iLembe EMF: Coastal Management Status Quo Report

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iLembe EMF: Coastal Management Status Quo
Report






A project for
iLembe District

Municipality






Tel:
+27 (0) 31 7195500

Email:
tandib@ssi.co.za

/
lukem@ssi.co.za

P O Box 55 Pinetown, 3610
, South Africa





DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION





Client
:

iLembe District Municipality


Project
Name
:

iLembe EMF: Coastal Management Status Quo Report


SSI Environmental Reference Number
:

E02.PTA.000338


Compiled by
:

Luke Moore & Tandi Breetzke


Date
:

4 April 2012



© SSI Environmental


All rights reserved


No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without t
he written permission from SSI Environmental


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SSI Environmental

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1

INTRODUCTION

2

2

METHOD

2

3

DESCRIPTION OF THE S
PECIALIST AREA

2

3.1

L
EGISLATION

3

3.1.1

T
HE
ICM

A
CT

3

3.1.2

T
HE
KZN

D
RAFT
C
OASTAL
M
ANAGEMENT
P
OLICY
(2004)

4

3.1.3

T
HE
I
LEMBE
IDP

5

3.1.4

T
HE
K
WA
D
UKUZA
IDP

7

3.1.5

T
HE
K
WA
D
UKUZA
SEA

(2007),

SDF

AND
LUMS

(2008,

D
RAFT
)

7

3.1.6

T
HE
M
ANDENI
IDP

AND
SDF

(2011/1
2)

8

3.1.7

T
HE
K
WA
D
UKUZA
CMP

AND DRAFT
DPT

9

3.1.8

T
HE
S
IYAYA
C
OASTAL
F
RAMEWORK

9

3.2

S
ENSITIVE
/

IMPORTANT AREAS

10

3.2.1

K
WA
D
UKUZA

10

3.2.2

M
ANDENI

14

3.3

P
RESSURES

14

3.3.1

K
WA
D
UKUZA
P
RESSURES

16

3.3.2

M
ANDENI
P
RESSURES

16

4

REPORT FINDINGS/DISC
USSION (CURRENT STAT
E)

17

4.1

K
EY ISSUES
,

OPPORTUNITIES AND OT
HER IMPORTANT CONSID
ERATIONS

17

4.2

P
OTENTIAL CONFLICTS

21

5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECO
MMENDATIONS (
LEADING

TOWARD DESIRED STATE
)

25

5.1

K
WA
D
UKUZA
R
ECOMMENDATIONS

E
RROR
!

B
OOKMARK NOT DEFINED
.

5.2

M
ANDENI
R
ECOMMENDATIONS

E
RROR
!

B
OOKMARK NOT DEFINED
.

6

REFERENCES

30


Table of Figures

FIGURE 1. STRATEGIC
SENSITIVE ENVIRONMEN
TAL ASSETS IN KWADUK
UZA (SIVEST, 2007).

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

12

FIGURE 2. BIODIVERSI
TY CONSERVATION PRIO
RITIES IN ILEMBE.

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
............................

13

FIGURE 3. COASTAL VU
LNERABILITY WITHIN I
LEMBE DISTRICT MUNIC
IPALITY.

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
......

15



List of Tables

TABLE 1: . NEMA PRIN
CIPLES AS ADAPTED FO
R THE COASTAL ZONE O
F SOUTH AFRICA (TAKE
N
FROM CELLIERS ET AL
2009).

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.......................

5

TABLE 2: ILEMBE IDP
2011/12 GOALS

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

6

TABLE 3: SUMMARY OF
KEY ISSUES WITHIN KW
ADUKUZA LOCAL MUNICI
PALITY

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...

17

TABLE 4: SUMMARY OF
KEY ISSUES WITHIN MA
NDENI LOCAL MUNICIPA
LITY

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
........

19

TABLE 5: SUMMARY OF
KEY ISSUES WITHIN IL
EMBE DISTRICT MUNICI
PALITY

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
........

20

TABLE 6: MATRIX OF P
OTENTIAL CONFLICTS I
N KWADUKUZA LOCAL MU
NICIPALITY

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............................

21

TABLE 7: MATRIX OF P
OTENTIAL CONFLICTS I
N MANDENI LOCAL MUNI
CIPALITY

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...

23

TABLE 8: SUMMARISED
MATRIX OF POTENTIAL
CONFLICTS IN ILEMBE
DISTRICT MUNICIPALIT
Y

................................
................................
................................
................................
............

25


Appendices


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1

INTRODUCTION

Coastal
zones are ecosystems where oceanic and terrestrial forces meet in transition
.

Coastal ecosystems provide free ecosystem goods and services
in the form of, amongst many others, natural resources which sustain livelihoods and coastal and ocean recreation whi
ch contributes to an improved
quality of life.

This unique interface is also a focal point for human activities which are varied in terms of the diversity of the social, ec
onomic and ecological
character of the coast. The coastal zone is also the desired
location for major public infrastructure such as harbours, airports, road and rail networks,
as well as being critical from a strategic and military perspective. Taking into account the inherent complexities of the coa
stal zone, it becomes clear
that such
an area requires specialised management efforts.

2

METHOD

In order to gain an understanding at the macro level of the biophysical, social and economic factors which shape growth, deve
lopment, conservation
and resource utilisation along and within iLembe’s c
oastal zone, an extensive literature review was undertaken. This review covers national and
provincial legislation, policy and guidelines, as well as local level planning, assessments a
nd management interventions. This

desktop
status quo
assessment

has bee
n augmented by knowledge and information gleaned during previous assessments and site visits undertaken within the study area
.

It should be noted that estuaries, as environmental scorecards of the catchment as a whole and which are
spatially
located in the

coastal zone, are
briefly
highlighted in this coastal management specific status quo report but are detailed separately in a standalone estuarine statu
s quo report.


3

DESCRIPTION OF THE S
PECIALIST AREA

iLembe DM extends along the coast of KwaZulu
-
Natal fo
r roughly 75 km from the Amatikulu River near
Gingingndlovu in the northeast to the Tongati
River in the southwest. The coastline represents 14% of the municipality‘s total jurisdictional boundary, and approximately 1
3% of the provincial
coastline. The iLe
mbe coast is of primary importance to the district in strategic terms as the district’s major transport routes run roughly pa
rallel to the
coast, with regionally important urban nodes dotted along the coastal stretch between the Thukela and Tongati rivers.

Of the

4

local authorities which
constitute
the
iLembe DM,
2
are located along the coast, namely
the
KwaDukuza Local Municipality (46 km of coastline) and
the
Mandeni Local
Municipality (29 km of coastline).
The two coastal local authorities within iLemb
e are of distinctly different characters, with KwaDukuza exhibiting high
levels of transformation and degradation as a result of extreme development pressure in the coastal zone and the predominance

of commercial
sugarcane
cultivation
. By contrast, Mandeni

is characterised by
more subsistence agriculture and less
transformation of natural areas. Cultural and
heritage resources are concentrated in the greater Mandeni area, with
culturally significant
landmarks such as the Ultimatum Tree being located on
the
banks of the Thukela River.
A large percentage of the coastal area within iLembe is characterized by commercial agriculture due to its suitability for
this activity.
As mentioned, c
ommercial sugarcane operations dominate much of the coastal landscape of KwaDukuza, interspersed with urban nodes
and dotted with areas of remaining natural vegetation but which are largely fragmented. North of the
Thukela

River, natural areas predominate
the
coastal zone of Mandeni, in large part due to the presence of the
Red Hill and
Amatikulu Nature Reserve
s which stretch

for approximately 16 km up
the coast and
are

1614 ha in extent. Urban nodes are concentrated in the south, with the most densely popu
lated coastal areas being located
between Ballito and Sheffield Beach. North of Sheffield Beach, smaller urban nodes are found at Princes Grant, Umvoti Mouth a
nd Zinkwazi Beach.

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The iLembe coastal zone is fed by
9

estuarine systems of which the
Tongati, M
voti, Zinkwazi,
Amatikulu
/Nyoni and
Thukela

are the largest and most
prominent. The coastal zone is connected to the hinterland and influenced by river catchments which feed the estuarine system
s that end in the
coastal zone.
Estuaries are discussed in mor
e detail as part of the
E
stuarine Status Quo Report.

3.1

Legislation

Legislation and policy that is specific to the coastal zone, and which will be described elsewhere, is identified as:



The White P
aper

for Sustainable Coastal Development
in South Africa
, 200
0
;



The
National Environmental Management:
Integrated Coastal Management Act of 200
8 (Act No. 24 of 2008; ICM Act);




The National Environmental Management Control of Vehicles in the Coastal Zone Regulations (Government
Notice

No 1399 of 21 December
2001);



The Marine Living Resources Act

(
Act No 19 of 1998
)
;



The National Water Act (Act No. 36 of 1998);



The Disaster

Management Act (Act No. 57 of 2002);



The Forestry Laws Amendment Act (Act No. 35 of 2005)
;



The National Envir
onmental Management: Waste Act (
Ac
t No. 59 of 2008
)
;



The National Environmental Manag
ement: Biodiversity Act

(
Act No. 10 of 2004 (NEMBA); and




The National Environmental
Management: Protected Areas Act

(
Act No. 57 of 2003 (
NEMPAA
).

3.1.1

The ICM Act

The
National Environmental Management:
Integrated Coastal Management Act of 2008 (Act No. 24 of 2008; ICM Act)
, which

emanates from the White
Paper for Sustainable Coastal Development
in South Africa
(Coastal Management Policy Programme, 2000)

and
proposes to
,

i
nter alia
,

establish a
system of integrated coastal and estuarine management
, is described in more detail in this status quo report due to its
evident

significance
.

