Chapter 2: Cognitive Memory and Learning

crazymeasleAI and Robotics

Oct 15, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Chapter 2:
Cognitive

Memory and
Learning


2.1
C
haracteristics of Human
Memory and Learning

2.2
Organization of Human

Memory

2.3 Theories of Human Learning

2.4 Principles of Cognitive Learning and Memory


Lecture 2

(9/3)

2.1
Characteristics of Human

Memory

and Learning



Experiment 1: Memorizing 10 words

Experiment 2: Recalling 20 words given a cue

word


Word recall experiment




Fact
:
Cognitive information processing is influenced by memory
.
Informatio
n processing (p
processor
,
algorithm
)

and memory processes
(memory
, representation
)

are closely related
.
Eg.:

Priming effect


Fact
:
Information processing in the brain is context dependent (c
ontext
-
sensitive
).

Eg.
:
temporal context
in
priming effect







Fact
:
Brain anatomy shows evidence for specialization of cognitive faculties. Different areas are more
responsible for different functions.
(
support for
localist
s


arguments
).



Faxt
:
A large part of brain is used and interacts for performing specific tasks.
(
support for
globalist
s


arguments
).


Observation
:
The interval of neural firing is of milliseconds
.
Assuming the visual response time to be 0
.1
second, 100 neurons are fired. If the average number of connections of neurons is 10000, a maximum of
100
10000

= 10
200000

neurons are fired. Assuming 0.1% of these are fired (i.e. 1/1000 * 10000), the total
number of neurons
active

in 0.1 sec is
100
10

=

10
20
.

The total number of neurons in the brain is
10
11
, so
this suggests that the whole neural network in the brain be used (in multiple times).


Evidence for glocality in memory (globally distributed + localized)





Lecture
3

(Monday, 9/8)

2.2

Organization

of Human Memory


-

Human memory consists of long
-
term and short
-
term memories.

-

No
te: Computer memory consists
also
of
long
-
term memory (disks) and short
-
term memory
(main memory).


-

Sensory memory

-

Short
-
term memory

-

Long
-
term
memory

-

C
f. working memory



According to objects to store, there are many different types of memory.

-


Wh
at

is the capital of
Rumania
?


Semantic memory (explicit memory)

-


Children tends to remember well who bought them the toys
when and where



Episodic memory (explicit)

-


It is easy to learn playing pingpong, but it

s not easy to explain how to play it



Procedural
memory

(implicit)

-


A t
aste of coffee reminds me of cheese cake.

Classical conditioning (implicit)






-

Learning in humans and machines



People learn immediately (one
-
shot learning) and from a single
example
.
S
emantic

memory
.



Non
-
associative learning, a type of c
lassical conditioning
, requ
ires several repetitions
.
Behavioral learning.



Comparison: Most machine learning algorithms learn
from observing data repeatedly
. In this
sense, current machine learning methods
attempt to build
more like

implicit memory
(conditioning) than explicit memory

(semantic memory).


-

Characteristics of human learning and memory
: compositionality, sparse data, sparse coding
,
population coding


Structure of the Memory System



Some important questions about memory:

1.

How memory traces are p
hysically represented in the brain?

2.

What is the molecular biological mechanism of the short
-
term memory?

3.

How a short
-
term memory is
transferred

to a long
-
term memory?


-

Some other questions

1. What are the elementary units of memory? Engram?

2. Related que
stion: What are the elements of matter?


Remark:

We use the term
memon
as a functional unit of memory. It is contrasted to the
neuron

as the unit of
structure of the nervous system.

-

Memons at the molecular biological level are neurotransmitters, neuromodul
ators, and

neuropeptides
.

-

Memons are
realized

at the cellular level in cell assemblies or brain circuits.


-

As we shall see later, the hyperedges in the hypernework model can be viewed as instances of
memons.

Lecture (Mon, 9/17)

Excursion 1:
Seminar on Hu
man Memory:

Neath and Surprenant, Human Memory, 2
nd

Ed., Thomson Wadsworth, 2003.


10/1 (Wed)

10/6 (Mon)

10/8

(Wed)

10/13 (Mon)

10/15 (Wed)

10/20 (Mon)


Ch.1: Introduction and Historical Overview

Ch. 2: Sensory Memory

Ch. 3: The Modal Model

Ch. 4: Working

Memory

Ch. 5: Perspectives on Processing

Ch. 6: Forgetting

Ch. 7: Implicit Memory

Ch. 8: Memory, Brain, Amnesia

Ch. 9: Recognition

Ch. 10: Knowledge

Ch. 11: Imagery

Ch. 12: Reconstructive Processing in Memory

Ch. 13: Memory for When

Ch. 14: Memory Develop
ment

Ch. 15: Mnemonics


2.3 Theories of Human Learning


-

Learning Theory

-

Bahavioristic Theories

-

Cognitive Theories

-

Social Cognitive Theories


Excursion 2:
Seminar on Human
Learnin
g


Guy R. Lefrancois,
Theories of Human Learning
, Thomson Wadsworth, 2
006.


10/22 (Wed), 10/27 (Mon), 10/29 (Wed), 11/3 (Mon), 11/5 (Wed), 11/10 (Mon)


Excursion 2: Seminar on Human Learning


10/22 (Wed),

Part 1: Science and Theory

Ch. 1: Human Learning: Science and Theory

Part 2: Mostly Behavioristic Theories

Ch. 2: Early B
ehaviorism: Pavlov, Watson, and Guthrie


10/27 (Mon),

Ch. 3: The Effects of Behavior: Thorndike and Hull

Ch. 4: Operant Conditioning: Skinner

s Radical Behaviorism

Ch. 5: Evolutionary Psychology: Learning, Biology, and the Brain


10/29 (Wed),

Part 3: The B
eginnings of Modern Cognitivism

Ch. 6: A Transition to Modern Cognitivism: Hebb, Tolman, and the Gestaltists

Part 4: Mostly Cognitive Theories

Ch. 7: Three Cognitive Theories: Brunner, Piaget, and Vygotsky


11/3 (Mon),

Ch. 8: Neural Networks: The New Conn
ectionism

Ch. 9: Learning and Remembering



11/5 (Wed),

Ch. 10: Motivation

Ch. 11: Social Learning: Badura

s Social Cognitive Theory


11/10 (Mon)

Part 5: Summary

Ch. 12: Analysis, Synthesis, and Integration



2.4 Principles of Cognitive Learning