Microbiology and Biotechnology

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Feb 12, 2013 (4 years and 4 months ago)

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5.8 Module 2805


Component 04: Microbiology and
Biotechnology

Content

In

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5.8.1 Microbiology

Content









Features of Viruses, Prokayotae, Protoctista and
Fungi.

17.1


17.6

21.1 to
21.5

17.1 deals with
viruses; 17.2 bact
eria
(prokaryotes)

17.2 and 21.2 deal with
Prokaryotae.

21.3 and 21.4 deal with
protoctistans; 17.5,
17.6, 21.4 and 21.5
deal with Fungi.



Structure and life cycle of a bacteriophage and a
retrovirus.

17.1 and
18.4

Figure 1, spread 18.4
shows the life cy
cle of
a bacteriophage; 17.1
describes the life cycle
of a retrovirus.



Structure and asexual reproduction of
Escherichia
coli
.

17.3






Gram staining as a method of the primary
identification of bacteria.

17.4

Figure 5, spread 17.4
shows Gram
-
positive

and Gram
-
negative
bacteria.

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:







(a) describe the distinguishing features of Viruses,
Prokaryotae, Protoctista and Fungi.

17.1 to
17.6

21.1 to
21.5




(b) describe the general structure of viruses.

17.1




(c) describe the life cycles of the lysogenic
bacteriophage,

, and the Human Immunodeficiency
Virus (HIV).

18.4

See also 15.2 for an
account of AIDS.

(d) describe the organisation of the genetic material
17.1

See al
so 4.4 for a
description of bacterial
inside bacterial cells and viruses.

cells.

(e) describe the structure and asexual reproduction
of
Escherichia coli
.

17.3




(f) describe the differences in bacterial cell wall
structure that are the basis of the Gram staining
technique.

17.4




5.8.2
Techniques used in Microbiology and Cell
Culture

N3.3

Content









Scientific and economic reasons for culturing
microorganisms and plant cells

14.8 and
18.10

14.8 deals with
micropropagation of
plant cells; 18.10 with
cloning of bacteria



In vitro
g
rowth requirements of bacteria, fungi
and plant cells.

17.7






Techniques used for the preparation and growth of
microorganisms and plant cells.









Aseptic techniques.

17.4






Specialist laboratory requirements.

App.




Learning Outcomes

Candi
dates should be able to:







(a) outline the technique of plant tissue culture and
explain its importance.

14.8

See figure 3, spread
14.8 for a summary of
micropropagation of
cells.

(b) describe the
in vitro
growth requirements of
bacteria, fungi and p
lant cells with reference to
carbon and nitrogen sources, mineral nutrients,
temperature, pH and aeration.
N3.3

17.4 and
17.7

17.4 discusses
conditions required for
culturing bacteria, but
only in outline.

17.7 discusses the
large
-
scale
fermentation of
mic
roorganisms.

(c) explain the reasons for safe working practices
and the need for risk assessments to be made when
17.4

17.4 discusses aseptic
techniques.

using microorganisms.

(d) prepare a nutrient broth and pour nutrient agar
plates.

App.

Practical det
ails are not
covered in the book.

(e) use aseptic (sterile) techniques to inoculate solid
and liquid media. (Reference should be made to the
use of innoculating loops, spreaders and to the stab
technique.)

17.4 and
App.




(f) measure bacterial populatio
n growth by means
of dilution plating and turbidimetry, and use a
haemocytometer. (A comparison of the techniques
and the distinction between viable and total cell
counts is expected.)
N3.3

App.

Figure 2, spread 7.8
shows a
heamocytometer.

(g) describe th
e specialist structural features of
laboratories working with microorganisms, which
are designed to prevent contamination of workers
and the environment. (Reference should be made to
the use of negative pressure and air flow hoods.)

17.4

17.4 deals with as
eptic
conditions, but does
not describe the
specialist features of
laboratories working
with microorganisms.

5.8.3 Large Scale Production

Content









Batch and continuous culture of microorganisms.



Large scale production methods.



Problems associa
ted with large scale production.

17.7




Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:







(a) explain what is meant by the terms
batch
culture
and
continuous culture
, and compare their
advantages and disadvantages with reference to the
production of

penicillin and mycoprotein.

17.7,
17.9

Production of
penicillin is described
in 17.7; production of
mycoprotein is
described in spread
17.9.