This
legislation firmly establishes integrated coastal management as the preferred vehicle
for the promotion of sustainable coastal development in South
Africa. This is promoted through directives in terms of

the conservation and maintenance of the natural attributes of the coastal environment
concomitant with

development
that
is both sustainabl
e, and socially and economically justifiable.

It defines the rights and responsibilities of all coastal
stakeholders including those of organs of State and gives effect to South Africa’s international responsibilities in respect
to coastal pollution.

The I
CM
Act aims to facilitate the implementation of the principles and guidelines presented by the White Paper
for Sustainable Coastal Development
in South
Africa
and
proposes:
a legal and administrative framework to promote cooperative, coordinated and integr
ated coastal management;

the
protection
of the natural coastal environment as a national heritage;

t
he management of coastal resources in the interests of the whole community;

t
he
promotion of equitable access to the resources and benefits provided by th
e coast; and

t
he fulfilment of South Africa’s obligations under international
law.

More specifically, chapter 6 of the ICM Act mandates all three spheres of Government to prepare Coastal Management Programmes

(CMPs
) for the
coastal area under their

jurisd
iction. At a municipal level such programmes must be prepared and adopted within 4 years of commencement of the
Act, be reviewed every 5 years and include a public participation process both prior to as well as after adoption of the
CMP

(Celliers et al., 2009)
.

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At municipal level the Act also proposes the development of
coastal planning scheme
s
, spatial tool
s

in addition to
the CMP
which
are

also
used to
achieve
identified
coastal management objectives

(Celliers et al., 2009)
. A coastal planning scheme defines areas within the coastal zone or coastal
management area which may be exclusively or mainly used for a specified purpose or activity.
It
may also restr
ict or prohibit certain activities in, or
uses of a specified zone.

Once a coastal municipality adopts
its

CMP

and
c
oastal
p
lanning
s
cheme
, it may prepare by
-
laws to provide for the
implementation, enforcement and administration of the CMP.

It is noted t
hat the KwaDukuza
Municipality

has developed an i
naugural
KwaDukuza Coastal Management Programme (CMP)

as well as a draft stand
-
alone development planning tool (DPT) in order to assist with development and planning decisions in the KwaDukuza coastal zon
e
. The DPT
is
proposed to be adopted as part of the
KwaDukuza
Land Use Management System (LUMS).

While the Mandeni
Municipality

have not, as yet, developed
their
required CMP, they did prepare and adopt the Siyaya Coastal Framework

in
2005

which provides s
pecific
coastal management and development planning
direction for the
Mandeni

coastal zone.


3.1.2

The KZN Draft Coastal Management Policy (2004)

T
he Draft
KwaZulu
-
Natal (KZN)
Coastal Policy, a
lthough outdated,
still has
relevance to the
iLembe

context and shou
ld be borne in mind

in the
development of this EMF
.

The principles outlined by the Draft KZN Coastal Management Policy
were

informed by the principles contained in the
Constitution, the National Environmental Management Act and other relevant legislation
and policies, but
were
modified to accommodate a coastal
management context.
Table
1

is a summary of these principles as adapted by Celliers et al 2009. These principles form the core of the coastal
management philosophy in South Africa and as such require

due consideration in any activity pertaining to management of the
iLembe coastal zone
.

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TABLE
1
: .
NEMA
PRINCIPLES AS ADAPTE
D FOR THE COASTAL ZO
NE OF SOUTH AFRICA (
TAKEN FROM CELLIERS
ET AL 2009).


The core coastal
management responsibilities of local and d
istrict
m
unicipalities according to the Draft KZN Coastal Management

Policy are:



Co
-
ordinate coastal management activities at a district and local level;



Establish and implement
c
oastal
m
anagement
p
rogrammes;



Ensure that local
i
ntegrated
development p
lans (IDPs) and associated spatial plans and controls are not in conflict

with the goals and
objectives of the provincial coastal policy, identify and budget for coastal projects and establish special controls for sens
itive coastal areas;



Incorporate relevant outputs of the Systematic Conservation Plan for coastal lands and est
uaries into
IDPs
and associated spatial plans and
controls;



Manage and protect coastal resources under their ownership or custodianship;



Promote appropriate and sustainable coastal economic development; and



Rehabilitate coastal resources where necessary.

3.1.3

The Ilembe IDP

Municipal planning and reporting performs an important role in collating and integrating the diverse array of sector plans th
at must inform and guide
management of the district. Municipalities are required to develop IDPs every five years wh
ich synthesise inputs from various municipal sectors
Principle

Description

National
Asset

The coast must be retained as a national asset, with public rights to access and benefit from the opportunities provided by c
oastal
resources.

Economic Development

Coastal economic development opportunities must be optimised to meet society’s needs
and to promote the wellbeing of coastal
communities.

Social Equity

Coastal management efforts must ensure that all people, including future generations, enjoy the rights of human dignity, equa
lity
and freedom.

Ecological Integrity

The diversity, health and productivity of coastal ecosystems must be maintained and, where appropriate, rehabilitated.

Holism

The coast must be treated as a distinctive and indivisible system, recognising the interrelationships between coastal users a
nd
ecosystems and between the land, sea and air.

Risk Aversion & Precaution

Coastal management efforts must adopt a risk aversiv
e and precautionary approach under conditions of uncertainty.

Accountability & Responsibility

Coastal management is a shared responsibility. All people must be held responsible for the consequences of their actions,
including financial responsibility f
or negative impacts.

Duty of Care

All people and organisations must act with due care to avoid negative impacts on the coastal environment and coastal resource
s.

Integration & Participation

A dedicated, co
-
ordinated and integrated coastal management approach must be developed and conducted in a participatory,
inclusive and transparent manner.

Co
-
operative Governance

Partnerships between government, the private sector and civil society must
be built in order to ensure co
-
responsibility for coastal
management and to empower stakeholders to participate effectively.

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towards cohesive strategies for cooperative governance, allocation of finance and strategic interventions at the municipal le
vel, among others.
Factors, strategies and planning relative to iLembe’s coast
al zone has been summarised from IDPs, spatial development frameworks (SDFs) and various
sector plans.

The 2008/09 IDP review for iLembe recognises the coastal environment as being under threat from human activities, while the i
Lembe District SDF
highligh
ts the importance of the coast
as
a unique maritime environment
with

its resulting high level of environmental sensitivity. This includes the
specific environments of the series of river mouths, estuaries and lagoons, each of which should be addressed indi
vidually in terms of their
environmental uniqueness, opportunities for integration into recreational and tourism activities, as well as the potentially
surrounding built
environment (iLembe IDP Review 2008/09). Coastal management is of particular importanc
e in the iLembe District, as the coast is an integral part of
the economy and the future development of the District is dependent on sustainable management of the iLembe coastal resource
(iLembe IDP Review
2008/09).

In articulating its environmental missi
on, the 2011/12 IDP for iLembe defines a number of goals to achieve implementation of its mission

which are
detailed in Table 2 below.


TABLE
2
: ILEMBE IDP 2011/12

GOALS

Goal

Implications/Actions

To preserve and protect the natural

environment through the
application of appropriate conservation management.

Conservation of sensitive areas to be integrated into municipal spatial planning as a priority.

To protect natural resources and use the natural resource base
available in the
district in a sustainable manner
.

Emphasis to be placed on identifying resources which are overexploited and to concentrate on
utilisation of resources which are underexploited.

To maintain and preserve a pristine environment
.

Undisturbed areas to be ide
ntified and integrated into municipal spatial planning as
conservation areas.

To promote and support development in the region which is
sustainable and not harmful to the environment
.

The green economy and other alternative development measures must be in
vestigated as a
means to promote sustainable development in the district.

To minimise further loss of natural habitat to protect the
ecosystems functionality by assuring that all development complies
with pertinent legislation.

Areas of remaining natural

vegetation and landscapes are to be identified and protected as
open space corridors.

To promote equal access to environmental opportunities and
promote equity in service delivery
.

Ensure that managed access to environmental resources takes place in an e
quitable manner.

To promote integration between social, economic and
environmental spheres of development.

Prioritise holistic planning and strategy across all sectors.

To promote development that meets the needs of our present
generations while not com
promising the natural environment’s
ability to provide for future generations.

Planning for development and economic growth must adopt a long term vision to ensure that
overexploitation and degradation do not ensue from the use of natural resources.

To ma
intain an environment that is not harmful to the health and
well
-
being of our people by protecting the environment through
legislative measures.

Making use of management tools and legislation to assist in the protection and management
of environmental
assets in such a way that they are beneficial to the people of iLembe in a
sustainable manner.

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3.1.4

The KwaDukuza IDP

Integrated Development Planning is a central process that has become
the
driving
means

to ensure
that
the residents of
a
municipal area are
ul
timately the recipients of basic services that are provided by
a

municipality. The
IDP
is further seen as
the

consolidated process that provides
the

framework for planning of future development in a municipality

(KwaDukuz
a Municipality, 2007)
. In this regard, all other municipal plans must be
aligned to the IDP and they must ultimately become annexure
s

to the IDP. It is the task of
the KwaDukuza C
ouncil to
develop

a developmental vision
and
give
direction for the next five years.
In KwaDukuza, t
his
was
achieved through Community IDP Izimbizos whose objectives
were
to identify
integrated
community needs in all
20 KwaDukuza wards
. The product of the Community IDP Izimbizos
was the
KwaDukuza 2007/
8


2011/
12
IDP.
The
KwaDukuza IDP is a five
-
year strategic plan which is aimed at providing the community of KwaDukuza with access to basic services, health care,
education, food and social security, housing, road infrastructure and safety and security among
st other things.

