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Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

Taking D2D Services to the Users


with

OpenURL, RSS, and OAI
-
PMH


Chuck Koscher

Technology Director, CrossRef

ckoscher@CrossRef.org

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006


Everything is online


if it’s not online, it doesn’t exist


Everything is interlinked


if it’s not linked it doesn’t exist


Breaking of barriers between academic and consumer behavior


user
expectations are set by Google, eBay, etc.


Journal brand strong but moving to article economy


Economic models changing


Open Access


Technical Reports and other grey lit are now findable


Books going online


Scholarly Publishing Trends

“Find
-
ability precedes usability, you can not use what you can not find"

STM
-
TMR 2006 Amanda Spiteri, Marketing Director Elsevier

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

One window: Your Web page

Getting noticed requires a store window

Users must know the URL

Content may be indexed
by a search engine

User must read their RSS
feeds

User might have
brand affinity

… but there are billions of web pages

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

There are lots of windows

…among others


Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

Metadata distribution via standardized methods
is the bridge to these windows for your content

Strength

Complexity

Targeted use

RSS

Wide adoption, great
support, browser
integrations, mass
-
user
appeal.

Simple to create and distribute.
Just create an XML file and stick it
on your web server

Distribution of ‘newsy’
data most often for
human consumption

OpenURL

All inclusive specification,
well positioned for
advanced or diverse
applications.

Simple to complex syntax, only
the more basic examples are
human readable. Software
implementation can be complex,
lots of decision paths.

Distribution of
metadata or content
of individual items,
most likely
implemented as part
of a linking system.

OAI
-
PMH

Robust well thought out
transaction model. Very
extensible and adaptable.
Wide spread adoption
within the industry.

Implementation is moderate to
complex. Good frameworks
(OCLC) available. Requires
substantial resources (compute
and human) for any non
-
trivial
repository.

Distribution of large
volumes of metadata
most likely to
automated harvesters.

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

OpenURL
is

packaging



is a transport syntax (a box), a way to send

OpenURL



Complexity stems from the number of ways you can
accomplish the same task: send metadata to a service (a resolver)

Context

Object

Meta

Data

OpenURL

Context

Object

Meta

Data

OpenURL

Meta

Data

OpenURL

referent

reference

Context

Object

Meta

Data

OpenURL

referent

reference

Meta

Data

OpenURL

context

reference

Context

Object

referent

reference

OpenURL

context

reference

Context

Object

Meta

Data

Meta

Data



is an internal wrapper (box within a box)

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

http://www.crossref.org/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88
-
2004


&rft_id=info:doi/10.1361/15477020418786&noredirect=true

OpenURL basic example

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

http://www.crossref.org/openurl?

url_ver=Z39.88
-
2004

&url_tim=2004
-
01
-
09

&url_ctx_fmt=info:Aofi/fmt:Akev:Amtx:Actx

&ctx_ver=Z39.88
-
2004

&ctx_enc=info:Aofi/enc:AUTF
-
8

&ctx_id=345871

&ctx_tim=2002
-
03
-
20T08:A55:A12Z

&rft_val_fmt=info:Aofi/fmt:Akev:mtx:journal

&rft.atitle=Isolation+of+a+common+receptor+for+coxsackie+B

&rft.jtitle=Science

&rft.aulast=Bergelson

&rft.auinit=J

&rft.date=1997

&rft.volume=275

&rft.spage=1320

&rft.epage=1323

&rfe_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal

&rfe.atitle=p27
-
p16+Chimera:+A+Superior+Antiproliferative

&rfe.jtitle=Molecular+Therapy&rfe.aulast=McArthur

&rfe.aufirst=James&rfe.date=2001

&rfe.volume=3

&rfe.issue=1

&rfe.spage=8

&rfe.epage=13

&req_ref_fmt=http://lib.caltech.edu/fmt/ldap
-
mtx.html

&req_ref=http://ldap.caltech.edu/janed/record.txt

OpenURL: In
-
Line context object example

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

http://www.crossref.org/openurl



NISO Z39.88
-
2004 OpenURL is a very comprehensive framework!



CrossRef implemented the San Antonio Profile #1



The basic inline by value model might address a high


percentage of actual needs



By consolidating metadata in one place (CrossRef), publishers have created
an ideal circumstance for a single resolver to reach a large amount of content.



