Section_1.micro-biotech_ver1 - haspi

crewbullBiotechnology

Feb 12, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Micro/Biotech Section 1

3/18/13

4:06 PM



Introduction to Microbiology and Biotechnology


Section 1 Details

What is Microbiology and Biotechnology and how are they studied?


1)

What is Microbiology and Biotechnology?

a)

Microbiology
studies organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked
eye

i)

U
se of microscopes to see organisms

(1)

First microbiologist
-

Antoine Leeuwenhoek

b)

Biotechnology

is the process of using living organisms to make useful products

i)

Ancient biotechnology


bread, cheese, wine production, leather tanning,
etc.

ii)

Modern biotechnology
is genetic engineering


manipulation of an organism’s
genetic make
-
up to create a product useful to humans

2)

The Process of Science
-

in order to study these

subjects, you need to
understand and use the process of science.

a)

Some
vocabulary….

i)

Structure



a p
hysical object that can be observed

ii)

Function


a job

iii)


Process



a series of steps that must follow in a particular order A


B


C

b)

Science as a process

Science is a process


there are a series of steps that a scientist follows. A scientist
makes observa
tions and asks a question about what she observes. To answer the
question, she must formulate her question into a
hypothesis



which is states in such a
way that can be tested
-

usually taking the form ‘if ______ is true, then
this result

will occur
und
er these conditions
.’
By writing down her hypothesis in this way, she
states not only her hypothesis, but also her
prediction



what will happen if her
hypothesis is true. This helps her design her experimental conditions to test her
hypothesis.


The

hypothesis is a statement of current understanding of the thing you're studying.

The predictions are things that should happen (or should not happen) if your current
understanding is right.

[If the hypothesis is true, then I should see this ....

and I

should not see that ..... ].
Science allows you to question authority


if your results
don’t match your prediction
-

why? An error in your experimental design? Your
technique? Or the ideas you based your hypothesis on? If results are not consistent,
so
mething has to change.


The best experiments are, of course, those who have only one
variable



one condition
different between two experiments. The variable that is under the control of the
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scientist is the
independent variable

and the condition that ch
anges is called the
dependent variable
. For instance, if you turn up the heat under water, the
temperature gets higher. Can you identify the independent and dependent variables
here? (The independent variable can also be called the
manipulated variable

an
d the
dependent variable can also be called the
responding variable
. Can you explain why
these names might better explain their relationship?)


Why is this important? Because to be able to definitively say something is affected
by a condition, you need p
roof that that thing changes under that condition. By
controlling the environment and making sure that you have only one manipulated
variable, it is easy to demonstrate the relationship.
http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/howscienceworks_02


The Mythbusters
http://dsc.discovery.com/fansites/mythbusters/mythbusters.html

use the scientific process t
o test myths. Can you identify the process while watching
a video of one of their tests?


Of course, the real world isn’t that easy to control and scientists have to do this
process over and over and over to get enough data to prove their ideas.


See

http://whyscience.co.uk/contributors/kat
-
arney/kat
-
arney
-
the
-
importance
-
of
-
evidence
-
in
-
medicine.html

for an interview about why science is imp
ortant to medicine

c)

How to prove your ideas
-

The Notebook

i)

When you work in a lab or a scientific company, you are required to keep a
legal document that records your ideas, your experiments, and your data.
This document is the
scientific notebook
.

ii)

Ellyn
Daugherty’s

Biotechnology Lab
oratory

Manual



Chapter 1A


How to
set up a legal scientific notebook

d)

Lab safety
-

how to prevent accidents to yourself and others

i)

Identify the safety equipment in the classroom

(1)

Do you know how to use this equipment? Do you
know when to use it?

ii)

How to act so you don’t NEED any of this equipment

(1)

The Basics

(a)

Goggles, lab coats, gloves, contain long hair and loose clothes, food,
closed shoes

(b)

Basic Behavior

(i)

http://www.in.com/videos/watchvideo
-
lab
-
safety
-
4459827.html

(ii)

check utube for other videos

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(c)

Can students name other hazards?

(2)

Specifics for working with microorganisms

(a)

Wash hands before and after, wear labcoat

(b)

Don’t taste or smell anything without instruct
ion

(c)

TELL TEACHER is spill so cleanup can be done correctly

(d)

Remember


microorganisms are opportunistic!

(3)


Activity


cheese

making lab 1C in Daughtery’s
Laborbatory Manual

(a)

identify variables

(b)

identify safety issues

(c)

check for understanding of scientific meth
od, graphing, and use of
notebook.

(4)

Ethics
-

we’ll talk more about ethics in science, but we must keep in mind
that science is based on the collection of data. Ethics involved how is
that data collected, how are experiments conducted, and how is the
knowl
edge applied.

(a)

Consider this


George: Oh man, the roots went down the drain! (pause) Sam, what mass did
you get for your bean plant grown in the #2 gibberillic acid solution?

Sam: 12.08 grams, why?

George: When I was washing my plant, part of the roots we
nt down the drain.
I've been real careful with this lab too. I only got 9.76 grams and I can't afford
another low lab grade. Do you mind if I use your results?

Sam: No, go ahead. I was pretty careful.

George: Thanks! I'll change it by 0.03 grams so it's
not identical to yours.

Sam: O.K


(b)


Is this cheating? Would it be cheating if a scientist in a company
copied data?

(c)

Ethics is a set of codes of behavior shared by a group of people. Are
ethics different for different groups or under different
circumstan
ces? What ethics should scientists follow when doing
experiments and reporting results?

(5)

Microbiology and Biotechnology History

(a)

Timeline

(i)

http://users.stlcc.edu/kkiser/History.page.ht
ml#Timeline

(b)

B
efore the invention of the microscope, microorganis
ms were
unknown

(c)

Medical doctors didn’t even routinely wash their hands until 1850!

(d)

Antiseptic Surgery wasn’t done until 1872!

(e)


The germ theory of disease wasn’t proven until 1876!

(f)


The first
virus was discovered in Tobacco Plants in 1899!

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(g)

Penicillin


the first antibiotic


wasn’t discovered until 1928

(h)


DNA was first sequences in 1977

(i)

The first microbe genome was sequenced in 1995

(6)

Activity


have students (pairs?) create poster of a famous sci
entist who
is involved in microbiology/biotechnology (maybe a wanted poster


name,
picture, amount of reward, wanted for (1
-
2 major things). Share in
gallery walk. Give awards


which scientist had the best idea, had the
nastiest work conditions, etc.

(a)

http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/pages/Chap1.html

(b)

http://www.microbes.info
/resources/General_Microbiology/History/i
ndex.html

(c)

http://www.microbeworld.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=c
ategory&layout=blog&id=64&
Itemid=61