Though broad and indicative, the IDP and its vision form the overarching and unitary framework for all plans, policies and pr
ojects which are
developed within the municipal jurisdiction of KwaDukuza. It is therefore imperative that subord
inate visions, policies and management frameworks
developed within KwaDukuza do not conflict with the IDP vision, but rather give effect to it. The KwaDukuza IDP contains a n
umber of environmental
considerations, derived predominantly from the KwaDukuza S
EA, a document which is detailed below.

3.1.5

The KwaDukuza SEA (2007),
SDF and LUMS (2008, Draft)

The fast pace of development in KwaDukuza has placed unprecedented pressure on the receiving environment and the findings of
the KwaDukuza
SEA, as reflected in the

IDP, suggest that the coastal strip requires special attention, as development pressure is greatest in this area while
simultaneously being the area with the greatest environmental concerns. These sentiments are echoed by the Draft KwaDukuza SD
F and LUMS,

as
well as the KwaDukuza CMP and
draft
DPT

(detailed below)
. Additional commonalities in respect to the municipal policies and plans are presented
below.

The KwaDu
kuza Draft SDF and LUMS highlight
the coastal strip as a particularly important element in
shaping development in KwaDukuza.

The
KwaDukuza coastline is undoubtedly the municipality’s most prominent and valuable tourism asset, and the demand for tourist
-
friendly sandy beaches
and the pressure to provide space adjacent to bathing beaches for ameni
ties, both for recreational activities and parking is growing. Degradation of
the coastline therefore has negative implications for the tourism industry, which is considered crucial for economic developm
ent in KwaDukuza
(SiVES
T Selatile Moloi Team, 2007)
. In terms of land suitable for development, most areas/resources that have not been developed or transformed are
inaccessible or difficult to develop. Fragments of remaining natural areas/resources are separated by large t
racts of transformed land and therefore
may not be able to support and sustain themselves without intensive management and intervention. The IDP, Draft SDF and LUMS
aim to prevent
linear or ‘ribbon’ development along the coastline, and the resultant remova
l of coastal forests and ecological corridors. These policies additionally
aim to zone coastal areas to limit certain types of development (e.g. high density residential)
while promoting

other types of development (e.g. light
footprint ecotourism developme
nt).

The Analysis Report component of the KwaDukuza SEA recommends that development planning should focus future tourism developme
nt in key areas
or nodes, while preserving others for low impact tourism, particularly environmentally sensitive areas. Due to its
attractiveness and resource
-
rich
character,
additional development is expected to take place in the coastal strip,
but it is proposed
that such development
should be

of low intensity,
retaining a largely green coastal environment and providing/retaining ap
propriate access for all to the
coast

(Rothaug, 2008)
. Coastal development
needs to adhere to more stringent environmental consideration
s

(such as those provided for by the KwaDukuza Draft DMT). T
he
draft
SDF
and LUMS

promote the creation of individual and unique clustered development, rather than
linear development
(Rothaug, 2008)

and the
location and size of
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such development

clusters
are proposed to
be determined by specific loc
al environmental conditions, the desire to create manageable and unique
development entities and to maintain public access to the
coast, which should include the provision of appropriate amenities
.

These strategic documents, and their accompanying guidelin
es and recommendations
,

represent a substantial body of work, and as such should be
taken into consideration during development planning processes for the proposed development at Nonoti. Specific key issues to

be included are:



Nodal low density development

required (preferably
light footprint ecotourism development)
;



Low impact tourism activities supported;



Link to the Municipal sewer reticulation required;



Access to the coast cannot be restricted and should be facilitated;



Development in high risk areas to

be avoided;



Development taking cognisance of proposed setbacks including setbacks from ecologically sensitive areas;



Protection and stewardship of the indigenous coastal forest required; and



Provide for recreational amenity adjacent to the coast.

3.1.6

The
Mandeni IDP

and SDF

(2011/12)

The coastal area of
the
Mandeni
LM

is characterised by a diversity of habitats, which includes the marine component, sandy beaches, a prograding
dune system with several vegetation stages, coastal wetlands, estuarine and freshwater systems, coastal grassland and bush th
ickets, coastal fore
st,
climax dune forest, riverine and swamp forest.
Commercial agriculture is found in the extreme south of the municipality’s coastal area on the northern
and southern banks of the Thukela. The remainder of the coastal area is characterised by scattered su
bsistence agriculture, natural forests, bush and
settlement (predominantly at Dokodweni in the north).

Mandeni’s proximity to two of KwaZulu
-
Natal’s (and indeed Africa’s) major ports
(
Durban and Richards Bay
)

presents an opportunity to link with major
tra
nsport routes and development activity. The coastal area of Mandeni presents potential development opportunities such as ecot
ourism, and
recreational activities due to the relatively pristine nature of much of the coastal area. Major environmental assets i
n the coastal area of Mandeni
include the Amatikulu and
Thukela

River valleys, including their estuarine systems and riparian areas.
The
Nyoni

River is also of special environmental
concern given its unique path of flowing parallel to the coastline for ap
proximately 8 km before converging with the Amatikulu River to form an
estuary.
The
Red Hill and
Amatikulu Nature Reserve
s

extend for approximately 16 km from just north of the Thukela mouth to the north
ern border of
the municipality and consist

predominan
tly of

coastal dune forest, coastal grassland and Lala Palm bushveld. The
Red Hill and
Amatikulu
and Harold
Johnson
Nature Reserve
s

are

the only formally protected area
s

within the iLembe coastal zone and as such plays a crucial role from a conservation
p
erspective.

The greater Mandeni area has an extremely rich cultural history, and a number of significant historical events of an Anglo
-
Zulu nature have occurred in
the region.
Battlefields, military outposts, Zulu kraals, mission stations and monasteries
are all found within the region, and are particularly prolific
around the area known as the Thukela Frontier which has the Thukela River as its centre point.
All coastal areas
,

not currently protected area
s
,

are
proposed for tourism initiatives to capital
ize on the unique and rich cultural history of the area.
The
Thukela River area is the primary activity corridor
identified for this purpose.

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SSI Environmental

Coastal development in Mandeni needs to be approached with caution and identification of suitable areas for devel
opment needs to take
both
environmental sensitivity and cultural heritage value into account. There is a need to improve c
oastal access and accessibility to coastal resources,

and

to
link the coast with major transport routes in the hinterland
. This

is cr
ucial to providing appropriate amenity to areas earmarked for
camp sites,
picnic sites, beach access and parking areas for

fishermen

along the coast for the benefit of both tourists and the local community.

3.1.7

The KwaDukuza CMP and draft DPT


In light of the
enactment of the ICM Act, KwaDukuza Municipality
prepared
a Coastal Management Programme (CMP) for
its
coastal
zone
,
in response
to Chapter 6 of the ICM Act.
The Inaugural KwaDukuza Coastal Management Programme (CMP) represents the formal starting point for
the

cycle of
integrated coastal management in KwaDukuza. The KwaDukuza CMP has been designed with a cyclical review process firmly in mind
, a process which
allows for amongst others, a reassessment of local conditions and priorities in respect to implementation steps, and the iden
tification of further issues
if so required.

A key component arising out of the synthesis between the public participation and sit
uational analysis phases of the KwaDukuza CMP was the
development of a vision for the KwaDukuza coast. This vision represents the desired state of the KwaDukuza coast, and was bas
ed on the national and
provincial coastal visions as provided for by the Whit
e Paper for Sustainable Coastal Development (Coastal Management Policy Programme, 2000) the
Draft KwaZulu
-
Natal Coastal Management Plan as well as the municipal vision of the KwaDukuza IDP augmented by input from key stakeholders a
nd
the public. The CMP co
ncludes with an implementation plan which identifies
key activities, projects, role
-
players, actions and indicators towards
effective management intervention.

This implementation plan aspect of the CMP complements the policy aspect of the CMP by making spe
cific
recommendations and proposing steps to address issues and opportunities.

A stand
-
alone
draft
development planning tool (DPT) was developed in parallel with the KwaDukuza CMP

and provides detail and guidance in respect
to coastal development planning
.

This product was developed in order to assist with development and planning

and is proposed to adopted as part of
the
Land Use Management System (LUMS)
.


Specific issues highlighted include:



Sustainable management of the coast as both a safe home for resi
dents and a world class destination for tourists;



Free benefits and services should be equally accessible;



Management responsibility should be shared;



Stewardship and a growing awareness and understanding should be encouraged;



A balance between conservatio
n and the sustainable use of resources is promoted; and



The dynamic and interconnected nature of the coast and its hinterland must be recognised.

3.1.8

The Siyaya Coastal Framework

The Siyaya Coastal Framework considers guiding development principles found in th
e Constitution, the Municipal Systems Act, the Development
Facilitation Act, relevant agricultural policy and relevant environmental statutes (National Environmental Management as well

as Heritage Resources)
.


The plan undertakes a detailed situational ana
lysis as well as reflecting on public participation, expectation and community comment

and includes a
detailed biodiversity assessment undertaken by Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife as well as an agricultural plan and assessment undertake
n by the then KZN
Department
of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs.
.


It concludes with a concept plan, framework plan
and implementation programme.



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SSI Environmental

Spec
ific issues highlighted are detailed below.



The beach at Thukela Mouth is identified as a critical development opportunity, as
it is the only
portion

of t
he

coastline where development
can be located on the edge of the beach area. A blue flag beach is proposed
but the plan acknowledges
the problems of developing a
swimming beach in the vicinity of the
Thukela
mouth
and the need
to locate it some distance away.

A second blue flag beach is proposed at
Dokodweni, where
swimming takes place and
beach
-
related facilities already exist.
Limited additional beach facilities are proposed.



Tourism development opportunities are
propose
d

at
the
Amatikulu Nature Reserve, on the edge of the existing reserve but in the area
identified for inclusion. A major, high value tourism facility, such as a resort and conference centre targeted at the inter
national market, could
be considered for th
is location. It is intended that this would have linkages via the Amatikulu Nature Reserve to the Dokodweni Beach
facilities, thereby increasing the use of the reserve and the facilities existing in the Nyoni Estuary area.



