security:


RFID Security and Privacy: A Research Survey
,
Ari Juels, 2006



RFID and smart hospitals:


Radio Frequency Identification Applications in
Smart Hospitals
, Huzifa Al Nahas, Jitender
Deogun, CBMS 2007.


Building a Smart Hospital using RFID
technologies
, Patrik Fuhrer, Dominique Guinard,
CBMS 2007.