(b) describe the general structural features of a
fermenter used for large scale production.

17.7

See figure 2, s
pread
17.7 for a diagram of a
fermenter.

(c) explain the major problems associated with
large scale fermentation processes, as opposed to
laboratory production. (Reference should be made
to the production of penicillin.)

17.7

Problems of ‘scaling
up’ are
described in
17.7.

(d) carry out experiments to show the effects of
varying conditions on the growth of
microorganisms. (Simulation software may be used
if fermentation equipment is not available.)




Advanced Biology

does
not include practical
work.

5.8
.4 Biotechnology in Food Production

C3.1b, C3.2.

Content









The production of novel genomes.

18.9 and
18.10






The use of microorganisms and enzymes in food
production.

3.7






Microorganisms as a food source.

17.9






Social, economic, ethica
l and environmental
implications.







Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:







(a) describe the production of novel genomes by the
isolation of a gene from an organism, followed by
its insertion into a new host organism. (Reference
should
be made to the genetic improvement of crop
plants.)

18.9 and
18.10

18.9 describes genetic
engineering
techniques; 18.10
refers to cloning and
the production of
transgenic animals. See
also spread 23.3 for
reference to genetically
modified crop plants.

(b)

describe and explain the role of biotechnology
in the production of cheese, beer, yoghurt and
tenderised meat.

17.8,
17.10,
3.7

17.8 deals with cheese
and yoghurt; 17.10
deals with beer.

Use of proteases to
tenderise meat is
mentioned in spread
3.7 in the

context of
enzyme technology.

(c) describe the use of microorganisms as a food
source, with reference to the production of
mycoprotein and yeast extract.

17.9




(d) appreciate the potential social, economic, ethical
and environmental implications of bi
otechnology



Food for thought
questions in spread
and gene manipulation in (a), (b) and (c) above.
C3.1b, C3.2

18.10 and 23.3 touch
on some social,
environmental and
ethical implications of
gene manipulation, but
these are not covered
in detail. Studies
are
advised to consult
newspapers science
journals for up
-
todate
discussions of these
topics.

5.8.5 Biotechnology in Medicine

C3.1b

Content









The use of biosensors.

3.7






Monoclonal antibodies and their applications.

15.6






Proteins of medi
cal importance.

18.10






The benefits and hazards of genetic engineering.

18.10,
23.3

Benefits and hazards of
genetic engineering are
mentioned, but not
discussed in detail.

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:







(a) explain what is mea
nt by the term
biosensor
,
with reference to the monitoring of blood glucose.

3.7




(b) outline
one
method for the production of a
monoclonal antibody.

15.6

See figure 3, spread
15.6 for a summary of
monoclonal antibody
production.

(c) describe the use o
f monoclonal antibodies in
pregnancy testing.

12.8

See Fact of Life,
spread 12.8.

(d) explain the reasons for using microorganisms in
processes designed for the large scale production of
insulin and human growth hormone.

18.10

Production of insulin
by rec
ombinant DNA
technology is covered
in detail; production of
human growth
hormone is not
covered.

(e) describe the detailed sequence of steps that can
be used to produce a protein of medical importance,
such as human growth hormone.




Production of human
growth hormone is not
covered.

(f) discuss the benefits and hazards of genetic
engineering with reference to suitable examples.
C3.1b

18.10,
23.3

Benefits and hazards of
genetic engineering are
mentioned, but not in
detail. Students are
advised to consult

newspapers and
science journals for an
up
-
to
-
date and full
discussion.

5.8.6 Biotechnology in Industry and Public
Health

Content









Immobilised enzymes and their use in industry.

3.6

Figure 2, spread 3.6
shows methods of
enzyme
immobilisation.



B
iogas and gasohol.

17.11






The treatment of domestic and industrial waste.

23.7

Figure 2, spread 23.7
shows the activated
sludge process, one
method of sewage
treatment.

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:







(a) explain the technique
of enzyme immobilisation.

3.6




(b) explain the advantages of enzyme
immobilisation in manufacturing industries.

3.6




(c) carry out an experiment to demonstrate the use
of immobilised enzymes, such as amylase
immobilised in alginate.




Practical work

is not
covered in
Advanced

Biology
.

(d) describe the use of
named
microorganisms and
substrates in the production of biogas and gasohol.

17.11




(e) describe the use of microorganisms for the
treatment of domestic and industrial wastes.

23.7