The development plan also rein
forces the critical work done on the appropriate use of natural resources. Both the agricultural production
areas and the areas identified as being of biodiversity significance are to be protected for these purposes.


Specific direction provided
in
respect to future development is as follows
:



It
must be sustainable and appropriately integrated in appropriate places at appropriate densities;



It
must promote integrated social and economic development and make sustainable use of natural resources;



It
must ensure protection of agricultural land;



It
must not endanger areas of significant environmental value;



It
must consider coastal management considerations such as a buffer, coastal setback and access; and



It
must capitalise on the areas extensive cultu
ral resources.

3.2

Sensitive

/ important areas

Sensitive

and
areas of
importan
ce from a
n integrated coastal management / environmental
perspective

are identified
and discussed
per local
municipal area.

3.2.1

KwaDukuza

Sensitive environmental areas in KwaDukuza have

been drawn predominantly from the KwaDukuza Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) given
its status as the most comprehensive environmental assessment undertaken at the local municipal level.
These identified areas have been augmented
by sensitive areas

identified during site specific assessments within the area.
Figure
1

below
shows an overview of the strategic environmental
sensitivities identified in KwaDukuza.

Sensitive areas relevant to the KwaDukuza coastal zone are summarised from
Figure
1

below as follows. All five estuaries within KwaDukuza are
identified as significant

and as sensitive ecological assets (particularly those areas below the 5m contour


the functional estuary boundary. (Estuaries
are discussed in detail in the estuarine Status Quo Report). Conservation areas, in the form of local conservancies, are reco
gn
ised for the crucial role
they play in conservation initiatives and stewardship at a municipal level. Certain habitats and biomes are also identified d
ue to their environmental
importance or threatened status, and in KwaDukuza, coastal grassland areas (par
ticularly between Princes Grant and Nonoti) and the Maputaland
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SSI Environmental

coastal belt (particularly near the Umvoti mouth) are critical environmental assets in the remaining natural coastal areas.
Riparian areas and their
associated vegetation are also highlighted
as important from a biodiversity perspective, as is the area just south of the Umvoti estuary which is
important from an avifaunal (birding) perspective.

Broadly speaking, the high degree of transformation in KwaDukuza increases the value and sensitivity
of the few remaining areas of natural vegetation
and this includes coastal grassland areas, coastal forests, and coastal wetlands and their associated vegetation. The littora
l active zone is also
considered to be sensitive to degradation and intrusion as a

result of development and recreation activity. Within KwaDukuza, beach areas are
generally considered to be eroding (retrograding) with the possible exception of the coastline north of the Umvoti River Mout
h, which is thought to be
prograding (growing) du
e to the presence of vegetated ‘relict’ dunes

(SiVEST, 2007)
. The White Paper

for Sustainable Coastal Development

(Coastal
Management Policy Programme, 2000)

noted that the region was reputed to have the fastest growing real
-
estate industry along the South African
coast, with linear development of holiday homes and tourism infrastructure. This has serious implications for the biodiversit
y status of the coast,
the
ecological processes and the free goods and services that the coast provides

(SiVEST, 2007)
. Expansion of residential and other development
,

including
the demand for beach facilities from
residents and
tourists

alike
, contribute to the current degradat
ion of the KwaDukuza coastline and loss of sense
of place

and visual amenity
.

From a conservation planning perspective, Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife (Ezemvelo)
has developed a Biodiversity Conservation Plan

(hereafter the C
-
Plan)
,
based on systematic conservatio
n planning

principles
. It is essentially a strategy to facilitate decision making around land use and conservation.

The
areas in
Figure
2

below, indicated as Biodive
rsity Priority Areas 1 (
BPA1
),

are

planning units
which
contain one or more features within an
irreplaceability
of

1. This means that there are no other localities which we have been
identified

as alternat
ives

to try and meet
the conservation
target for
that

specific
feature(s).
These areas become crucial from a biodiversity conservation perspective, as well as from the perspective of the
continued provision of free ecosystem goods and services. Within iLembe, and as identified in
Figure
2
, BPA1 areas refer to biodiversity planning units
that contain North Coast Grassland (located in fragmented patches between the Seteni and Thukela rivers; a stretch of approxi
mately
30 km along the
coast) and Maputaland Coastal Grassland (stretching for approximately 22km and forming the bulk of the Amatikulu Nature Reser
ve within the
Mandeni LM).


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SSI Environmental


FIGURE
1
. STRATEGIC SENSITIV
E ENVIRONMENTAL ASSE
TS IN KWADU
KUZA (SIVEST, 2007).


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SSI Environmental


FIGURE
2
. BIODIVERSITY CONSE
RVATION PRIORITIES I
N ILEMBE.

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SSI Environmental

3.2.2

Mandeni

In contrast to its southern neighbor of KwaDukuza, Mandeni’s coastal area is not heavily utilized
or transformed to the same extent
.

BPA1
areas in
coastal Mandeni
,

in terms of
Figure
2
,

are
located
south of the Thukela River and

comprise North Coast Grassland areas. The majority of the Mandeni
coastal a
rea forms part of the Amatikulu Nature Reserve and as such is not rated in terms of
a specific
biodiversity conservation priority.


Environmental sensitivity is thus also of a slightly different nature within this local authority. The presence of the
Red H
ill and
Amatikulu Nature
Reserve
s

within Mandeni’s jurisdictional boundary has helped to preserve large proportions of sensitive areas which would otherwise be

under threat
from development and other anthropogenic impacts. Nevertheless, the following speci
fic areas of sensitivity have been identified for Mandeni.

Estuarine systems, namely the Thukela and Amatikulu
/Nyoni

twin
estuaries and their associated floodplains
, are
identified as significant and as
sensitive ecological assets (particularly those areas

below the 5m contour


the functional estuary boundary)
.
T
he Maputaland Coastal Grassland
biome
,

which predominates north of the Thukela River
,

is
also
of primary conservation importance and sensitivity.
As with KwaDukuza, r
iparian areas,
wetlands and the

littoral active zone are
also
areas o
f
environmental
sensitivity.
Sites of cultural and heritage significance must also be considered
sensitive, and are described in detail as part of the Cultural and Heritage Status Quo Report.

3.3

Pressures

Of primary conc
ern to the iLembe coastline
,

from a pressures perspective
,

is the dynamic nature of the natural coastal processes which exert influence
on the coastline. Inasmuch as these are natural biophysical processes, their effects are magnified and exacerbated by a

combination of anthropogenic
impacts (such as poor catchment management and inappropriate coastal development) and the increasingly acute effects of clima
te change and sea
-
level rise.
T
he KZN DAEA&RD C
oastal Vulnerability Index categorises the coastline o
f KwaZulu
-
Natal in terms of its vulnerability to the effects of coastal
erosion and distinguishes between
H
igh
R
isk,
M
oderate
R
isk and
R
isk.
The diversity
of risk in respect to
the iLembe coastline is illustrated in
Figure
3
.
The importance or urgency of coastal vulnerability
as a key
pressure

and a comparison which contrasts LM differences,

requires specific attention in
addition to the
pressures

identified and detailed for both
KwaDukuza and Mandeni
below.
The coastal stretch between the Tongati River and the
Umhlali Estuary (which incorporates the areas of greatest settlement density) is predominated by the category of High Risk, i
nterspersed wi
th small
sections of Moderate Risk to the effects of coastal erosion and other dynamic coastal processes.
These categories are borne out by the events of
March 2007
,

when massive damage to this area of the coast was incurred as a result of
a
storm surge ev
ent and resultant coastal erosion.
The
remainder of the KwaDukuza coastline north of the Umhlali River is best described as exhibiting Moderate Risk, interspersed w
ith High Risk areas at
river mouths and estuaries.
In stark contrast, the coastline of Mand
eni which stretches from just south of the Thukela River
,

is characterised by a
roughly even split of Moderate Risk and Risk areas, with the only area of High Risk located at the Thukela River mouth

itself
.
Greater pressure
,

from a
coastal vulnerability pe
rspective
,

is thus exerted on the coastline of KwaDukuza than on Mandeni, and
more specifically
on the southern portion of
KwaDukuza’s coast.

Coastal vulnerability is of concern not only in terms of extreme events which cause immediate and long
-
lasting da
mage, but also
in terms of the
potential
impact on recreational activities and amenities
as a result of
an increasingly eroding beach environment. This is particularl
y
relevant in KwaDukuza where a large proportion of economic activity is driven by coastal

tourism and recreation.

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SSI Environmental


FIGURE
3
. COASTAL VULNERABIL
ITY WITHIN ILEMBE DI
STRICT MUNICIPALITY.

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SSI Environmental

3.3.1

KwaDukuza

Pressures

Figure
2

illustrates the

high degree of transformation (100% transformed areas are shown in grey) within KwaDukuza, testament to both the high
degree of reliance on the
natural environment for commercial and subsistence livelihoods, as well as the level of threat to remaining fun
ctional and
natural areas.
Broadly speaking, the following pressures have been identified for the KwaDukuza coastal area.

Existing u
rban and tourism developments
, as well as proposed new developments,

are placing increasing pressure on the natural resource

base as
demand rapidly begins to exceed the capacity of the natural resource base to supply the required level of ecosystem goods and

services.

Remaining
areas of natural coastal vegetation
,

in particular
,

are becoming increasingly fragmented and less functional in the face of burgeoning development not
only for tourism and upmarket developments but also from the growing need for low
-
income housing. Spatially, this is evident
with
climax dune
forests and co
astal grasslands
being placed
under pressure from
proposed
development at Umvoti, Zinkwazi, Blythedale, and Nonoti. This includes
existing developments as well as conceptual and proposed townships.
A related pressure is infestation and invasion by alien pl
ant species
,

which
adversely affects indigenous biodiversity and decreases species diversity. Development and settlement, in concert with the ab
ove factors, is
responsible for the fragmented nature of much of the remaining natural environment of KwaDukuza.


