Intelligent agent

courageouscellistAI and Robotics

Oct 29, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw
-
Hill Com
panies, All rights reserved

CHAPTER 4

DECISION SUPPORT AND
ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE


Brainpower for Your
Business

4
-
2

OPENING CASE STUDY


A DSS to Keep Auto Workers’ Health up and
Costs down


Providing the best health care at the lowest
cost is a complex type of problem


In 2002, GM spent $4.5 billion on workers’
health care


Auto workers’ health care is the best in the
world

4
-
3

OPENING CASE STUDY


GM uses a decision support system to find
the best care at the best cost for its workers


The company combines heath care
information and worker productivity reports to
analyze the workers’ needs


Decision support can help business with all
sorts of decisions

4
-
4

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

1.
Define decision support system, list its
components, and identify the type of
application it’s suited to

2.
Define geographic information systems and
state how they differ from other decision
support systems

4
-
5

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

3.
Define artificial intelligence and list the
different types that are used in businesses

4.
Define expert systems and describe the
types of problems to which they are
applicable

4
-
6

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

5.
Define neural networks, their uses, and a
major strength and weakness of these AI
systems

6.
Define genetic algorithms and list the
concepts on which they are based and the
types of problems they solve

4
-
7

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

7.
Define artificial agents and list the different
types that are used in businesses

4
-
8

INTRODUCTION


Computer
-
aided decision support




4
-
9

DECISIONS, DECISIONS, DECISIONS


Phases of decision making


Intelligence



find or recognize a problem, need,
or opportunity


Design



consider possible ways of solving the
problem


Choice



weigh the merits of each solution


Implementation



carry out the solution

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-
10

Four Phases of Decision Making

4
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11

Types of Decisions You Face


Structured decision



processing a certain
information in a specified way so that you will
always get the right answer


Nonstructured decision



one for which
there may be several “right” answers, without
a sure way to get the right answer

4
-
12

What Job Do I Take?

4
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13

Types of Decisions You Face


Recurring decision



one that happens
repeatedly


Nonrecurring (ad hoc) decision



one you
make infrequently

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14

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS


Decision support system (DSS)



a highly
flexible and interactive system that is
designed to support decision making when
the problem is not structured


Decision support systems help you analyze,
but you must know how to solve the problem,
and how to use the results of the analysis

4
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15

Alliance between You and a DSS



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16

Components of a DSS


Model management component



consists
of both the DSS models and the model
management system


Data management component



stores and
maintains the information that you want your
DSS to use


User interface management component



allows you to communicate with the DSS

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-
17

Components of a DSS

4
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18

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
SYSTEMS


Geographic information system (GIS)



DSS designed specifically to analyze spatial
information


Spatial information is any information in map
form


Businesses use GIS software to analyze
information, generate business intelligence,
and make decisions

4
-
19

San Diego in GIS Software


4
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20

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


Artificial intelligence (AI)



the science of
making machines imitate human thinking and
behavior


Robot



a mechanical device equipped with
simulated human senses and the ability to
take action on its own

4
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21

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


Types of AI systems used in business


Expert systems


Neural networks


Genetic algorithms


Intelligent agents


AI systems deliver the conclusion (rather than
helping you analyze the options)

4
-
22

EXPERT SYSTEMS


Expert (knowledge
-
based) system



an
artificial intelligence system that applies
reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion


Used for


Diagnostic problems (what’s wrong?)


Prescriptive problems (what to do?)

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23

Traffic Light Expert System

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24

Components of an Expert System

1.
Information Types


Domain expertise


how to solve the problem



“Why?” information


explains the questions


Problem facts


the current situation

2.
People


Domain expert


the expert in that field


Knowledge engineer


the computer expert


Knowledge worker


the user

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25

Components of an Expert System

3.
IT Components


Knowledge acquisition



used to enter
rules


Explanation module


where explanations
are kept


User interface


the part the user uses


Inference engine


applies the logic


Knowledge base


where rules are kept

4
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26

Developing and Using an Expert
System

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27

What Expert Systems Can and Can’t
Do


An expert system can


Reduce errors


Improve customer service


Reduce cost


An expert system can’t


Use common sense


Automate all processes

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28

NEURAL NETWORKS


Neural network (artificial neural network
or ANN)



an artificial intelligence system
that is capable of finding and differentiating
patterns

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29

The Layers of a Neural Network


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30

Neural Networks Can…


Learn and adjust to new circumstances on
their own


Take part in massive parallel processing


Function without complete information


Cope with huge volumes of information


Analyze nonlinear relationships

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31

GENETIC ALGORITHMS


Genetic algorithm



an artificial intelligence
system that mimics the evolutionary, survival
-
of
-
the
-
fittest process to generate increasingly
better solutions to a problem

4
-
32

Evolutionary Principles of Genetic
Algorithms

1.
Selection



or survival of the fittest or
giving preference to better outcomes

2.
Crossover



combining portion of good
outcomes to create even better outcomes

3.
Mutation



randomly trying combinations
and evaluating the success of each

4
-
33

Genetic Algorithms Can…


Take thousands or even millions of possible
solutions and combining and recombining
them until it finds the optimal solution

4
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34

INTELLIGENT AGENTS


Intelligent agent



software that assists you,
or acts on your behalf, in performing
repetitive computer
-
related tasks


Buyer agents or shopping bots


User or personal agents


Monitoring
-
and surveillance agents


Data
-
mining agents

4
-
35

Buyer Agents


Buyer agent

or
shopping bot



an
intelligent agent on a Web sites that helps
you, the customer, find products and services
you want

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36

User Agents



User agent

or
personal agent



intelligent
agent that takes action on your behalf


Examples:


Prioritize e
-
mail


Act as gaming partner


Assemble customized news reports


Fill out forms for you


“Discuss” topics with you

4
-
37

Monitoring
-
and
-
Surveillance Agents


Monitoring
-
and
-
surveillance (predictive)
agents



intelligent agents that observe and
report on equipment.

4
-
38

Data
-
Mining Agents



Data
-
mining agent



operates in a data
warehouse discovering information

4
-
39

CAN YOU…

1.
Define decision support system, list its
components, and identify the type of
application it’s suited to

2.
Define geographic information systems and
state how they differ from other decision
support systems

4
-
40

CAN YOU …

3.
Define artificial intelligence and list the
different types that are used in businesses

4.
Define expert systems and describe the
types of problems to which they are
applicable

4
-
41

CAN YOU…

5.
Define neural networks, their uses, and a
major strength and weakness of these AI
systems

6.
Define genetic algorithms and list the
concepts on which they are based and the
types of problems they solve

4
-
42

CAN YOU…

7.
Define artificial agents and list the different
types that are used in businesses

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw
-
Hill Com
panies, All rights reserved

CHAPTER 4

End of Chapter 4