Section 2 - Deans Community High School

cottonseedfearnotElectronics - Devices

Nov 7, 2013 (4 years and 3 days ago)

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Section 2

Information and Information
Technology

What is information?


Information is facts or data obtained from
one source and processed into a form
that will improve knowledge and assist in
decision making and planning

What is the difference
between data and
information?


Data is a collection of facts or quantities
which have been assembled in some
formal manner


Information is data that has been
processed into a from that will assist in
decision
-
making and planning

The information age


Since the 1960s and the invention of the
silicon chip society has moved ever more
rapidly towards the Information Age.
Technology enables us to process, store
and retrieve vast quantities of
information, which has revolutionised the
life and work of human beings.

Sources of Information


Primary Sources


Secondary Sources


Internal Sources


External Sources

Primary Sources


First hand data collected and processed
for a particular purpose


it is first hand
information, mainly collected through
observation, interview, questionnaire etc

Secondary Sources


Has been previously gathered for one
purpose but is being re
-
used for another
purpose


it is second hand information


mainly collected from reference books,
business statistics, government statistics,
competitors.

Information Technology
-
22/09/10


IT facilitates data collection, storage,
retrieval, processing and output with
speed and accuracy


enabling
businesses to compete in an ever
changing environment.

Examples of IT


Mainframe Computers


used by large
organisations to carry out “large” tasks eg
NASA has a mainframe computer which
controls the US space programme.


Very expensive and very powerful.

Mini Computers


Smaller and less powerful than the
mainframe computers
-

now really
known as PCs


Personal Computers


used nowadays in homes and offices
across the country.


Laptops


are much more common
nowadays and Netbooks

New IT


i
-
Pads


Mobile Phones


new generation


Memory Sticks



Software


E
-
Mail


Databases


Internet


Spreadsheets


Word Processing


Desk Top Publishing


Imaging Software


Multi
-
media Software


Video Conferencing


Intranet


LAN


WAN

Other examples of IT


Facsimile Transmission (Fax)


TELEX


EPOS

Costs and Benefits of IT


Businesses need to decide what it wants from
information technology.


Capital investment may be high


the initial
costs of buying the equipment eg hardware
and software. There may also be installation
costs


eg cables for power sockets, data
points etc


These are all money costs


but costs are not
necessarily money costs as we shall see.

Costs of Using IT


The price of the hardware and software etc


The cost of installation


The cost of workstations


The cost of staff training


Loss of efficiency as staff become familiar with new
technology


Errors may increase


The need to update often to keep up with changes in
technology


The possibility of loss of corruption of data


The possibility of corporate espionage eg hacking into
systems


Health and safety implications


the laws on usage of
VDUs etc

Benefits of IT


The speed of information handling


Flexibility of integrated systems eg a combined
fax, photocopier, email, scanner in one
machine


Increases in labour productivity


Increases in production and administrative
efficiency


Decreases in customer complaints


Enhances reputation with investors, customers
and competitors

Benefits cont …


Reduction in staffing costs


capital
intensive rather than labour intensive


Facilitates homeworking, telesales
centres