The suitability of much of the low
-
lying coastal plain of KwaDukuza for intensive commercial agriculture has driven economic development in the
region but has also given rise to a number of pressures on the natural environment.

The main pressures
,

as a r
esult of agricultural practices
,

relate
s

to
impacts at a catchment level, of which the coastal area is the
final
recipient, particularly in
respect to
the estuarine environment. Siltation of estuaries
is occurring in the region, an impact which is exacerba
ted by sand winning in river beds.
The integrity of water resources in coastal areas is also under
pressure
,

not only as a result of agricultural and industrial practices (herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers and other contaminants)
,

but also from the
need
to provide
basic sanitation and water treatment services where effluent
,

which is not appropriately treated
,

is discharged into river and estuarine
environments.
The draining of wetlands for agricultural purposes also places severe pressure on the ability
of these important systems to provide
free
ecosystems goods and services
,

such as flood attenuation and water purification.

Within the littoral active zone, there is increasing pressure on the beach environment to provide
both
recreation and subsistence ha
rvesting
opportunities. This is of concern given that the beaches of KwaDukuza are exposed and known to be eroding, decreasing opportu
nities for safe
recreation, while over
-
exploitation of offshore and nearshore species has implications for
sustainable
rec
reational and subsistence harvesting of these
resources.
Access to coastal resources is also
identified as
a growing pressure in KwaDukuza, particularly in light of the requirements of the ICM Act in
this regard.

Access should be promoted, but carefully ma
naged given the potential to place further pressure on the natural environment.

3.3.2

Mandeni

Pressures

The Mandeni area experiences pressures of a different nature to those found in KwaDukuza.
Figure
2

shows significantly less transformation of natural
areas, with agricultural practices tending more towards less intensive subsistence activities. The coastal area of Mandeni is

sparsely settled due in no
small part to the pre
sence of the
Red Hill and
Amatikulu Nature Reserve
s which account

for more than
80%

of its coastline. The Siyaya Coastal
Framework proposes the establishment of additional coastal settlement and the promotion of access to the development opportun
ities pro
vided by
the coastal area. The requirements for adequate transport, housing, sanitation and water infrastructure must thus be consider
ed as a future pressure.
Commercial sugarcane
cultivation
occurs in a broad band roughly in the centre of the
municipality, so impacts and pressures on the surrounding
catchments are identified
, as with KwaDukuza,

as siltation of estuarine environments, reduced water quality

and degradation of wetland areas.
While
these pressure do not originate in coastal areas,
the interconnected nature of these ecosystems means that the impacts are felt in coastal areas.

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SSI Environmental

Natural vegetation is also under pressure in Mandeni due to the presence of alien invasive species specifically in relation t
o protected areas, tribal
areas, u
ndeveloped land parcels and as a result of poor farm practices.


Despite KwaDukuza’s greater vulnerability to the effects of dynamic coastal processes and sea
-
level rise, Mandeni is by no means immune to these
pressures

and
,

combined with the potential th
reat of extensive sand winning in the Thukela River
, could enforce a shift from its currently prograding
status to that of eroding
. Increased frequency of storm events and increased rates of erosion will impact negatively on the ability of the coastal are
a

to
sustain recreation and subsistence harvesting activities. Already limited opportunities for beach recreation
,

such as swimming
,

will be
decreased in the
face of narrower beaches. An increasingly eroding coastline also means greater geotechnical instabi
lity of dune systems, with ‘slippages’ or failures
becoming increasingly prevalent particularly in Mandeni where ancient dune systems date back thousands of years. While shorel
ine regression as a
result of erosion and sea level rise is a natural process wh
ich
has

been occurring for millions of years, this process becomes a pressure when the
location of coastal infrastructure is threatened by shoreline regression.

4

REPORT FINDINGS/DISC
USSION (CURRENT STAT
E)

The current state of the iLembe coastal zone is
summ
arised
via key issues and opportunities as well as
via
the identification
of potential conflicts with
other key sectors identified and detailed in the EMF.

4.1

Key issues, opportunities and other important considerations


The following tables provide a summary

of the key issues, opportunities and other important considerations identified in the Status Quo assessment.
Both the KwaDukuza and Mandeni Municipal areas are detailed separately and the Ilembe District Municipal area is reported on
collectively.

TABLE
3
:
SUMMARY OF KEY ISSUE
S WITHIN KWADUKUZA L
OCAL MUNICIPALITY


KEY ISSUES

OPPORTUNITIES

OTHER IMPORTANT
CONSIDERATIONS

COASTAL
MANAGEMENT



Ecological degradation /
transformation and resultant
biodiversity loss



Dune, shoreline &
sandy beach
degradation

and erosion



Inappropriate

coastal

development



High demand for tourism
development

and housing



Poor Coastal Settlement Design

o

Lack of development controls

o

Loss of undeveloped land

o

Overdevelopment of urban areas

o

Rapid coastal
development

o

Ribbon development



Topography
contributes to sense of place conducive to
developme
nt
;



The remaining indigenous vegetation

(conservation
opportunities)
:

o

Dune and climax forest Dune Forest
-

Undisturbed,
small and isolated areas;

o

Potential to re
-
establish Lala Palm Savannah;

o

Opportunities for managed development of open
areas
interspersed with woodland
; and

o

Grasses: remnants of co
astal grasslands in open areas;



Improving the
health of the majority of the estuaries

which
will contribute to the provision of
free
ecosystem goods
and services
:



Boat launching and Boat fishing


pot
ential for establishing


Improve water quality



Control soil erosion



Prevent pollution



Establish movement corridors

for
biodiversity



Maintain functional conservation
areas



Maintain existing indige
nous
vegetation cover



Control harvesting of natural
products



Promote diversity



Control human disturbance of
wildlife

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KEY ISSUES

OPPORTUNITIES

OTHER IMPORTANT
CONSIDERATIONS

o

Coastal squeeze



Dynamic Coastal Processes

o

Climate c
hange

o

Sea
-
level
r
ise

o

Coastal

e
rosion

o

S
and replenishment m
alfunction



Coastal Pollution

o

upstream industrial pollution

o

upstream agricultural pollution

o

localised pollution

o

poor w
ater quality in some
estuaries



Coastal Access

o

Inadequate parking facilities

o

Private landholding issues

o

Lack of safe swimming beaches



Inadequate Infrastructure

o

Basic services backlog

o

Inadequate electrical
infrastructure

o

Limited water supply capacity

o

Inadequate sanitation
infrastructure

o

Limited public amenity at existing
& proposed swimming beaches



Human Resources

o

Lack of institutional capacity

o

Poor inte
gration of
activities/sector plans


artificial reefs for diving
,
spearfishing and scuba diving

as
well boat based dolphin
-
watching;



Opportunity for the establishment of a MPA (proposed
Zeteni MPA could make a valuable contribution to marine
biodiversity protection);



Peak in shore angling fishing in winter due to the presence
of shad



Near shore


reefs

and their
turbidi
ty intolerant species;
red bait
, densities of rock lobster; typical shallow reef
-
associated fish species; mussels and oysters;



Limited but some ideal sw
imming beaches;



Alternate beach activities: oyster harvesting; use of fishing
skis; walking; swimming, establishing artificial reefs for
diving, the possible installation of Fish Aggregating Devices
(FADs);



The application of the slip failure approach
(
ef
fective in
providing space for the built and natural environment to
resp
ond to future shoreline changes and t
he risk to
infrastructure and buildings is greatly reduced if they are
set back 20m from the slip failure edge
)
;



The opportunity created by the exi
sting naturally
vegetated buffer
s

(in remaining un
-
developed areas);



The biodiversity rating in respect to the C
-
plans
Irreplaceability index

presents further conservation
opportunities
;



The opportunity provided by rehabilitating drained
wetland areas

to contribute to improved ecosystem goods
and services

and environmental wellbeing
.



Maintain scenic attractiveness and
viewsheds



Control alien plants and animals



Limit
impervious
surfaces

to
decrease runoff



Promote access

but controlled
access



Consider coastal ecosystem as a
whole not as sectors
-

more
collective approach will allow
balance between needs



Density existing nodes rather than
allowing ribbon development



Transform unviable agricultural
areas only



Only support
development
Landward of the 1m SLR scenario;



Only support development away
from the estuary 5m contour
setback and enforce buffers; and



Don’t allow development within
the 1:100 year floodplain



Enforce appropriate buffers




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TABLE
4
:
SUMMARY OF KEY ISSUE
S W
ITH
IN
MANDENI LOCAL

MUNICIPALITY


KEY ISSUES

OPPORTUNITIES

OTHER IMPORTANT
CONSIDERATIONS

COASTAL
MANAGEMENT



Ecological degradation /
transformation and resultant
biodiversity loss



Dune, shoreline & sandy beach
degradation



Potentially i
nappropriate
development

at Thukela Mouth as a
result of the
h
igh demand for tourism
development



Dynamic Coastal Processes

o

Climate change

o

Sea
-
level rise

o

Coastal erosion

o

Sand replenishment malfunction



Coastal Pollution

o

Upstream industrial
and
agricultural

pollution

o

Localised pollution

o

Poor water quality in some
estuaries



Coastal Access

o

Inadequate parking facilities

o

Lack of safe swimming beaches



Inadequate Infrastructure

o

Basic services backlog

o

Inadequ
ate electrical
infrastructure

o

Limited water

supply capacity

o

Inadequate sanitation
infrastructure

o

Limited public amenity at existing
& proposed swimming beaches



Human Resources

o

Lack of institutional capacity

o

Poor integration of
activities/sector plans



Distinctive sense of place due to topography
;



