What is Enterprise Architecture?

cottonseedfearnotElectronics - Devices

Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

89 views

What is Enterprise Architecture?


Set of models


Describe the technical implementation of an
organization’s business strategy and business
processes


“Form ever follows function”


Relationship between an organization’s form and the
customers’ need for functionality


Key role of managers


Ensure that the proper architecture is designed and
built

Information Technology for Managers

1

Information Technology for Managers

2

Why Is Enterprise Architecture
Important?


Provides the overall foundation for achieving an
organization’s strategic vision


Must be in a state of constant evolution


To meet changing business requirements


Enables managers to:


Increase employees’ effectiveness by enabling high
-
order thinking


Develop new value propositions of interest to
customers

Information Technology for Managers

3

Enabling High
-
Order Thinking


Organization’s employees must be able to
transition from routine execution of daily tasks to
high
-
order thinking


Ability to innovate


Vital for adapting to the new global economy


Problem with staying too close to customers


Sometimes they cannot tell you what they really
want

Information Technology for Managers

4

Information Technology for Managers

5

Developing New Value Propositions


Value propositions


Provide a clear statement of the tangible benefits
that a customer obtains from using a company’s
products or services


Organizations use technology to provide value
propositions to external and internal customers


Result of enterprise architecture


Provide a solid foundation for both internal and
external customers

Information Technology for Managers

6

Software Architecture Styles


Includes multiple styles of computing


Categories


Centralized and distributed


Almost all new software applications are built using
the distributed model

Information Technology for Managers

7

Software Architecture Styles
(continued)

Information Technology for Managers

8

Centralized Architecture


Based on the use of a mainframe computer


Supports a variety of local and remote devices


Maintains tight control over the software applications
that run on it


Difficult to add incremental amounts of mainframe
computing capacity to handle increased demands


Used frequently to process high volumes of
transactions

Information Technology for Managers

9

Distributed Architecture


“The Network is the Computer”


Processing functions and data can reside
anywhere on the network or the commercial
Internet


Distributed applications


Share the processing, formatting, presentation, and
storage functions across clients and servers


Processing capacity is much more scalable

Information Technology for Managers

10

Client/Server Architecture


Type of distributed architecture


General
-
purpose model of network computing


Client/server system


Client requests information from a server and the
server performs a database request to the database
server


Client/server architecture


Provides for a separation of responsibilities


Enables the application to be organized in layers

Information Technology for Managers

11

Client/Server Architecture (continued)

Information Technology for Managers

12

Client/Server Architecture (continued)

Information Technology for Managers

13

Service
-
Oriented Architecture


Software application development approach based
on building user applications out of software
services


Software service


Unit of work developed by a service provider to
achieve desired results for a service consumer


Well
-
defined set of rules or protocols


Describe how one or more services can “talk” to
each other

Information Technology for Managers

14

Service
-
Oriented Architecture
(continued)


Use SOA to build a comprehensive set of services


Business managers and IT people must define the
services to be offered


Design how to link and sequence the necessary
services


Process is sometimes called orchestration


Advantages of SOA


Ability to respond to unanticipated changes in the
business environment


Services can be implemented and made available
gradually

Information Technology for Managers

15

Information Technology for Managers

16

A Manager Takes Charge: American
Modern Converts to Service
-
Oriented
Architecture


American Modern Insurance Group


Patrick Law


Vice President of Infrastructure


Project to replace the insurer’s casualty policy
administration system


Concentrated on choosing the right technology
components required to make everything work


Then trained employees to use these new tools

Information Technology for Managers

17

Developing an Enterprise Architecture


Unified Modeling Language (UML)


Language for specifying, constructing, visualizing,
and documenting the artifacts of a software
-
intensive
system


Enables system builders and users to work well
together


Each organization needs to develop its own
approach to realizing enterprise architecture

Information Technology for Managers

18

The Boeing Story


Wright Brothers


Designed the capability to navigate an airplane using
three controls simultaneously


Boeing story


Representative of both risk
-
taking and innovation in
the new global economy


Cohesion


Measure of how strongly related and focused the
various responsibilities of a software or hardware
component are

Information Technology for Managers

19

The Boeing Story (continued)


Coupling


Measure of the degree to which each software and
hardware component relies on other modules to
perform its function


Ideal component


Highly cohesive and has low coupling

Information Technology for Managers

20

Business Processes


Enterprise architecture


Enables the implementation of a set of digitized
business processes


Commonality of business processes across
business units


Determines a set of potential repetitive patterns that
add value if digitized

Information Technology for Managers

21

Information Technology for Managers

22

Process for Developing an Enterprise
Architecture


Clinger/Cohen act


Gave the Office of Management and Budget the
authority to dictate standards for “developing,
maintaining, and facilitating the implementation” of
an enterprise architecture


Several organizations within the U.S. government
have been audited

Information Technology for Managers

23

Process for Developing an Enterprise
Architecture (continued)


Numerous approaches exist for creating and
documenting an enterprise architecture


Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)


Divides enterprise architecture into four components


Process involves nine steps


Once an architecture is defined for one area, the
process can move on to other business areas


Process of defining the enterprise architecture is
never really finished

Information Technology for Managers

24

Information Technology for Managers

25

Summary


Enterprise architecture


Enables routine business tasks to be handled
smoothly, efficiently, and reliably


Frees up managers to perform high
-
order thinking


Service
-
oriented architectural style


Set of standard reusable and extensible building
blocks known as services


If the enterprise architecture is built thoughtfully


Deal with inevitable changes by reassembling the
building blocks

Information Technology for Managers

26