An OpenURL ‘solution’ is
not

embodied in a single place. It is a community of
contributors using a common language. OpenURL is the Esperanto of linking.



No CrossRef account needed, available
free

to the public



Number of resolutions in
2006 => 608,756

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

OAI
-
PMH is a set of commands used to pull
metadata from a compliant repository

Verb

Use

Example

Identify

Ask a repository to tell you about
itself.

oai.crossref.org/OAIHandler?verb=Identify

ListMetadata

Formats

Ask a repository which formats (XML
schemas) data is available in.
Compliant repositories support Dublin
Core.

oai.crossref.org/OAIHandler?verb=ListMetadata
Formats


ListSets

Ask a repository to list the hierarchical
structure it uses to organize itself

oai.crossref.org/OAIHandler?verb=Identify


ListIdentifiers

Ask a repository to list the identifiers
in the whole repository or a particular
set

oai.crossref.org/OAIHandler?verb=ListIdentifiers


ListRecords

Ask a repository to return the
metadata for all records in the
repository or those in a given set

oai.crossref.org/OAIHandler?verb=ListRecords&
SetSpec=10.1002:300:1999


GetRecord

Ask the repository for the metadata of
a given identifier.

oai.crossref.org/OAIHandler?verb=GetRecord

&metadataPrefix=cr_unixml

&identifier=info:doi/10.1002/jnr.490010101


Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

OAI
-
PMH sample responses
-

Identify

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

OAI
-
PMH sample responses

ListSets

ListSets&resumptionToken=1160597811347!698!205002

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

OAI
-
PMH sample response

verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=cr_unixml&identifier=info:doi/10.1002/jnr.490010101

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

OAI
-
PMH sample response

verb=ListIdentifiers&metadataPrefix=cr_unixml&set=10.1002:297:2004

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

CrossRef’s OAI
-
PMH Mission



December 2005 CrossRef announced a Web Services initiative



Provide a central point for the distribution of


metadata from 100s of publishers, for millions of identifiers



Utilize common/existing distribution protocols and technology



Targeted at consumers of mass quantities of metadata.



Active: MS Academic Live and Scirus (search engines)



Looking: EBSCO, Euopean Biomatics Institute, others…



Is not ‘open’ (e.g. it is not free), uses IP authentication for access control



Recipient identified by 2 IP address ranges



Content can be selectively mapped to a recipient (opt
-
in/opt
-
out)


at the publisher or title level

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

RSS



CrossRef is not currently operating any RSS feeds


(we have Blogs which are kinda sorta the same thing)



Members view RSS feeds as a way to reach out and touch


end users and bring them to the member’s site



For end uses:



OpenURL is like plumbing (“Intel inside”), they really don’t care



OAI
-
PMH is a
what?



RSS they’ve probably heard of (blogs) and may even know how to use




CrossRef members have recognized the need to establish guidelines on
content composition by feed type.

e.g. a TOC feed should be organized the same way from one publisher
to the next in order to avoid end user confusion.

(a NISO initiative?)

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

…Google uses the <link> field in your feed to gather URLs from your site and uses the
modified date field (the <pubDate> field for RSS feeds and the <modified> date for
Atom feeds) to learn when each URL was last modified … Make sure that the feed is
located in the highest
-
level directory you want search engines to crawl

RSS syndication

http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?answer=34656&ctx=sibling



Of course RSS is used for syndication as well

Example:

Syndication feed


Google accepts RSS (Real Simple Syndication) 2.0 and Atom 0.3
feeds. Generally, you would use this format only if your site already has a syndication
feed. Note that this method may not let Google know about all the URLs in your site,
since the feed may only provide information on recent URLs.

Discovery to Delivery: Solutions to Put Your Content Where the Users Are

November 2
-
3, 2006

Conclusion



Bringing users to content requires metadata distribution



Be complete (article title, all authors, citations)



Be accurate (author=given
-
name + surname, not the entire byline)



Use a widely accepted (and expressive) format: NLM, DC, CrossRef




Position metadata for discovery



Aggregated distribution like CrossRef’s PMH service



Register as a PMH data provider


(
http://www.openarchives.org/data/registerasprovider.html
)



Find syndication channels (syndication.iop.org, Feedzilla, MedicineNet)