R
ich cultural and historical heritage
;



The remaining indigenous vegetation

has conservation
potential
:

o

Dune and climax forest
, Maputaland Coastal

Grassland


-

Undisturbed, small and isolated areas;

o

Potential to re
-
establish Lala Palm Savannah;

and

o

Opportunities for managed development of open
ar
eas interspersed with woodland;



Maintaining

the health of the majority of the estuaries
;



Boat launching and Boat fishing


potential for establishing
artificial reefs for
spearfishing and scuba diving

as wel
l
boat based dolphin
-
watching
;




Peak in shore angling fishing in winter due to the presence
of sh
a
d



Prograding beach


gentle slope, rocky shores interspersed
with sandy shores;



Alternate beach activities: oyster harvesting; use of fishing
skis; walking; s
wimming, establishing artificial reefs for
diving, the possible installation of Fish Aggregating Devices
(FADs);



The application of the slip failure approach
(
effective in
providing space for the built and natural environment to
resp
ond to future
shoreline changes and t
he risk to
infrastructure and buildings is greatly reduced if they are
set back 20m from the slip failure edge
)
;



The opportunity created by the existing naturally
vegetated buffer (in remaining undeveloped areas);



Non
-
consumptive act
ivity potential within protected areas
such as Amatikulu;

and



The opportunity

to improve ecosystem goods and services

provided by rehabilitating drained wetland areas
.



Improve water quality



Control soil erosion



Prevent pollution



Establish movement
corridors



Maintain functional conservation
areas



Maintain existing indigenous
vegetation cover



Control harvesting of natural
products



Control human disturbance of
wildlife



Maintain scenic attractiveness and
viewsheds

and sense of place



Control alien plant
s and animals



Limit
impervious
surfaces

to
decrease runoff



Promote access but controlled
access



Consider coastal ecosystem as a
whole not as sectors
-

more
collective approach will allow
balance between needs



Densi
f
y existing nodes rather than
allowing ri
bbon development



Transform unviable agricultural
areas only



Only support development
Landward of the 1m SLR scenario;



Only support development away
from the estuary 5m contour
setback and enforce b
uffers;



Don’t allow development within
the 1:100 year flood
plain
; and



Enforce appropriate buffers
.

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SSI Environmental

TABLE
5
:
SUMMARY OF KEY ISSUE
S WITHIN ILEMBE DIST
RICT MUNICIPALITY


KEY ISSUES

OPPORTUNITIES

OTHER IMPORTANT
CONSIDERATIONS

COASTAL
MANAGEMENT



Habitat fragmentation
;



Poor catchment
management
;



Alien invasive species
;



Pollution threats
;



Management and conservation of
natural resources
;



Risk to damage from dynamic coastal
processes
;



Climate change impacts
;



Coastal access issues
;



Terrestrial and Marine corridor linked
with riverine
corridors
;



Institutional capacity
;



Management and conservation of
natural resources
;



Water resources/ quality
;



Environmenta
l Awareness
;



Tourism & recreation

potential
;



Inadequate w
aste management
;



Environmental management and
monitoring
;



Health
;



Land use p
lanning
;



Service delivery
;



Agriculture
; and



Coastal

specific

management

interventions
.



Maintain sense of place and viewsheds
;



Capitalise on cultural and heritage resources for tourism
;



Promote n
odal development
;



Conservation expansion opportunities at loca
l
conservancies and formal protected areas
; and



Replicate g
ood environmental practice
at
Zimbali
.





Improve water quality
;



Control soil erosion
;



Prevent pollution
;



Establish movement corridors
;



Maintain functional conservation
areas
;



Control harvesting of
natural
products
;



Promote
conservation

of
biodiversity;



Control human disturbance of
wildlife
;



Maintain scenic attractiveness


viewsheds
;



Control alien plants and animals
;



Limit impervious
surfaces

to
decrease runoff
;



Promote access
to coastal
resources
but controlled access
;
and



Consider coastal ecosystem as a
whole not as sectors
-

more
collective approach will allow
balance between needs
.








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SSI Environmental

4.2

Potential conflicts

It is important to understand the nature of potential conflicts that arise out of the

Status Quo assessment. These conflict areas will direct the
formulation of the Desired State, and the Strategic Environmental Management Plan in terms of management zones and associated

management
guidelines.

TABLE
6
:
M
ATRIX OF POT
ENTIAL CONFLICTS IN
KWADUKUZA

LOCAL

MUNICIPALITY


COASTAL MANAGEMENT

BIODIVERSITY



Transformation of remaining undeveloped coastal areas (coastal forests & grasslands)

may be in line with
integrated
coastal
management objectives but will conflict with
biodiversity targets
;



Equitable access to coastal resources

as promoted by integrated coastal management
may conflict with biodiversity conservation
targets
; and



Coastal ecosystems being transformed and ‘privatized’

in coastal development activity

but shou
ld be for the
benefit of the whole
community
.

WATER RESOURCES



Rivers are important corridors leading into the coastal zone and
the use of water resources upstream is
a

s
ource of pollution
;



Lack of water resources is currently
hindering

sustainable coastal development
;



Coastal areas bear the brunt of poor catchment management practices
;



The provision of sanitation infrastructure (both waterborne and otherwise) can cause p
ollution of
coastal
water resources
; and




Development in floodplain
s
reduces the provision of ecosystem goods and services
.

SOILS & AGRICULTURE



Proposed retreat and setback of infrastructure due to risk from dynamic coastal processes may
be perceived as reducing

agricultur
al
viability;



Soil condition and stability
as a
result of poor agricultural practices
,

can
cause of slippage in the coastal zone


both historic and future
;



Agriculture is the c
ause of
the
majority of transformation of the coastal zone


only areas unable to be cultivated
are
not transformed;



There is

c
ontinuous pressure to transform
agricultural

areas with
resultant
loss of food production / job opportunities
;



Lack of water hinders diversification potential in coastal zone where soils are good
;



Draining of wetlands

for agriculture is in conflict with th
e provision of ecosystem goods and services
;



Impacts on river systems and estuaries due to poor agricultural practices / coastal erosion / siltation / fertilisers
; and



Commercial forestry impacts irt depletion of scarce water resources
.

HERITAGE



Access to

heritage sites cause of potential conflict across private land
; and



Historical claims to both land and coastal resources
.

MINING



Implications of sand mining
(
both legal and illegal
)

on beach width and resultant erosion
(
as well
as
on estuaries
);



Implications of mining minerals (
as evidenced in Richards Bay and proposed in
Mtunzini)
on

relict dunes

and the broader coastal
environment
; and



Disturbance and destruction of ind
igenous coastal dune vegetation.

AIR QUALITY



Implications of industrial prac
tices (mills,

industrial estates) and the
unpleasant
sme
ll produced on coastal property value and basic
living conditions
.

WASTE
MANAGEMENT



Uncontrolled dumping in undeveloped areas
;



Pollution from land based sources in the marine environment
;



Impacts of
stormwater outfalls and need to treat stormwater at source rather than allowing direct discharge


liability for maintenance
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SSI Environmental


COASTAL MANAGEMENT

and negative impacts of stormwater discharge
; and



Need to withdraw high cost infrastructure out of high risk areas
.

DEVELOPMENT
PL
ANNING



Urban sprawl vs. the need for densification

and the provision of housing

/ tourism facilities;



Avoiding r
ibbon development

potentially
means ‘under utilising’ land otherwise suitable for development
;



Poor planning is
the
predominate cause of coastal

e
rosion

as well as planning for erosion and dune slippages, obligation to maintain
defence systems & liability for future failure
;



Implications of
the implementation of proposed
development setbacks / coastal setbacks

on property rights


both actual and
perceived
;



Implementation of phased retreat on property rights
;



Spatial patter
n
s


as a result of land ownership, settlement, land form


each with direct impact on the coastal zone and its natural
assets and requires appropriate management action
;



Provisi
on of physical access to the coast and along the coast

may conflict with coastal conservation targets
;



Exclusive use of the area below the High Water Mark by landowners is in conflict with coastal boundaries in terms of the ICM
Act
;



Provision of coastal ac
cess both to and along the coast

may not be in accordance with planning objectives
;



Retreat /development of high value infrastructure behind naturally vegetated dune cordon

not in keeping with
the desirability of sea
views
; and



Location of only coast
dependant activities on the coast as promoted by the ICM Act may be in conflict with spatial development
frameworks
.

SOCIO
-
ECONOMIC



High value of coastal views vs. access to coastal resources by

the public
;



High v
alue of coastal property

is in conflict with the need for affordable housing
;



Money to be made from transformation of agricultural land for development (higher returns)
;



Need to balance economic vs. basic needs development initiatives with the necessity of maintaining the integri
ty of the ecological
system on which the development depends
;



High cost of transporting bulk material


attractiveness of coast as an option to locate manufacturing industry


links between Durban
and Richards bay
; and



Coastal user rights (which should be
sequential and not granted in perpetuity and should include market related charges)
.

ESTUARY
MANAGEMENT



Imp
lementation of estuary setbacks
may conflict with
coastal
management setbacks
;



The prioritisation of purely estuarine needs may conflict with the p
rovision of ecosystem goods and services
;



Impacts of determination and implementation of estuary reserves on current water abstraction / disposal in the coastal zone
;



Impact on human health due to poor water quality
; and



Decrease in water quality in
swimming areas as a result of poor quality of water in estuaries
.


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SSI Environmental

TABLE
7
:
MA
TRIX OF POTENTIAL CO
NFLICTS IN MANDENI

LOCAL

MUNICIPALITY


COASTAL
MANAGEMENT

BIODIVERSITY



Equitable access to coastal resources as promoted by
integrated coastal management may conflict with biodiversity conservation
targets
; and



Coastal ecosystems being transformed and ‘privatized’

through conservation

but should be for the
benefit of the whole community
.

WATER RESOURCES



Rivers are important corridors leading into the coastal zone and
the use of water resources upstream is
a

s
ource of pollution
;




Lack of water resources is currently
hindering

sustainable coastal development

and reducing ecosystem function in protected areas
;



Coastal areas bear the brunt of poor catchment management practices
; and



The provision of sanitation infrastructure (both waterborne and otherwise) can cause p
ollution of
coastal
water resources
.

SOILS
& AGRICULTURE



Proposed retreat and setback of infrastructure due to risk from dynamic coastal processes may

be perceived as reducing agricultural
viability;



Soil condition and stability
as a result of poor agricultural practices can
cause of slippage in th
e coastal zone


both historic and future
;



Draining of wetlands for agriculture is in conflict with the provision of ecosystem goods and services
;



Impacts on river systems and estuaries due to poor agricultural practices / coastal erosion / siltation / fer
tilisers
; and



Commercial forestry impacts irt depletion of scarce water resources
.

HERITAGE



Access to heritage sites cause of potential conflict across private land
; and



Historical claims to both land and coastal resources
.

MINING



Implications of sand mining
(
both legal and illegal
)

on beach width and resultant erosion
(
as well
as
on estuaries
)
;



Implications of mining minerals (
as evidenced in Richards Bay and proposed in
Mtunzini
) from relict dunes
; and



Disturbance and destruction
of ind
igenous coastal dune vegetation.

AIR QUALITY



Implications of industrial practices (mills,

industrial estates) and the
unpleasant
sme
ll produced on coastal property value and basic
living conditions
.

WASTE MANAGEMENT



Uncontrolled dumping in undevelo
ped areas
;



Pollution from land based sources in the marine environment
;



Impacts of stormwater outfalls and need to treat stormwater at source rather than allowing direct discharge


liability for maintenance
and negative impacts of stormwater discharge
; an
d



Need to withdraw high cost infrastructure out of high risk areas
.

DEVELOPMENT
PLANNING



Urban sprawl vs. the need for densification

and the provision of housing

/ tourist facilities
;



Avoiding r
ibbon development

means ‘under utilising’ land otherwise suitable for development
;



Poor planning is the predominate cause of coastal e
rosion

as well as planning for erosion and dune slippages, obligation to maintain
defence systems & liability for future failure
;



Implicati
ons of
the implementation of proposed
development setbacks / coastal setbacks

on property rights


both actual and
perceived
;



Implementation of phased retreat on property rights
;



Spatial patter
n
s


as a result of land ownership, settlement, land form


eac
h with direct impact on the coastal zone and its natural
assets and requires appropriate management action
;



Provision of physical access to the coast and along the coast may conflict with coastal conservation targets
;



Exclusive use of the area below the Hi
gh Water Mark

by landowners is in conflict with coastal boundaries in terms of the ICM Act
;

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SSI Environmental


COASTAL
MANAGEMENT



Provision of coastal access both to and along the coast may not be in accordance with planning objectives
;



Retreat /development of high value infrastructure behind

naturally vegetated dune cordon not in keeping with the desirability of sea
views
; and



Location of only coast dependant activities on the coast as promoted by the ICM Act may be in conflict with spatial developme
nt
frameworks
.

SOCIO
-
ECONOMIC



High value o
f coastal views vs. access to coastal resources by
the public
;



High v
alue of coastal property

is in conflict with the need for affordable housing
;



Money to be made from transformation of agricultural land for development (higher returns)
;



Need to balance
economic vs. basic needs development initiatives with the necessity of maintaining the integrity of the ecological
system on which the development depends
;



High cost of transporting bulk material


attractiveness of coast as an option to locate manufacturi
ng industry


links between Durban
and Richards bay
; and



Coastal user rights (which should be sequential and not granted in perpetuity and should include market related charges)

ESTUARY
MANAGEMENT



Imp
lementation of estuary setbacks may conflict with
coastal management setbacks
;



The prioritisation of purely estuarine needs may conflict with the provision of ecosystem goods and services
;



Impacts of determination and implementation of estuary reserves on current water abstraction / disposal in the coasta
l zone
;



Impact on human health due to poor water quality
; and



Decrease in water quality in swimming areas as a result of poor quality of water in estuaries
.


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SSI Environmental

TABLE
8
:
SUMMARISED
MATRIX OF POTENTIAL
CONFLICTS IN
ILEMBE

DISTRICT MUNICIPALIT
Y


COASTAL MANAGEMENT

BIODIVERSITY



Biodiversity has no anthropocentric components, i.e. it doesn’t consider the needs of people other than the incidental benefi
ts of
biodiversity protection in providing ecosystem goods and services
; a
nd



Coastal management has a specific focus on balancing the needs of people with environmental integrity
.

WATER RESOURCES



Water resource management objectives in the upper catchment may conflict with
integrated
coastal management objectives in
estuarine
and coastal areas
.

SOILS & AGRICULTURE



Inevitable competition between coastal land suitable for both agriculture and development. Both have potential to drive econo
mic
development but are mutually exclusive.

HERITAGE



Cultural value is an integral part of coastal sense of place, but conflict may arise when cultural and heritage resources are

located on
private land where access to these resources will impede individual landowner’s rights.

MINING



Mining is viewed as a
short
-
term option for economic development as minerals are non
-
renewable resources and as such

their
exploitation is in conflict with long
-
term
integrated
coastal management objectives
.

AIR QUALITY



Industrial activity
located in coastal areas (such as sug
ar mills) conflicts with
integrated
coastal management by
negatively impacting
on sense of place and by
reducing the
value of
coastal
property
.

WASTE MANAGEMENT



Poor waste management practices cause pollution and degradation in the coastal zone.

DEVELOPMENT
PLANNING



There is potential for conflict between development planning and
integrated
coastal management objectives at
a
strategic level,
such as the need to utilise otherwise developable land while avoiding ribbon development and coastal
sprawl.

SOCIO
-
ECONOMIC



Purely socio
-
economic considerations have no eco
-
centric components, i.e. they do not consider
the needs of the environment
other than incidental benefits to econo
mic growth and human well
-
being; and



This conflicts with coastal man
agement which advocates a balanced view of the needs of people and the environment.

ESTUARINE
MANAGEMENT



The prioritisation of purely estuarine
functional
needs may conflict with the needs of the broader coastal zone (including the needs
of people).


5

CO
NCLUSIONS AND RECOMM
ENDATIONS (LEADING T
OWARD DESIRED STATE)

The scarcity of undeveloped land in coastal areas is illustrative of the desirability of such coastal land and the fact that
human settlement is drawn
towards the resources which occur naturally
in this environment as well as the benefits of living in this environment. Coastal development in South
Africa has proceeded largely unchecked with little regard for the cumulative impacts and effects of ribbon development on the

larger coastal system at
r
egional and national scales

and this

has resulted in a situation whereby much of the
remaining
natural
coastal
environment has become fragmented
and isolated between large tracts of developed land
. This in turn
impacts negatively on the provision of
free
ecosystem goods and services provided
by these environments
and which b
enefit
all
coastal residents.

Current thinking tends towards a more strategic approach, in so doing recognizing the inherent link between environmental int
egrity and human
wellbeing

a
nd the
changes to South Africa’s body of environmental legislation
,

in the form of the ICM Act
specifically,
have brought with it a need to
rethink traditional trajectories of
(
coastal
)

development. The underlying philosophy of the ICM Act promotes sustainability of coastal settlement and
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SSI Environmental

growth, as well as integrated as opposed to sectoral assessment of environmental risk, opportunities and constraints. There
is
now

an opportunity to
p
romote sustainable coastal development that includes an imperative to balance economic growth and prosperity with the basic n
eeds of individuals,
communities as well as the sustainability needs of society as a whole

as well as promoting

development within
the context of the diversity and
ecological importance of the natural coastal environment.


Recommendations leading towards achieving the desired future state for
the
KwaDukuza and Mandeni coastal zones, and for the iL
embe DM
coastal
zone

as a whole

inclu
de:



Dedicated approach to coastal planning and management:

o

A
ttention should be given to the dynamic, high
-
energy character of the
iLembe

coast and its complex processes;


o

Cumulative impacts should be addressed and a risk adverse precautionary approach to
coastal management
should be adopted; and

o

Enhanced economic rights need to be accompanied by ecological and social responsibility.



Physical access:

o

Physical access to the coast is an explicit ICM

A
ct

requirement through the provision of coastal access land
. Municipalities are required to
designate coastal access land through municipal by
-
laws, and are tasked with a number of responsibilities in this regard including control of
land use activities and protection of public user’s rights, among others (Cellier
s et al, 2009). Pay beaches can be implemented under the
condition that local authorities are fully consulted and a viable free alternative
is

made available; and provided that revenue generated
thereby is used directly fo
r coastal management activities;

o

E
xisting rights need to be considered and all efforts made to prevent degradation of

iLembe’s
coastal ecosystems;

o

Additional
swimming beaches and recreational nodes along
the iLembe

coastline
must be identified;

o

Establishment of right of way servitudes betw
een newly developed estates

wider than 10m; and

o

Ensure coastal estates contribute to public facilities
and amenity
on and around beaches.



Equitable access to resources:

o

Access to
iLembe’s

coastal resources needs to be equitable and coast dependant activiti
es supported. User rights should however be
sequential and not granted in perpetuity, in line with the ICM

A
ct
.



Historical and cultural heritage:

o

Historical claims to
iLembe
’s
coastal resources will need to be recognised, but exclusive rights to such
resources will need to comply with the
ICM

A
ct
.



State responsibility:

o

Exclusive usage of the area below the high water mark must be prohibited. Historical rights to do so must be investigated and

assessed for
compliance with the ICM

A
ct
;

o

T
he State should
acquir
e

land above the high water mark to facilitate access an
d to protect sensitive systems; and

o

Historically granted rights allocated to users that conflict with the
ICM Act must
be identified and addressed by innovative means, with ICM

A
ct

compliance a
crucial consideration.



Coastal economic development:

o

Distinctive coastal dependant economic activities are encouraged but such enhanced rights must be accompanied with enhanced e
cologic
al
and social responsibilities;

o

Activities not dependant on a coasta
l locat
ion should be relocated inland;

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SSI Environmental

o

Public facilities need to be improved and provided at appropriate locations to meet recreational needs. All efforts should b
e made to
provide for access by physically disabled persons. Public
-
private partnerships sh
ould be promoted in order to provide for public facilities.
These principles are to be incorporated into the designation of coastal access land as provided for by the ICM

A
ct
; and

o

Sensitive coastal settings require the implementation of non
-
intrusive low
-
i
mpact coast
-
dependant and/or physical development where such
development is not appropriate. Co
-
management and public/private sector partnerships are also encouraged.



Alleviation of coastal poverty:

o

Attention needs to be considered for diversifying opport
unities for poor coastal communities in
iLembe



all efforts should be made to link
coastal development to alleviating coastal poverty.



Balance between built, rural and wilderness coastal areas:

o

Opportunities for sustainable coastal development need to be
identified and promoted. Planning needs to be integrated into existing local,
regional and provincial p
lans and development frameworks;

o

The negative impacts of urban sprawl need for the
iLembe

coastal area
need to be

avoided. Development shoul
d be direct
ed to existing
nodes;

o

Areas under
iLembe
’s
jurisdiction which are valued for their natural character must be protected and should continue to provide the existing
free ecosy
stem services that they provide;

o

The visual beauty and natural character of the
iLe
mbe

coast should be maintained. Scenic and landscape values

must be maintained as an
asset;

o

No loss of dune vegetation between the high water and secondary dune slack
should be allowed and the
geohydrology of frontal dune
systems

must be maintained
;

o

Under
take dune establishment, alien weed eradication and coastal management programmes.

Establish a procedure for early detection of
invasive species and a ongoing programme for eradication
;

o

Consider protected area networks and local refugia

as well as c
onsider
ing

direct intervention actions for particular species
.
Establish an
inventory and monitoring network
;

o

Support the expansion of marine protected areas
;

o

Include estuarine requirements in fresh water management

and d
etermine
and implement
ecological re
serves

for rivers and estuaries; and

o

Regional ecosystem viability should be ensured via an open space type system
.



Design and management of coastal settlements:

o

Development should be designed with coastal processes and not against them. A buffer between
development and

the sea should be
maintained;

o

Viewsheds should be maintained;

o

Local architectural styles should be maintained
;

o

U
rban services (including sewage and storm water) should be designed to avoid negative impacts on

iLembe’s
coastal ecosystems;

o

Al
teration of coastal landforms must be avoided especially in highly dynamic areas. Clearance of indigenous vegetation should
be controlled
and minimised and the area rehabilitated where damage has occurred. Potential erosion and other pollution impacts of

storm water must
be taken into consideration in

planning for KwaDukuza’s coast;

o

Public developments
must

show re
treat or design alternatives;

o

Reduced density and hard

panning of

the frontal and secondary dune

must be promoted
;

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SSI Environmental

o

Identification of coastal no
des and addition
al bathing and recreation areas;

o

Identify roll out programme for exten
sion of recreational facilities;

o

Develop signage protoc
ol applicable to coastal areas;

o

Conserve and encourage efficient water use;

and

o

Provision for catching and storing

run off water from developed areas should form an integral part of future planning
.



Risk and natural hazards:

o

A development setback is recommended and structures that impact negatively on natural processes a
voided or strictly controlled;

o

A precautionary
and
risk adverse approach in recommended in high risk area
s such as Ballito and Salt Rock;

o

Measures need to be taken to adapt to the potential impacts of climate change including sea level rise on low
-
lying coastal areas.

Best
International Practice in the

face of sea
-
level ris
e is a phased coastal retreat;

o

Establishment of set backs utilizing 10m contour
as an interim measure until coastal setback lines are declared
as well as biophysi
cal
evaluation of the coastline
-

Establish erosion line and ensure inco
rporation of 10m contour into al
l coastal planning applications;

o

Soft coastal systems should be addressed with “soft engineering” solutions. The optimum buffer is a natural dune cordon. So
ft
-
engineered,
artificial vegetated dunes are also deemed appropri
ate. “Hard” engineering should only be employed as a last

resort as they cause erosion;

o

Local authorities

should in general not undertake to provide any sea defence sys
tem for private property owners;

o

Ensure retreat is practiced by coastal devel
opments

bo
th public and private;

o

Develop coastal erosion defence
strateg
ies
and p
revent and ma
nage erosion and dune blow outs;

o

Plan for contingencies in order to respo
nd to extreme events (flooding

and storm surges
);

o

Plan appropriat
ely for potential slip failures an
d r
ehabilitate and re
-
vegetate d
une fronts to prevent slippages
;

o

Plan for future storm surges and sea level rise;

o

Set high value infrastructure back from the coast behi
nd a naturally vegetated buffer; and

o

Private property owners should remain obliged to
maintain any defence system they establish and should be held liable for any failure,
where such failure may affect other properties / persons
.



Coastal ecosystems:

o

The role of the
iLembe
’s
coast and indigenous coastal vegetation in providing refuge

and habitat function as well as the provision of
ecosystem goods and services

must be acknowledged and pro
tected; and

o

All proposed human activities on
iLembe
’s
coast must be designed so as to minimise negative impacts on the natural functioning of coastal

ecosystems and processes.



Coastal agriculture:

o

Enhance seed banks and develop new crops


diversify;

o

Plant heat a
nd

drought resistant crops;

o

Promote agricultural drought management;

o

Tailor land use management (change) to consider the potential impacts of
climate change;

o

Shift the geographical location of crops to match areas of growth potential;

and

o

Investigate potential methane reduction / carbon credits.



Prevention, minimisation and control of coastal pollution:

o

All efforts should be made to prevent dire
ct discharge of waste into
iLembe
’s
coastal ecosystems. Treatment at source is encouraged
;

iLembe EMF: Coastal Management Status Quo Report


E02.PTA.000338

Page
29









SSI Environmental

o

Establish point source high risk management response team with oil spill management protocol
;

o

Maintenance of coastal wetlands and rehabilitation
of such wetlands wh
ere required

to encourage flood attenuation and natural waste
assimilation systems
;

o

Monitoring of key indicators on regular basis

(e.g. stormwater outfalls);

o

Withdrawal and retreat of high risk point pollution sources, such
as sewer lines and septic tanks;

o

Plan
on a catchment
-
wide basis

to co
-
ordinate finding water quality and quantity solutions;

o

Stormwater control: Integrated stormwater management must be considered. All private properties should identify if and where

stormwa
ter may be dissipated on site;

o

Where stormwater is discharged onto a dune, such discharge should be positioned away from the dune face and toe; discharge sh
ould be
onto a hardened area such as a rocky headland; integration of stormwater systems between ne
ighbours should be encouraged;
and

o

Property owners should be held liable for the maintenance of their stormwater discharge and any erosion or negative effect su
ch discharge
may have on any frontal dune or the beach.



iLembe EMF: Coastal Management Status Quo Report


E02.PTA.000338

Page
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SSI Environmental

6

REFERENCES



Celliers, L., Breetzke, T. & Moore, L.R., 2010.
A Toolkit

for implementing the Integrated Coastal Management Act
. SSI Engineers and
Environmental Consultants.



Celliers, L., Breetzke, T., Moore, L.R. & Malan, D., 2009.
A User
-
friendly Guide to South Africa’s Integrated Coastal Management Act
. The
Department of
Environmental Affairs and SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants.



Coastal Management Policy Programme, 2000.
White Paper for Sustainable Coastal Development in South Africa
. Department of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism.



Harrison, T.D., Cooper, J.A.
G. & Ramm, A.E.L., 2000.
State of South African Estuaries: Geomorphology, Ichthyofauna, Water Quality and
Aesthetics. State of the Environment Series: Report No. 2
. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.



iLembe District Municipality, 2008.
iLembe

District Municipality IDP Review 2008
-
2009
. iLembe District Municipality.



Jacobs, H., 2010.
KwaDukuza Coastal Management Programme: Development Management Tool
. Helena Jacobs PSF.



Kiker, G.A., n.d.
South African County Study on Climate Change Synthesis Re
port for the Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Section
.
School of Bioresources, Engineering and Environmental Hydrology. University of Natal.



KwaZulu
-
Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. 2004.
Draft KwaZulu
-
Natal Coastal Managem
ent Policy
.
Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu
-
Natal.



KwaDukuza Municipality, 2007.
KwaDukuza Municipality Integrated Development Plan 2007/08
-
2011/12
. Integrated Development Plan.
KwaDukuza Municipality.



Mather, A.A. & Swart, P., 2010.
Report on the Establishmen
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Tugela River Mouth, KwaZulu
-
Natal.

SSI Consortium.



Rothaug, I., 2008.
Draft KwaDukuza SDF and LUMS
. KwaDukuza Municipality.



SiVEST Selatile Moloi Team, 2007.
KwaDukuza Munic
ipality Strategic Environmental Assessment
. SiVEST.



Town and Regional Planning Commission, April 2000. Towards
a coastal assets management policy for the KwaZulu
-
Natal North Coast
,
unpublished report.